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Chapter 2

THE FIRST WORLD WAR 1914-1918


&
THE SECOND WORLD WAR 1939 - 1945

“Evil (sins and disobedience to Allah) has appeared on


land and sea because of what the hands of men have
earned (by oppression and evil deeds), that He(Allah) may
make them taste a part of that which they have done, in
order that they may return (by repenting to Allah, and
begging His Pardon).”
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OFF
Surah Ar-Rum, Verse 41
2.1 THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1914 – 1918)

• A powerful nation
• Rapidly growing economy
• Wanted to obtain greater share of colonies
• By 1898 – Began building a strong army and navy

Suspicious of growth of Germany’s


navy
Naval arms race began

By 1914, there was very little trust between countries


in Europe 2
2.1 THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1914 – 1918)

28th June Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated

28th July Austria declared war on Serbia

29th July Austrian troops attacked Belgrade, capital of Serbia

1st Aug Russia supported Serbia

3rd Aug Germany declared war on France

4th Aug Germany invaded Belgium. Britain declared war on


Germany 3
2.1 THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1914 – 1918)

TRIPLE ALLIANCE TRIPLE ENTENTE

• Germany • Britain

• Italy • France

• Austria - Hungary • Russia

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2.1 THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1914 - 1918)

Central Powers Allies

• Germany • Britain
• Austria-Hungary • Russia
• Turkey • France
• Bulgaria • Italy
• Japan
• USA

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2.1 THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1914 – 1918)

• British Navy formed


blockage to stop passage of
shipping to or from Germany
• German Navy strong
• Germans used U-boats to
launch torpedo attacks on Sinking of the Lusitania, 1915
Allied shipping

• First time that airships


were used in war
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A Zeppelin
2.2 END OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR

The First World War ended on 11 November 1918.

Germany Treaty of Allies


Versailles 28 June
1919

Germany:
• Territorial losses
• War Reparations
• Military Limitations

Signing the Treaty of Versailles 7


2.2 END OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR
Massive
destruction

Land
German empire
boundaries
reduced
redefined
Germans angry

The League of Countries torn


Nations formed apart

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First meeting of the League of
Nations
2.3 THE SECOND WORLD WAR (1939 – 1945)

Harsh terms of Great Ambitions of


the Treaty of Depression of Germany, Italy
Versailles the 1930s and Japan

Axis
Power

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The Axis Powers, 1940
2.3 THE SECOND WORLD WAR (1939 – 1945)

Hitler

• 1920 – Formed the National


Socialist German Worker’s Party
(Nazi Party)
• Once in power, other opposition
parties banned
• 1934 – Hitler as Supreme Leader,
or Fuhrer of Germany
• 1935 – Began rebuilding the
military
• 1938 – Invaded Austria
• 1939 – Invaded Czechoslovakia
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2.4 THE WAR IN EUROPE

was invaded on 1st September 1939

Allies – Britain, France – demanded


for Germany to withdraw from Poland

Germany refused to withdraw

Allies declared war on Germany on


3rd September 1939

By 5th Oct, Poland had been


captured by Germany and
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Russia
2.4 THE WAR IN EUROPE

1940 Belgium defeated by Germany

June 1940 France defeated by Germany

Aug 1940 Battle of Britain


Winston Churchill, the
British Prime Minister
June 1941 Russia invaded by Germany during the Battle of Britain

Dec 1941 United States attacked by Japan. United States entered war

Sept 1943 Italy withdrew from the war


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2.5 THE END OF THE WAR IN EUROPE

• On 6th June 1944, the Allies combined


forces to invade France
• Largest air-land-sea military operation in
history

Attack at Normandy, Germans forced back to


France took Germans Rhine, freeing Belgium,
by surprise Holland, France

• Dec 1944 – Russia invaded Germany


• March 1945 – Allies entered Germany
• 7 May 1945 – Germany surrendered
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2.6 THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC
Japan By the1930s, Japan had expanded into
Manchuria and China
By 1940, it had signed a treaty with Germany 
wanted to conquer Asian nations and obtain more
raw materials

Japan had to destroy


the American
presence in Southeast
Asia first to ensure
the success of their
expansion there 14
Attack on Pearl Harbour, 1941
2.6 THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC
Between 1941 and 1942, Japan conquered…

1942: Battle of Coral Sea and Battle of Midway –


Japanese defeated in both battles by the Americans.
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2.7 THE END OF THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC

By early 1945, the Allies were ready to invade major


Japanese cities

When Japan refused to surrender,


the United States dropped an atomic
bomb on Hiroshima on 6 August
1945.

On 15 August 1945, Emperor


Hirohito announced Japan’s
surrender in a radio broadcast.

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2.8 EFFECTS OF THE WAR

• The Allies suffered estimated 45 million deaths


• The Axis Powers suffered 11 million deaths
• World balance of power shifted to the United States
and Russia
• Millions of Jews died in death camps
• In Asia, nationalist feelings were strong. Movements
to end colonial rule and work towards independence
were given a new impetus.

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2.9 THE UNITED NATIONS
• Established on 1st January 1942
• 26 original member nations

To To develop To help
maintain friendly each other
world relations solve world
peace and among problems
security nations

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CHAPTER 2: SUMMARY

1914: Two opposing Triple Alliance


camps formed vs
Triple Entente

Central Powers
1918: More countries vs
had joined in The Allies

1919: Peace
settlements signed in
Paris
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CHAPTER 2: SUMMARY

The Axis Powers vs The Allies

Britain
Germany
France
Italy
Russia
Japan
USA

May 1945: Germany surrendered

August 1945: Japanese surrendered

October 1945: The United Nations was formed


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