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Anda di halaman 1dari 69

Topic Area

Approximate Percentage of Test Content 11%

A. Surveying

B. Angles, distances and trigonometry.

C. Area computations.

D. Closure

E. Coordinate systems (e.g., GPS, state plane).

F. Curves (vertical and horizontal)

G. Earthwork and volume computations.

H. Leveling (e.g. differential, elevations, percent

grades).

Angle Measurement

Reference

meridian

Relationship of Bearings to the Reference Meridian

By Dr. Gamal Helmy, Ph.D., P.E.

Law of Consines or Sines

given equation

A, B, a

given equation

A, B, b

given equation

C, a, b

given equation

A, b, c

Circle and Circular Curve Geometry

Horizontal Curve Formulas

D = Degree of Curve, Are Definition

PC = Point of Curve (also called BC)

PT = Point of Tangent (also called EC)

PI = Point Intersection

I = Intersection Angle (also called )

Angle Between Two Tangents.

L = Length of Curve, from PC to PT

T = Tangent Distance

E = External Distance

R = Radius

LC = Length of Long Chord

M = Length of Middle Ordinate

c = Length of Sub-Chord

d = Angle of Sub-Chord

l = Curve Length for Sub-Chord

Deflection angle per 100 feet of are length equals D/2 Station means 100 ft in horizontal

curve. All the stations should be along the curve.

Vertical Curve Formulas

It is worth to mention that the length of the vertical curve is the horizontal distance between PVC and PVT not along the

curve.

Earthwork Formulas

Average End Area Formula V = L (A1 + A2)/2

Prismoidal Formula, V = L (A1 + 4Am + A2)/6,

Where Am = area of mid-section, and

L = distance between A1 and A2

Area Formulas

Problem

I m is equivalent to which of the following:

(A) 39.37 in

(B) 3.28 ft

(C)1.094 yd

(D) All of the above

Solution

The Correct Answer is (D)

Problem

What is the area of a sector with a central angle of

47° within a curve that has a radius of 1100 ft?

(A) 10.34 ac

(B) 10.76 ac

(C) 10.99 ac

(D) 11.39 ac

Solution

A=

=496 284.4 square feet

=496 284.4/ 43 560 = 11.39 ac

The Correct Answer is (D)

By Dr. Gamal Helmy, Ph.D., P.E.

Horizontal Curve

Problem

A circular curve is to be constructed with a 225 ft

radius and an interior angle of 55°. Determine the

length of the curve.

Solution

Problem

An interior angle of I = 8.4° is specified for a

horizontal curve. The PI station is 64 + 27.46. Use

a 2° curve and locate the PC and PT stations.

Solution

Problem

If the center angle is 56° and the radius is 5000 ft

of the above horizontal curve, what is the shortest

approximate distance between point A and point

B?

(A) 590 ft

(B) 660 ft

(C) 2700 ft

(D) 4700 ft

Solution

Compute the long chord.

Problem

How many parameters of a horizontal curve must

be known in order to calculate the remaining

parameters?

(A) 1

(B) 2

(C) 3

(D) 4

Solution

At least two parameters, such as distances and

angles, must be know in order to calculate the

remaining parameters of a horizontal curve.

The Answer is (B)

Problem

The station line is which of the following?

(A) From point A to point V to point B

(B) From point A to point C to point B

(C) From point A to point O to point B

(D) Determine by the design engineer

Solution

The station line is from A to point C to point

B.Stationing on a horizontal curve is along its arc,

whereas the stationing on a vertical curve is along

a horizontal datum drawn between the BVC and

EVC.

The Answer is (B)

By Dr. Gamal Helmy, Ph.D., P.E.

Problem

If the degree of curvature (arc definition) is

1.1459°, what is the radius of the curve?

(A) 3200 ft

(B) 3800 ft

(C) 4200 ft

(D) 5000 ft

Solution

Using the conversion equation, for D in degrees,

Problem

Vertical Curveof the curve is defined

A The length

as which of the following?

(A) The distance along a

horizontal datum

from point A to point B

(B) The distance along the curve

from

point A to point B

(C) The distance along the

tangents

from point A to point C to

point B

(D) Designated by the design

By Dr. Gamal Helmy, Ph.D., P.E.

engineer

Solution

The length of the curve is the distance along a horizontal

datum from point A to point B.

Problem

At what station does the curve crest?

(A) 33+93.71

(B) 34+35.40

(C) 34+45.40

(D) 35+11.00

Solution

To find where the curve will crest,

34+45.40

The answer is (B)

By Dr. Gamal Helmy, Ph.D., P.E.

Problem

If the vertex is at an elevation of 549.20 ft at sta 35+00,

what is the approximate elevation of Point A?

(A) 546.90 ft

(B) 547.20 ft

(C) 548.10 ft

(D) 548.30 ft

Solution

The elevation can be computed directly using the tangent

grade and a portion of the curve length.

The answer is B

Problem

What is the elevation difference between PVC and a point

on the curve at Sta 35+00?

(A) 0.62 ft

(B) 0.97 ft

(C) 1.24 ft

(D) 32.71 ft

Solution

Begin by computing the equation of the curve.

The answer is

(A)

Problem

What is the station at point B?

(A) 36+00

(B) 36+25

(C) 37+00

(D) 37+50

Solution

The PVT is a distance L/2 from the vertex.

The answer is C

Problem

What is the highest elevation on the curve?

(A) 547.93 ft

(B) 548.44 ft

(C) 548.62 ft

(D) 549.38 ft

Solution

Applying the equation for the curve,

So,

The answer is A

Problem

Which of the following are used in defining a vertical

highway curve?

(A) A circular curve

(B) A spiral curve

(C) A parabolic curve

(D) A broken back curve

Solution

A parabolic curve is used in defining a vertical highway

curve.

The answer is C

Problem

The area inside of the quadrilateral PC, PI, PT, and O below

equals 83.164 m2. The shaded area (m2) between the circular

curve and the tangents is most nearly:

(A) 2.879

(B) 3.577

(C) 5.407

(D) 8.286

Solution

Find the area of the fractional part of the circle.

Shaded area = total area – fraction of circle

Problem

The cross-sectional areas to be excavated (cut) at certain

sections of a road of a road project are as follows:

3+00 247

4+00 269

4+35 322

5+00 395

5+65 418

6+00 293

7+00 168

Using the prismoidal method, the earth to be excavated (yd 3)

between Sections 4+35 and 5+65 is most nearly:

(A) 1.460

(B) 1.840

(C) 1.860

(D) 1.900

Solution

Refer to the earthwork formulas in the Civil Engineering

section of FE Reference Handbook.

Volume to be excavated =130 [322+ (4)(395)+418] / [(6)

(27)]=1.862 yd3

The answer is C

By Dr. Gamal Helmy, Ph.D., P.E.

Problem

A slope distance and zenith angle of 123.456 m and

102°54’00”, respectively, are measured using a total

station. The horizontal distance (X) is most nearly:

(A) 123. 335

(B) 123. 298

(C) 120. 511

(D) 120. 340

Solution

=102° 54’ 00”- 90° 00’ 00” =12.9°

X=(123.456)(0.975) =120.340 m

The correct answer is D

By Dr. Gamal Helmy, Ph.D., P.E.

Problem

The arc definition of the Degree of Curve (D) is defined

as the:

(A) Central angle subtended by 100 ft of arc

(B) Central angle subtended by 50 ft of chord

(C) Central angle subtended by 50 ft of arc

(D) Total arc length of the curve in stations

divided by the total central angle in degrees

Solution

The Degree of Curve is defined as shown in the following

figure

Solution

The answer is A

**The following three problems are based on the

following information and illustration.

runway is shown.

Problem

The minimum required length of vertical curve at the

point of vertical intersection (PVI) A is most nearly:

(A) 300 ft

(B) 390 ft

(C) 1000 ft

(D) 1300 ft

Solution

At point A, the grade change is from -0.5% to 0.8%.

Therefore, the absolute value of the total percent grade

change at PVI A is:

For transport airports, the minimum required length of

vertical curve at the point of vertical intersection is:

Problem

The minimum allowed longitudinal grade (maximum

allowed downward slope) to the right of PVI B is most

nearly:

(A) -2.0%

(B) -1.5%

(C) -1.2%

(D) -0.7%

Solution

Two criteria must be checked for this problem. First, the

maximum allowed longitudinal grade change is 1.5% for

transport airports. Second, the maximum longitudinal

grade is 1.5% for transport airports.

Checking the first criteria, the absolute value of the

total grade change at PVI B can be rearranged to give

the maximum allowed longitudinal grade (maximum

allowed downward slope), Z, as

maxB = 1.5%

=0.8% - Z

Z= 0.8% - 1.5% = 0.7%

does not. Therefore, the maximum allowed longitudinal

grade (maximum allowed downward slope), , is -0.7%.

By Dr. Gamal Helmy, Ph.D., P.E.

Problem

If the grade to the right of the point of vertical

intersection B is -0.4%, (i.e, Z=-0.4%), the minimum

required distance between PVIs A and B is most nearly:

(A) 250 ft

(B) 630 ft

(C) 1000 ft

(D) 2500 ft

Solution

From Sol.3, the grade change at the point of vertical

intersection A is

Therefore, for transport airports, the minimum required

distance between PVIs A and B is

Problem

The value of is most nearly:

(A) 13° 09’ 07”

(B) 23° 27’ 53”

(C) 36° 52’12”

(D) 53° 07’ 48”

Solution

is found trigonometry using the basic relationship for

slopes.

By Dr. Gamal Helmy, Ph.D., P.E.

Problem

A 6° curve has forward and back tangents that intersect at

sta. 14+87.33. The station of the point of beginning

curvature (BC) is most nearly:

(B) Sta 9+92.6

(C) Sta 11+27.9

(D) Sta 13+92.4

Solution

First, find the radius of the curve.

Problem

A boundary and transverse line bordering an irregular

area are shown.

the boundary and traverse line is most nearly:

(A) 141 m2

(B) 143 m2

(C) 148 m2

(D) 151 m2

By Dr. Gamal Helmy, Ph.D., P.E.

Solution

By Simpson’s 1/3 rule,

**The following two problems are based the following

information.

tangent with a -5% grade on a vertical alignment. A 350

m (10 sta) horizontal length of vertical curve is placed

such that the point of vertical curvature (PVC) is at sta

10+35 at an elevation of 60.0 m.

Problem

The vertical curve elevation at sta 11+35 is most nearly:

(A) 65 m

(B) 67 m

(C) 69 m

(D) 71 m

Solution

From the PVC at sta 10+35 to the location of desired

elevation at At sta 11+35

X = 1135 -1035 = 100 m

The horizontal vertical curve length, from PVC to PVT, is

given in the problem statement as L=350 m

The elevation of the PVC is given as YPVC=60.0m

Therefore, the curve elevation at sta. 11+35 is

Problem

The tangent elevation at the point of vertical

intersection (PVI) is most nearly:

(A) 66 m

(B) 68 m

(C) 70 m

(D) 72 m

Solution

The PVI is located at from the

PVC. The tangent elevation is:

**The following two problems are based on the

following information and illustration.

station and the length of long chord (LC) as shown.

Problem

The radius of the curve is most nearly:

(A) 158 m

(B) 160 m

(C) 316 m

(D) 320 m

Solution

The intersection angle, I, is

Problem

The point of tangent (PT) is most nearly:

(A) Sta 13+27.1

(B) Sta 13+28.5

(C) Sta 13+34.4

(D) Sta 13+39.2

Solution

From problem above, R=157.98m.

The length of curve from PC to PT is L=RI

Problem

Boundary and traverse lines bounding an irregular area

are shown.

boundary and the traverse line is most nearly:

(A) 330 m2

(B) 350 m2

(C) 370 m2

(D) 390 m2

Solution

The trapezoidal rule is

**The following two problems are based on the

following illustration.

Problem

The tangent distance is most nearly:

(A)195 m

(B)197 m

(C) 284 m

(D) 286 m

Solution

Convert the intersection angle into decimal format

Problem

The length of curve is most nearly:

(A) 370 m

(B) 380 m

(C) 390 m

(D) 410 m

Solution

Convert the intersection angle into decimal format.

Convert the intersection angle into radians

of tangent (PT) can be found using the following

equation.

Problem

What is the length of the curve with an intersection

angle of 11.25° and a radius of 352 m?

(A) 69 m

(B)170 m

(C) 310 m

(D) 350 m

Solution

In highway work, the length of the curve is understood

to be the actual curved arc length, and the degree of

the curve is the angle subtended by an arc of 100 ft.

Problem

Compute the latitude and departure for earth of the

following courses.

(A) N 25°13’07” E, 135.40 ft

(B) S 30°57’12” E, 157.90 ft

(C) S 2°20’26” W, 144.64 ft

Solution

Case (A)

A) Lat= cos (25°13’07)( 135.40 ft) = +122.495 ft

dep= sin (25°13’07)( 135.40 ft) = +57.690 ft

Case (B)

B) Lat = cos (30°57’12”)(157.90 ft)= -135.413 ft

dep = sin (30°57’12”)(157.90 ft) = +81.214 ft

Case (C)

C) Lat = cos (2°20’26”)(144.64 ft)= -144.519 ft

dep = sin (2°20’26”)(144.64 ft)= -5.907 ft

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