Anda di halaman 1dari 41

Energy systems and architecture

ARC 5342
Dr.Arch. Nagham Ali Hasan

Biomass
1st 0semester 2017-2018
1
What is biomass??
• Biomass means "natural
material." When biomass
energy is burned, it
releases heat
• Biological renewable
energy source from
living or dead
organisms (ex wood,
waste, gas, and alcohol
fuels). Sunligh
6CO2 + 6H2O (CH2O)6 + 6O2 + 636 k Cal.
t
Chlorophyll
(biomass)
t
2
• Energy is stored in the form of complex organic compounds of
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, etc.
• The biomass can be converted to useful energy forms such as:
– Heat, Gaseous fuel, Solid fuels, Organic chemical, Liquid fuels

3
Bioenergy Cycle

4
http://www.repp.org/bioenergy/bioenergy-cycle-med2.jpg
Corn ‫ذرة‬

5
http://www.geo.msu.edu/geo333/corn.html
Soybeans ‫فول الصويا‬

6
http://agproducts.unl.edu/
Sorghum ‫الذرة الرفيعة‬

7
http://www.okfarmbureau.org/press_pass/galleries/grainSorghum/
Sugar Cane Bagasse
‫تفل قصب السكر‬

8
http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
Switchgrass ‫التبن‬

9
http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
Olive Residue ‫الجفت‬

10
http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
Corn Stover ‫حطب الذرة‬

11
http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
Wood Chips & Sawdust

12
http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html http://www.energytrust.org/RR/bio/
Municipal Solid Waste

13
http://www.eeingeorgia.org/eic/images/landfill.jpg
Shows how biomass takes up a lot of land

14
How it Works
1.The waste wood, tree branches and other scraps
are gathered together in big trucks.

2.The trucks bring the waste from factories and


from farms to a biomass power plant.

3. Here the biomass is dumped into huge hoppers.

4.This is then fed into a furnace where it is burned.

5.The heat is used to boil water in the boiler, and


the
6.energy in the steam is used to turn turbines and
generators.
It is very much like geothermal energy, but it
recycles the plants waste, rather then
tapping into the earth.
15
Creating Energy from Biomass:
we used to produce energy from biomass are three
main categories: Tracy
Biomass
Plant
Energy conversion technologies-

o Combustion

o Gasification

o Pyrolysis
Truck unloading wood chips that will fuel
the Tracy Biomass Plant, Tracy, California.
16
http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/biomass/biomass.html
Primary energy conversion technologies
 Combustion – ‫ االحتراق‬direct combustion of biomass is the
most common way of converting biomass to energy - both
heat and electricity. Compared to the gasification and pyrolysis
it is the simplest and most developed.

 Gasification - gasification is a high-temperature (1200-1400


Degree Celsius) thermo chemical conversion process but the
process is used for production of gas, instead of heat.

 Pyrolysis - thermal decomposition occurring in the absence


of oxygen. We use pyrolysis to produce a liquid fuel, bio-oil or
pyrolysis oil.

17
18
Bioenergy Conversion
Thermal conversion
Chemical conversion
Biochemical conversion

19
Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)
Biomass Direct Combustion

20
Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)
Biomass Gasifier
• 200 tons of wood chips
daily
• Forest thinnings ‫;رقيق‬
wood pallets
• Converted to gas at
~1000 ºC
• Combined cycle gas
turbine
• 8MW power output McNeil Generating Station
biomass gasifier – 8MW

21
http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
22
Heat Energy Content

1 GJ (gigajoule) = 277.78 kWh (kilowatt hour)


23
Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)
Biomass energy Conversion Routes
24
Landfill Gasses

25
Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)
There are two types of Biogas Plants
1. Fixed head
2. Floating head

26
floating gas-holder type bio-gas plant

27
Floating Dome Type Biogas Plant
(a) Position of dome with less gas in the dome.
(b) Position of dome with more gas in the dome.
28
29
BioFuels
• Ethanol
– Created by fermentation of starches ‫ النشويات‬/sugars
– US capacity of 1.8 billion gals/yr (2005)
– Active research on cellulosic fermentation
• Biodiesel
– Organic oils combined with alcohols
– Creates ethyl or methyl esters
• SynGas Biofuels
– Syngas (H2 & CO) converted to methanol, or
liquid fuel similar to diesel

30
http://www.eere.energy.gov/RE/bio_fuels.html
Biofuel Fossil fuel
Bio-fuel is produced directly from Fossil fuels are produced by either
plant matter typically corn, sugar the decomposition of plant or
cane, sugar beets, or cellulose animal matter over long periods of
transforming it into alcohol. time under certain conditions such
as high temperature and pressure.
Fossil fuels are coal, oil, and
natural gas.

31
Bioenergy Calculation
Composition Percent % kJ/kg Total
Paper 7.73 16,750 1,295
Plastic 18.29 32,500 5,944
Food waste 26.56 4,650 1,235
Wood and yard 8.52 18,600 1,585
*Others 14.92 15,000 2,238
Ferrous 2.47 0 0
Aluminium 0.06 0 0
Glass 1.93 0 0
Sand/fine materials 14.41 0 0
Other inorganics 5.11 0 0
Total 100.00 12,297kJ/kg
kJ --> kWh 0.000278
Throughput: 1800 tons/day
Thermal Power : 256 MW/hour
Electricity Efficiency : 7.5 % 5-10% for a "normal" design
Nomimal power gen : 19.2 MWe/hour [460 MWh/day] 32
BIO-MASS STORAGE METHODS

Silage piling Euro bagging

33
Biomass from Water bodies
Algae biomass is an important renewable source of energy
produced by photosynthesis.

34
Algae ponds at Ashkelon, Israel
Environmental
Advantages Disadvantages
• Biomass can make • Unstable
electricity and heat – Raising of waste material
– Can replace fossil fuels – Contributes to global warming
• More efficient than gases in the environment
traditional rendering • Huge amount of animal
• Doesn’t contribute to global killing
warming – MORE MEAT to replace fuel

• Less demand on fossil fuel


• Cheaper than fossil fuel
• More environmentally friendly

35
Political
Advantages Disadvantages
• Reduction of dependency on • Takes up too much energy
imported oil and resources of country
– Countries don’t have to rely
on foreign bio fuels • Biomass collection is
• More jobs difficult and expensive
– 20X more jobs than coal and – Politicians may argue whether
oil it is worth the cost
• Rural development and
income opportunities
• Can create good
relationships if exported

36
Graph showing how cheap biomass is

37
• As the graph illustrates biomass is expected to remain the second-largest
source of renewable electricity generation (behind hydropower) through
2030. Of all the renewable energy sources, biomass is the fastest growing,
going from 11% of the total in 2007, to more than 41% in 2030.

38
Comparison of Fixed and Floating head
Biogas plant
Janta / Fixed dome type Floating Dome type Biogas Plant

1 Gas is released at variable pressure Gas is released at constant pressure


2 Identifying defects is difficult Identifying the defects in gas holder
easy
3 Cost of maintenance is low Cost of maintenance is high
4 Capital cost is low (for some Capital cost is high
capacity)
5 Space above the drum can be used Floating drum does not allow the use
of space for other purpose
6 Temperature is high during winter Temperature is low during winter
7 Life span is comparatively longer Life is short
8 Requires move excavation work Requires relatively less excavation
39
PRINCIPAL BIOMASS ENERGY RESOURCES AND
CONVERSION PROCESS
Category Name of the Biomass Conversion Process
Source
Cultivated Trees, (Wood chips, Burning to produce heat
Energy saw dusts) and electricity
Resource Aquatic crops, algae, Producing biogas and
green plants biochemical
Agricultural crops Production of gas and
manure -Wood gasification
Fruit farms Production of wood oil and
charcoal. Wood to oil
process

40
Category Name of the Biomass Source Conversion
Process
Waste – Rice and wheat husk Production of
Biomass Baggase of sugar cane ethyle alcohol by
resources from fermentation
Coconut husk, groundnut shell,
farms and bio- molasses, beet
straw of rice, wheat etc.
industry root, fuits,
Waste of furniture industry, potatoes, cereals
wood industry
Waste of poultry industry,
fishery industry, food industry,
brewery, tannery, butchery etc.
Carbohydrates, glucose,
fructose etc.
The world’s biomass through municipal solid waste in about 60,00,000
tones per day. About 3% of it can be converted into electricity and heat
contributing about 20,000 MW 41