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Theory of Protection Co-ordination


in Power Transmission and Distribution Systems

Current Transformer
Dimensioning

Siemens AG, PTD SE NC 5


Postfach 3220, 91050 Erlangen
Paul-Gossen-Straße 100

Tel +49 9131 7- 34324


Fax +49 9131 7- 35017

andrzej.bachry@siemens.com

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Instrument Transformer
Dimensioning, Page 1
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Different Measuring Methods I

Current Voltage

Inductive

Rogowski-Coil Inductive
Ohmic Ohmic
Inductive/Optical Capacitive
Optical

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Page 2
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Different Measuring Methods II

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 3
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning

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Page 4
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Principle of Current Measurement Using Farraday Effect

Fibre Input H Fibre Output

linear Rotation of plane of


polarization polarization by angle ρ~N·I
Ey Ey 

Ex I Ex

Fibre coil
with N windings

current carrying conductor

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 5
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Optical Current Transducer as a part of circuit-breaker Assembly

Add-On Scheme: Integrated Scheme:

Sensor Head

Sensor Head

Optical Fibre Cable


with Composite Insulator Optical Fibre Cable
with Composite Insulator

Interface Electronics housed in Interface Electronics housed in


breaker control unit breaker control unit

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 6
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Principle of Voltage Measurement Using Pockels Effect

Pockels crystal

E
Electric Field E<0 E=0 E>0
~ Voltage
Ey
Fibre Output
Elliptical Polarization

Ex

Fibre Input
Circular Polarization

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Page 7
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Electrooptic Potential Transformer for GIS

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 8
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Annealed Fibre Current Transformer

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 9
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Dimensioning Criteria

 Requirements of modern relays


 Installation points
 Relay functions
 Relay burden, cable burden and CT burden
 Technical criteria  Short-circuit current and system time constant

CT-Ratio, Accuracy Limiting Factor, Nominal Burden,


Class, Knee- Point Voltage

 Customer criteria  Requirements of relays in use


 Habits
 Tender invitation
 National standards

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 10
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
International Standards

Important Standards
IEC 60044-1 1996/12 Current Transformers
IEC 60044-1 2000/07 Current Transformers (amendment 1)
IEC 60044-6 1992/03 Current Transformers (transient performance TP)
IEC 60044-2 1997/02 Voltage Transformers
BS EN 60044-1 Current Transformers

ANSI C57.13/1993 Current Transformers


AS 1675-1986 Current Transformers

IEC 185/1978 obsolete !


BS 7626/1993 obsolete !
BS 3938/1973 obsolete !

VDE 0414 Specifications for Instrument Transformers


Additional
CEI (Italy) SEN (Sweden)
CSA (Canada) SEU (Suisse)
NF (France) ABNT (Brasil)

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Page 11
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
CT: Equivalent Circuit

CT

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Page 12
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Saturation Effect

ip
is
0
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 t/ms

U/V 5 P10 60 VA
L RCT LZ RZ Ritz
iP iM 900

Lb Pfiffner

Lh
Rb

is 90
0,001 0,010 0,100 1,000
IM/A

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 13
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Definitions of Accuracy According to VDE 0414/IEC 60044-1

Isecnn  Iprim
Definition of current error: Fi  100
Iprim

Definition of angle error: i  angle(Isec )  angle(Iprim )

T
1
T  nnisec ( t )  iprim( t ) 2 dt
Definition of composite error:
0
Fi  100
Iprim.rms

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Page 14
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Qualifying Symbols According to IEC and VDE

10 P 10, 15 VA

Nominal burden

Accuracy Limiting Factor (ALF)

Core Type P = Protection

Accuracy limit in % at ALF * In

Measuring cores are not suitable for protection!

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 15
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
IEC-60044, VDE-0414 Accuracy Classification for Protection CT in Steady State

2 standard accuracy classes: 5P and 10P


Limits of error
At nominal accuracy limit
At nominal primary current
primary current

Accuracy Current error Phase angle Phase angle


class displacement displacement Composite error

% minutes centirad %

5P ±1 ± 60 ± 1.8 5
10P ±3 - - 10

Example: 5 P 10 , 50 VA
nominal burden
accuracy limiting factor (ALF)
accuracy limit in % at I=ALF × In
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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 16
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Definition of Protection CT Performance in Steady-State According to VDE/IEC

Isecondary/In burden < 15 VA  Definition for type P according to


VDE/IEC 60044-1, only AC component
is taken into account

 Only symmetrical saturation is


burden = 15 VA
considered
10
Fi = 10%

burden > 15 VA
However:
5  Short-circuit current consists of AC
and decaying DC components

 For CT-dimensioning DC component


should also be considered

0 5 10 15 Iprimary/In

10P10, 15 VA
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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 17
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Accuracy Limiting Factor ALF’
The CT’s performance under steady-state conditions is described by

Pn  PCT A ccuracy L imiting F actor


ALF` ALFn 
P`PCT Betriebsüberstromziffer

ALF’ = Actual Accuracy Limiting Factor


ALFn = Nominal Accuracy Limiting Factor
Pn = Nominal VA Output (Nominal Burden)
PCT = Internal CT Burden
P’ = Actual Connected Burden

IEC: Not high nominal VA or high nominal ALF factor leads to


a better CT performance, but higher actual ALF’ factor

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Page 18
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Accuracy Limiting Factor ALF - Example

in the same burden

CT1: 1000/1A, 10P10, 30 VA CT2: 1000/1A 10P20, 15 VA


Relay burden: 0.1 VA Relay burden: 0.1 VA
Pi = 6 VA Pi = 6 VA
ALF1’ = 10 x (30 + 6) / (0.1 + 6) = 59 ALF2’ = 20 x (15 + 6) / (0.1 + 6) = 69

Symmetrical saturation at 59 x In Symmetrical saturation at 69 x In

X Better
?
? future: 10P30, 2.5 VA ?

? ?

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 19
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Definition of Knee-Point Voltage According to BS Class X and IEC Class PX

Usecondary/V RCT (internal burden)

U = 10% Uknee
400 R‘
(external burden)

200

I = 50%
Knee-point voltage is the voltage at
which a 10% increase in rms voltage
results in a 50% increase in rms
0 50 100 150 Isecondary/mA magnetizing current

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Page 20
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
BS Performance Classification for Relaying CTs

Class P: 5P and 10P similar to IEC 60044

Class X: Defined by
 Rated primary current
 Turns ratio (the error shall not exceed ± 0.25%)
 Rated knee-point voltage
 Magnetizing current at rated knee-point voltage
 Resistance of secondary winding corrected to 75°C

 Class X CT will be applied if accuracy limits of class 5P or 10P are not


appropriate

 Class X quantities can also be measured and given for class 5P and 10 P

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 21
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Definition der Kniepunktspannung nach Class TPS IEC 60044-6

Usecondary/V RCT (internal burden)

U = 10% Uknee
400 R‘
(external burden)

200

I = 100%
Knee-point voltage is the voltage at
which a 10% increase in rms voltage
results in a 100% increase in peak-
0 50 100 200 Isecondary/mA value of magnetizing current

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Page 22
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
IEC 60044-6 Transient Performance Classification for Relaying CTs

Class TPS: Defined by


 Rated primary current
 Turns ratio (the error shall not exceed ± 0.25%
 Rated knee-point voltage
 Magnetizing current at rated knee-point voltage
 Resistance of secondary winding corrected to 75°C

 Class TPS will be applied if accuracy limits of class 5P or 10P are not
appropriate

 Class TPS quantities can also be measured and given for class 5P and 10P

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 23
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Relation Between Accuracy Limiting Factor ALF and Knee-Point Voltage

Uknee,n 
Rn RCT I2n ALFn RCT
1.3 I1N (internal burden) I2N


Pn  PCT   ALFn
1.3  I2n Rn
Uknee (nominal
external
Example 1: burden)

IEC: 600/1A, 5P10, 15 VA, RCT= 4Ω


15VA  4VA  10  146VA
BS: 600/1A, Uknee,n 
1.3  1VA

Example 2: ALFn available


BS: 600/1A, Uknee= 146V, RCT= 4Ω
1.3  Uknee  I2n 1.3  146 V  1A 10 15 VA  15 VA
IEC: 600/1A, Pn   PCT   4 VA  20 5.5 VA  10 VA
ALFn ALFn 30 2.3 VA  2.5 VA

must be higher than connected burden

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 24
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Conversion of ANSI to IEC CT Data for 1A CTs

RCT Nominal Accuracy Limiting Factor ALFn

Uterm is defined as terminal voltage at 20*In


Uterm and connected external standard burden.
R’
ALFn = 20 for all class C cores

Example C200, 1A Nominal ANSI-Standard burden

Uterm 200 V
R'    10
20  In 20  1A
C100  10P20, 5 VA
C200  10P20, 10 VA
C400  10P20, 20 VA Class P Nominal Burden
C800  10P20, 40 VA
Pn  In2  R'  (1A )2  10  10 VA
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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 25
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Conversion of ANSI to IEC CT Data for 5A CTs

RCT Nominal Accuracy Limiting Factor ALFn

Uterm is defined as terminal voltage at 20*In


Uterm and connected external standard burden.
R’
ALFn = 20 for all class C cores

Example C200 Nominal ANSI-Standard burden


typical 5A
Uterm 200 V
R'    2
20  In 20  5 A
C100  10P20, 25 VA
C200  10P20, 50 VA
C400  10P20, 100 VA Class P Nominal Burden
C800  10P20, 200 VA
Pn  In2  R'  (5 A )2  2  50 VA
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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 26
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
ANSI C57.13 Performance Classification for Relaying CTs

Class C: indicates that the transformer ration can be calculated (bushing type CTs)
Class T: indicates that the transformer ration must be determined by test

wound-type CTs limits of error


s
C800
e 800
c 8Ω
t 700
o Error will not exceed
n e 600
10% for secondary
d r 500 voltage equivalent to
a m 4Ω C400
r
400 or less than value
i described by curve
y 300
n 2Ω C200
a 200
v
o l 100 C100
l 0 1Ω
t
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
s
secondary amperes

Class C: Ration error will not exceed 10% between 1 to 20 times nominal
secondary current.

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Page 27
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Effective Burden
3 CT Earth-Returns 1 CT Earth-Return
Ri R1 Ri R1

R2 RRelay RRelay

Ri R1 Ri R1

R2 RRelay RRelay

Ri R1 Ri R1

RRelay RRelay
R2

R2

3-phase and 2-phase faults:


RBurden = R1 + RRelay
RBurden = R1 + RRelay + R2 PBurden = In2 *R1 + PRelay
PBurden = In2 (R1 + R2) + PRelay non-symmetrical Earth fault:
RBurden = R1 + RRelays + R2
PBurden = In2 (R1 + R2) + PRelays
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Page 28
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Effective Secondary Cable Burden with Nominal Current 1A, 5A

60 2,2 2,5 mm2


VA VA 0,70  / 100 m
2,5 mm2 2,0
0,70  / 100 m
50 In = 5 A 1,8 In = 1 A
1,6
40 1,4 4,0 mm2
4,0 mm2 0,44  / 100 m
0,44  / 100 m
1,2
30
1,0
6,0 mm2
6,0 mm2 0,29  / 100 m
0,29  / 100 m 0,8
20
0,6 10,0 mm2
10,0 mm2 0,17  / 100 m
0,17  / 100 m
10 0,4 16,0 mm2
16,0 mm2
0,11  / 100 m 0,11  / 100 m
0,2

0 0,0
0 100 200 300 0 100 200 300
length/m length/m

(In)2 = 25 A2  high burden (In)2 = 1,0 A2  low burden

better

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Page 29
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Steady State Dimensioning - Transmission Capability
CT-Transmission Capability
RCT RI Relay with nominal burden

2
……Ω 1
……Ω I’’k = ……
10 x In = ……
10 kA
RRelay
RI
0,1
……Ω
Accuracy Limiting Factor
P  PCT
n = 1000
…… / 1A 2,1 VA
P’ = …… ALF'  ALFn  n 
P'PCT
10  ......  ......  ......
10 2
 ...... 29,2
......  ......
2,1 2

Current Transformer CT
CT-Transmission Capability
…… / 1A,
1000 ……
5 P ……,
10 ……
10 VA with actual burden

I’’k = ALF’ x In = ……
29,2 kA

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 30
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Steady State Dimensioning

RCT RI Relay
Necessary Accuracy Limiting Factor
2
……Ω
1
……Ω I' 'k 20
RRelay ALF'   ......
RI In
0,1
……Ω

Necessary Nominal Burden


n = 1000
…… / 1A 2,1 VA
P’ = ……
2,1 VA  P  ......
Pn  P'  ...... 5 VA
n

Current Transformer CT
? ? Necessary Nominal Accurancy
1000
…… / 1A, 5
…… 15
P ……, 5
…… VA Limiting Factor
P'PCT
ALFn  ALF' 
Pn PCT
Short-Circuit Current
20 ......2,1  ......
2 11,7
20 x I
20 kA = ……  ......   ......
I’’k = …… n 5  ......
...... 2

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 31
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Short Circuit Current

Fault far from generator Fault near to generator

 Constant AC component 50/60 Hz  Decaying AC component 50/60 Hz


 Decaying DC component  Decaying DC component
 Time constants:  Time constants:
Medium voltage 10ms .. 50ms Medium voltage 10ms .. 100ms
High voltage 50ms .. 100ms High voltage 50ms .. 250ms
Extra high voltage 80ms .. 150ms Extra high voltage 80ms .. 250ms
Generator level up to 500ms

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Page 32
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Meaning of the accuracy limiting factor ALF‘
The multiplication of the accuracy limiting factor and nominal CT-current
specifies the symmetrical short-circuit current which can be transmitted
without saturation.
Relation between magnetic flux density and
secondary nominal CT-current.

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 33
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Overdimensioning factor of CTs
Asymmetrical short circuit current with a superposing DC-component

The DC-component
of an asymmetrical
short circuit is
causing an additional
magnetic
flux.

Transient dimensioning factor

for free

TN : System time constant


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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 34
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Overdimensioning factor of CTs

Bsat
Magnetic Flux

secondary current

primary current

The DC-component is producing a steep rising of


tfree
the magnetic flux density

A CT can be saturated by an asymmetrical current


DC-component nevertheless it will not be saturated
by the pure symmetrical current

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 35
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
CT - Dimensioning according to saturation-free transmission time
Overdimensioning factor for saturation-free
transmission time tfree:

Ktd

t free

K td  1 TN (1 e TN
)
(iron-cored CT with TS >> TN)

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Page 36
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
CT-Dimensioning Instruction for Transformer Differential Protection
A transformer differential protection should be stable on external short-circuit faults.
The CT saturation detection of 7UT612 relays need an unsaturated transmission of
maximum short-circuit current in

For high CT time constants, the maximum transmittable current must not exceed

Ktd Ktd

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 37
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
CT-Dimensioning Instruction for Line Differential Protection
A current differential protection should be stable on external short-circuit faults.
The CT saturation detection of 7SD51 relays need an unsaturated transmission of
maximum short-circuit current in

For high CT time constants, the maximum transmittable current must not exceed

Ktd Ktd

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Page 38
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
CT-Dimensioning Instruction for Distance Relay
General:

The CT may be saturated, but any short circuit faults in zone 1 must
be cleared undelayed, short circuit faults outside one 1 must be cleared
delayed.

CT may be saturated, but the remaining CT should keep to transmit short circuit
magnitude of fundamental current and currents without saturation in a longer
its phase angle must lead to time than relay operating time.
impedance within zone 1.
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Page 39
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
CT-Dimensioning Instruction for Overcurrent Relays

General:

The CT my be saturated, but the remaining magnitude of fundamental


current has to be higher than the relay settings I >>.

IS > I> or IS > I>>

I Pn  PCT I


ALF  ALFn  
In P'PCT In

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 40
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Transient Dimensioning - Transmission Capability

RCT RI Relay
Tsys = 0 ms, tfree = ∞, steady state
2 1 Ik = ALF’ * In = ……30 kA
……Ω ……Ω RRelay
RI
0,1
……Ω

n = 1000
…… / 1A 2,1 VA
P’ = ……
Tsys = 50 ms, tfree = ∞, transient
ALF' 30
......
Ik   In   ......kA
1 1,87
.......kA
K td 16
......
Current Transformer CT

…… / 1A, ……
1000 5 P ……,
10 ……
10 VA

Accuracy Limiting Factor Tsys = 50 ms, tfree = 10 ms, transient


ALF' ......
Pn PCT 30 Ik   In  30  ......kA
1  ......kA
7,5
ALF'  ALFn   ...... K td 4
......
P'PCT

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Page 41
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Transient Dimensioning
7UT612
RCT RI Relay Necessary Transient Accuracy
Limiting Factor
2
……Ω
1
……Ω RRelay
I' 'k 20 kA
RI
0,1 ALF'   K td  .......... ......  ......
......... 4 80
……Ω In 1 kA

n = 1000
…… / 1A 2,1 VA
P’ = ……
Necessary Nominal Burden

2,1 VA  P  ......
Pn  P'  ...... 5 VA
n
Current Transformer CT
? ?
1000 / 1A, ……
…… 5 P ……,
50 ……
5 VA
Necessary Nominal Accuracy
Limiting Factor
Short-Circuit Current
P'PCT
ALFn  ALF' 
I’’k = ……
20 kA = ……
20 x In Pn PCT
Tsys = ……50 ms 2,1 2
80  ............  ......
 ...... 46,85
5 ......
...... 2
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Page 42
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
CT - Demagnetizing

circuit breaker switched-off at current


zero crossing

Maximum of induction

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Page 43
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
TP - current transformer classes acc. IEC 60044 - 6

- Iron - cored CT without limited remanence


TPX - Mechanical construction corresponds to class P (IEC 60044 - 1)
- transient behavior is specified additionally

- same as TPX
TPY - remanence limited to <10% (anti - remanence air gap)

- remanence neglectable
TPZ - error limit are only formulated for AC component
- DC - component will be shortened considerably

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Page 44
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
CT - Induction curve during AR

A – Iron cored CT TPX


A
B – Iron cored CT with BR

anti - remanence B
air gap TPY

BR

tF1 tSp tF2 t

Bmax  ωTN  TS  tTF1N  TF1 


t t t
 SpT F2  ω  T1  TS  tTF2N  TF2 
t

K td   1 (e  e )  e
S S
 1 (e  e S )
Bˆ    TN  TS   TN  TS 
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Page 45
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
CT - Induction curve during AR

Ip

 Linear core CT
Is
TPZ
B

• Advantages by AR
• Cost intensive partitioned core Im

• very short sec. Time constant


(<100ms): sec. DC component is no longer
Bmax  TN  TS  tTF2N  TF2 
t
transformed correctly K td   1 (e  e S )
• high demagnetizing current Bˆ   TN  TS
 
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Page 46
s
Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Error limits of TP - current transformer classes acc. to IEC 60044 - 6

Error at anted current Peak error at rated


class
ratio angle overcurrent

TPX ± 0,5% ± 30 min ε ≤ 10%

TPY ± 1,0% ± 60 min ε ≤ 10%

TPZ ± 1,0% ± 180 ± 18 min ε ≤ 10% (only I~)

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
CTDim 3.2 - Current Transformer Dimensioning Program

 Technical Optimization

 Dynamic Check of Requirements

 Automatic Report Generation

 Standard Conversion

 Dynamic Simulation
Copyright SIEMENS AG. PTD SE PT 2005. All rights reserved.

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Page 48
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning

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09.08.2005/ab

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 49
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Saturation-Free Transmission Time - Example

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 50
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Transient CT- Behavior

Equivalent Circuit:
Magnetic induction curve:

leakage inductance << main inductance B TN  TS  TtN  Tt


i2  1  i1  1 (e e S )
N Ri i1 B̂ TN  TS

Maximum value:
LM U2 RB
Bmax
 1  TN TS >> TN
B

TN Time constant of power system

 U (t)  dt  (R  R ) i (t)  dt
TS Time constant of CT secondary
B 2 i B 2 circuit
δ angle error
LM I
TS  
Ri  RB   tan 

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 51
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
CT - Dimensioning acc. to saturation - free transmission time

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 52
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Maximum Transmittable Current and Transient Dimensioning Factor (1)

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Power Transmission and Distribution Power Technology


Page 53
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Maximum Transmittable Current and Transient Dimensioning Factor (2)

Short-circuit current:  Tt
iSC ( t )  2  ISC (  cos t  e  )
Transient dimensioning factor (high CT time constant): Y'  1  Tsy s
I  ALF'
Maximum transmittable current without saturation: ISC  n
Y'

80
f = 60 Hz
Y’∞
f = 50 Hz
60

Estimated transient di-


mensioning factor for 40
different iron cores and
system frequencies 20 f = 16 2/3 Hz

0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
Tsys

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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Maximum Transmittable Current and Transient Dimensioning Factor (3)

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Page 55
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Instrument Transformer Dimensioning
Magnetizing characteristics of TP - CTs:

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Page 56