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# Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning

## Civil Engineering Department

Petra Christian University
1
Torsion on structural systems may be classified into :
1. STATICALLY DETERMINATE TORSION ( = Equilibrium Torsion)
2. STATICALLY INDETERMINATE TORSION ( = Compatibility Torsion)

P P

P A

## Statically Determinate Torsion P Statically Indeterminate Torsion

2
By changing the rigid connection
B P
at point B into a simply supported
end, this system would become
a statically determinate structure.

## By changing the fixed end at point A

P A
into a free end, this system would
be a statically determinate structure.

3
• Centre portion of a solid beam can be neglected.
• Torsion is resisted through a constant shear flow q (force per unit length
of wall centerline) acting around the centerline of the tube. For
equilibrium:
T = 2 Ao q = 2 Ao  t … (1) 4
Rearranging Eq. (1)
T
q = t = … (2)
2 Ao
Where:
 = shear stress, assumed uniform, across wall thickness
t = wall thickness
T = applied torque
Ao = area enclosed within the tube centerline 5
When concrete beam is subjected to a torsional moment causing principal
tension larger than (√fc’)/3, diagonal cracks spiral around the beam. Then
the tube is idealized as space truss.

## Tension truss → tension ties (=stirrups) + longitudinal reinforcement

Compression truss → concrete compression diagonal
6
Shear force V2 is equal to the shear flow q times the height of the wall y0.
Stirrups are designed to yield when the maximum torque is reached. The
number of stirrups intersected is a function of the stirrups spacing s and
the horizontal projection y0 cot  of the inclined surface.
From vertical equilibrium:
At fyv
V2 = s yo cot  …(3)

## As the shear flow is

constant over the height of
the wall,
T
V2 = q y0 = y …(4)
2 A0 0
Substituting for V2 in Eqs (3) and (4),
2 A0 At fyv
T= cot  … (5)
s 7
Horizontal component
equal to:
Ni = Vi cot 

Internally, it is assumed that the longitudinal steel yields when the maximum
torque is reached. Summing the internal and external forces in the chords of
all the space truss walls results in:
T T
 Alifyi = Alfyl = Ni = Vicot = qyicot =  yi cot = cot yi
2A0 2A0
Where Alfyl is the yield force in all longitudinal reinforcement required for
torsion. Rearranging the above equation,
2 A0Alfyl
T = 2 (x + y ) cot  … (6)
0 0
8
Torsion can be neglected if the factored torque Tu is less than Tcr/4,
where Tcr is the cracking torque. The cracking torque corresponds to a
principal tensile stress of (√fc’)/3. Prior to cracking, thickness of the tube
wall “t” and the area enclosed by the wall centerline “Ao” are related to the
uncracked section geometry on the following assumptions:

3Acp
t = 4p … (7)
cp
2Acp
A0 = 3 … (8)
(Before cracking)
Where: Acp = area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-
section, including the void of hollow cross-sections, mm2.
pcp = outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm.
A0 = area within centerline of the thin-wall tube, mm2. 9
Substituting for t from Eq.(7), A0 from Eq.(8), and taking  = (√fc’)/3 in
Eq.(1), the cracking torque for nonprestressed members can be derived:
1 Acp2
Tcr = √fc’ … (9)
3 pcp

## The design for torsion can be neglected if Tu < ¼ Tcr, i.e:

√fc’ Acp2
For nonprestressed members Tu < pcp … (10)
12
SNI 2002 – 13.6.(1(a))

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The design torsional strength should be equal to or greater than required
torsional strength:

## The nominal torsional moment strength in terms of stirrup yield strength:

2 A0 At fyv
Tn = s cot  … SNI 2002 – 13.6.(3(6))

## Where: Ao = 0.85 Aoh (after cracking, concrete cover is ignored)

Aoh = area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed
transverse torsional reinforcement.
 = angle of compression diagonal. (45° for nonprestressed)
Substituting for T from Eq.(5) into Eq.(6) and replacing 2 (xo + yo) with ph
(perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional 11
reinforcement), the longitudinal reinforcement required to resist torsion
is computed as a function of the transverse
reinforcement:
At fyv
Al = ph cot2 … SNI 2002 –
s fyl
13.6.(3(7))

## To reduce unsightly cracking and prevent

crushing of the concrete compression struts,
SNI code prescribes an upper limit for the
maximum stress due to shear and torsion.
In solid sections, stresses due to shear act over the full width of the
section, while stresses due to torsion are assumed resisted by a thin-
walled tube. Thus, SNI specifies an elliptical interaction between stresses
due to shear and those due to torsion as follows:
2 2
Vu Tu ph Vc
bw d + ≤  + 8 √fc’ … SNI 2002 –
1.7 Aoh2 bw d 12
13.6(3(1)a))
Usually, a member subject to torsion will also be simultaneously subjected to
shear. The minimum area of stirrups for shear and torsion is computed from:
75 √fc’ bw s
(Av + 2 At) = … SNI 2002 – 13.6.(4(5))
1200 fyv

1 bw s
And not less than:
3 fyv

## 5 √fc’ Acp At fyv

Al,min = - ph … SNI 2002 – 13.6.(4(5))
12 fvl s fyl

## With At/s not less than bw/(6fyv)

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• Spacing of stirrups must not exceed the smaller of ph/8 and 300 mm. …
SNI 2002 – 13.6.(6(1))
• The longitudinal reinforcement required for torsion must be distributed
around the perimeter of the closed stirrups, at a maximum spacing of
300 mm.
• There should be at least one longitudinal bar or tendon in each corner
of the stirrups to help transmit the forces from the compression struts to
the transverse reinforcement.
• To avoid buckling of the longitudinal reinforcement due to the transverse
component of the compression struts, the longitudinal reinforcement
must have a diameter not less than 1/24 of the stirrup spacing, but not
less than 10 mm.

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START

Calculate : Tu, Vu 3

yes
Tu < f’c(Acp2/pcp)/12
no

## Shear Consideration Torsion Consideration

The influence of
Torsion is Calculate : Vc Calculate : Tn≥Tu
neglected. using SNI eq.(46) using SNI eq.(64)
The Section is
Choose the Ø of stirrup Choose the Ø of stirrup
designed as
and find Av/s and find At/s
Shear
consideration
alone Combined shear and torsion:
At/s + Av/(2s)
Finish
Find: stirrup spacing, s

1 15
1

Check s(max)

## For torsion: For shear::

s(max)=ph/8 or 300 mm s(max)=d/2 or 300 mm

yes
s > s(max) ? Use s ≈ s(max)
no
Check minimum stirrup area
(Av+2At) using SNI eq.(66)

yes
(Av+2At) < Atotal,min ? Use Atotal,min
no
Determine stirrups layout

2
16
2
3

## Crushing of the concrete yes Redesign

compression struts? the section
using SNI eq.(61)

no
Calculate longitudinal torsion
reinforcement, Al using SNI eq.(65)

yes
Al < Al,min Use Al = Al,min
no
Finish

17
- Precast Spandrel Beam Design for Combined
Shear and Torsion

400x400
P/C cols
3 m x 600 mm
Double tee (typ)
18 m

400x400
P/C cols

9m 9m 9m 9m

## Design a precast, nonprestressed concrete spandrel beam for combined

shear and torsion. Roof members are simply supported on spandrel ledge.
Spandrel beams are connected to columns to transfer torsion. 18
Design criteria:
Live load = 1.44 kN/m2 fc’ = 35 MPa
Dead load = 3.06 kN/m2 fy = 400 MPa

## 1. Assume double tee loading on spandrel beam as uniform. Calculate

factored loading Mu, Vu, Tu for spandrel beam.

400

275
75 600 TT
800

200

150

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Superimposed = 3.06 x (18)/2 = 27.54 kN/m’
Spandrel = [(0.4 x 0.8) + (0.2 x 0.15)] x 24 kN/m3 = 8.4 kN/m’
Total = 35.94 kN/m’

## Factored load, qu = (1.2) (35.94) + (1.6) (12.96) = 63.86 kN/m’

63.86 x 92
At center of span, Mu = = 646.58 kNm
8
End shear Vu = (63.86) (9)/2 = 287.37 kN

## Eccentricity of double tee reaction relative to centerline of spandrel beam

= 200 + 75 = 275 mm 20
End torsional moment Tu = 53.78 (9)/2 (0.275) = 66.55 kNm

Critical section for shear for torsion is at distance “d” from face of
support. Assume d ≈ 0.9 (800) ≈ 720 mm.
Therefore, critical section is at 720 + 200 = 920 mm from column
centerline.
At critical section: [(4500 – 920) = 3580 mm from midspan]
Vu = 287.34 (3580/4500) = 228.59 kN
Tu = 66.55 (3580/4500) = 52.94 kNm

## 2. Check if torsion may be neglected

Torsion may be neglected if:
√fc’ Acp2
Tu < pcp
12
Acp = (400) (800) + (150) (200) = 350,000 mm2
pcp = 2 (400 + 800) + 2 (150) = 2700 mm 21
0.75 √35 350,0002
52.94 <
12 2700
52.94 < 16.04 kNm → Torsion must be considered
310
3. Determine required area of stirrups for torsion
Tn ≥ Tu Centerline
of stirrups
where : Tn = 2 Ao At fyv cot  / s
710
Ao = 0.85 Aoh
= 0.85 [ (310) (710) + (150) (110) ]
110
= 201,110 mm2
150
For nonprestressed concrete use  = 45°

At Tu
s = 2  Ao fyv cot 
52,940,000
= = 0.439 mm2/mm/1 leg
2 (0.75) (201,110) (400) (1) 22
4. Calculate required area of stirrups for shear
Vc = √fc’ bw d / 6 = √35 (400) (720) / 6 = 283,972 N
Vs = Vu/ - Vc = 228,590 / (0.75) – 283,972 = 20,815 N
Av Vs 20,815
s = fyv d = = 0.072 mm 2/mm/2 legs
(400) (720)
5. Determine combined shear and torsion stirrups requirements
At Av
s + 2s = 0.439 + 0.072 / 2 = 0.475 mm 2/mm/1 leg
310

## Use Ø10 with Ab = ¼ (10)2 = 78. 54 mm2 Centerline

of stirrups
78.54 710
s = = 165 mm → use Ø10 – 160 mm
0.475
110
6. Check maximum stirrup spacing
For Torsion: spacing must not exceed ph/8 or 300 mm 150

## ph = 2 (310 + 710) + 2 (150) = 2,340 mm

ph / 8 = 2,340 / 8 = 293 mm 23
For shear: spacing must not exceed d/2 or 300 mm
d/2 = 720 / 2 = 360 mm

## 7. Check minimum stirrup area

1 bw s 1 (400) (290)
( Av + 2 At) = = = 96.67 mm2
3 fyv 3 400
Area provided = 2 (78.54) = 157 mm2 O.K.

## 8. Determine stirrup layout

s (critical)
Critical section (3580)
s (max)
Column midspan
160
centerline = (3580) = 1975 mm
290
920 3580
≈ 2000 mm
24
Critical section

Column midspan
centerline

## 920 2000 1580

Ø10-160 Ø10-160 Ø10-290

## 9. Check for crushing of the concrete compression struts.

2
Vu Tu ph 2 Vc 2
bw d + 1.7 Aoh2 ≤  bw d + √fc’
3
228,590 2
(52,940,000) (2,340) 2 283,972 2
+ ≤ (0.75) + √35
(400) (720) 1.7 (236,600)2 (400) (720) 3

## 1.53 ≤ 3.70 O.K.

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10. Calculate longitudinal torsion reinforcement
At fyv
Al = s ph cot2 = (0.439 ) (2,340) 400 (1) = 1,027 mm2
fyl 400
Check minimum area of longitudinal reinforcement
5 √fc’ Acp At fyv
Al,min = - s ph
12 fyl fyl
At bw 400
s must not be less than = = 0.167 mm 2/mm
6 fyv (6) (400)
(5) √35 (350,000)
Al,min = - (0.439) (2,340) 400 = 1,130 mm2
(12) (400) 400 (Governs)

## The longitudinal reinforcement required for torsion must be distributed

around the perimeter of the closed stirrups, at a maximum spacing of
300 mm. The longitudinal bars should be inside the stirrups. There
should be at least one longitudinal bar in each corner of the stirrups.
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Select 10 bars.

## 11. Size combined longitudinal reinforcement

Use Table 5.3.e CUR IV to determine required flexural reinforcement.
Mu 646.58
= = 3,118 →  = 0.0104
bd2
(0.4) (0.72) 2

## As =  bw d = (0.0104) (400) (720) = 2,995 mm2 → use 5D28

As’ = 0.5 (2,995) = 1,498 mm2 → use 4D22

4D22
5D12 5D12

5D28
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