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Presentation

On
Intelligent Robot
By
Rohan Singh(0709633097)
Sakshi Goel (0709633098)
SonyJaiswal(0709633109)
Tejvir Chhabra(0709633115)
Contents
n Introduction
n History
n Block Diagram of Intelligent Robot
n Mechanical Aspects
n Motors
n Sensors
n Microcontroller
n References
n

n
What is Intelligent Robot ?
n Completely autonomous robot

n Search/Navigate the given maze


n

n Takes ‘shortest time path‘ from


start to centre


MAZE
n 16x16 cells
n Each cell
18cmx18cm
n Wall thickness
12mm
n Multiple paths
from start to
centre
What all is needed to
make a Intelligent Robot ?
Intelligent Robot
Block Diagram

Left Op-
Mot or Mot or Analog
am ps Sensor
Driver
Micro LED Module
cont roll Driver
Right er s
Top
Mot or Com p- Down
Mot or Driver arat or Sensor
s Module
Mechanical
Aspects
§ Stability
 - Static
 - Dynamic
§ Performance
 - Speed
 - Acceleration/Retardation
 - Turning
 - Accuracy
Relations
n Material + Size => Weight
n Weight + Shape => Inertia
n Weight + Shape => Centre of Mass
n Wheel Size => Speed , Acceleration
n Wheel separation + CoM
 + Inertia => Stability
MOTORS
Stepper Motors
n

n Theory of Operation
n Different driving techniques
n Step calculations
 - For moving ahead
 - For taking turns
DC motor Vs Stepper
Motor
n DC Motor n Stepper Motor
1.Usually much 1.Heavier than DC
lighter than motors.
stepper motor. 

2.Higher efficiency. 2.Lower efficiency.


3.Precise speed 3.Speed control is
control is not straightforward
easy and and precise.
requires closed
loop system .
-
SENSORS
Sensors
n What is a sensor ?
 - A device that measures or
detects
 a physical condition.
 - An electronic sensor
converts this
 measurements into an
equivalent
 analog or digital electrical
Sensors
in Intelligent Robot
n Why does a Intelligent Robot
require sensors ?
 - Detect presence/absence of
walls
 - To be able to run straight
 - To be able to position and
orient
 itself in the maze
Distance Measuring
n How to measure distance ?
n Measuring Reflected

Intensity
n Measuring Reflection

Time
n Measuring Reflection

Position

Reflection
Sensor Options
n Transmitter
 - IR LED’s
 - Visible light LED’s
 - Lasers
n Receiver
 - Photodiodes/Phototransistors
 - LDR
 - PSD (Position Sensitive Detectors)
IR
Reflective Sensors
n Transmitter Options

- Constant

- Pulsed
§ Maximum Current limit in pulsed
operations
§ What is advantage of pulsing at
high currents ?
§
§ Receiver Options

- Analog

- Digital
§ Comparator based


Sensor Approaches
For Intelligent Robot

n Top Down Sensing Approach


n Side Looking Sensing Approach
Top Down
Sensing Approach
n What type of sensors can be
used ?
 - Comparator based
n Usually easier to implement
compared
 to side looking
n Measuring distance using side
sensors
n Increases the mass and moment
Side Looking
Sensing Approach
n What type of sensors can be
used ?
 - Analog Type
n Results in a very compact mouse
design
n Angling the sensors
Navigating the Maze
n Forward Error
 - When the mouse stops at wrong
 position in a cell
n Offset Error

- When the mouse is more closer to one
wall
 than the other
n Heading Error
 - When the mouse is pointing towards
the wall
 rather than straight
MICRO
CONTROLLER
Microcontrollers
n What is a microcontroller ?
 - Definition: A computer-on-
chip
 - Microprocessor + added
“stuff “ on
 a single chip
 - Use to control general
purpose
 electronic devices
Inside a
Microcontroller
n CPU
n Program Memory (EEPROM/Flash)
n Data Memory (RAM)
n Input/Output ports
n Interrupts
n Timers
n UART
n ADC
n SPI
ATmega 16
Microcontroller
n 8 bit AVR Family of microcontrollers
n RISC architecture
n 16k Flash memory (Program)
n 1k RAM (Data)
n Four 8-bit i/o ports
n 8 channel – ADC
n 3 Timers (Two 8-bit and one 16-bit)
n USART
n SPI
n
Conclusion
References
n Workshops attended at IIT Kanpur
n Workshops attended at IIT Delhi
n Workshops attended at Sapro Robotics
n Electronics Devices and Circuits
 – A.P.Godse
n www.techfest.org

n
Thank You