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Auckland

Bangkok
Beijing
Introduction to Power Point Boston
Chicago
T101
London
Los Angeles
September 10, 2008
Melbourne
Milan
Mumbai
Munich
New Delhi
New York
Paris
San Francisco
Shanghai
Singapore
Sydney
L.E.K. Consulting llc, 28 State Street, 16th Floor, Boston, MA 02109, USA Tokyo
t: 617.951.9500 f: 617.951.9392 www.lek.com
Wroclaw
Agenda

 PowerPoint and L.E.K. Standards: Overview and Basics

 Object Manipulation

 Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

 Tables

 Wordslides

 Appendix

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 2 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Overview and basics

Your PowerPoint skills are important to both L.E.K. and your career

 Ensures data and analysis is professionally presented to the client


Why PowerPoint
is Important to - Clients (usually) don’t see how many hours we work, how detailed our models
L.E.K. are, or how many sources we’ve scoured; they just see the presentations

 Builds the L.E.K. name and identity, creating brand awareness and
integrity for our firm and the services which we provide

 Ensures consistency and continuity between all L.E.K. offices

 Being able to work in PowerPoint quickly and efficiently will allow you to:
Why This PD is
Important to You - Cogently present your ideas and analyses

- Gain respect from your team

- Move on to more interesting work!

 Development in this area is often included in your reviews

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 3 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Overview and basics

Associates through Consultants are all likely to have their hands in


PowerPoint at some point in the process
The Presentation Creation Process
Step Step 5:
Step 2: Step 3: Step 4:
1: QC and
Make the Blank Fill out the Putting it
Blank Incorporate
Slides Electronic Blank Slides All Together
Slide Edits

 Partners  A chosen person  Associates  A chosen person  Associates


(“The Packmaster”) (“The Packmaster”)
Who is  Manager  Consultant  A chosen person
Responsible: (“The Packmaster”)
 Consultant

 On paper or in  Once the ‘blank slides’  Individual members  Slides are sent  Depending on the
PowerPoint, the have been created, of the team take on to the complexity of the
Description
partners, someone will become responsibility for Packmaster as edits, responsibility
of Tasks: manager and/or “the Packmaster” certain slides or they are is shared between
consultant - The Packmaster sections of the completed, to the individual who
sketches out creates actual slides in presentation be compiled into completed the slide
concepts for PowerPoint based the one master and the Packmaster
slides vision in the blank  They pull those document
slides slides out of the
- Wherever research or PowerPoint file the
analysis needs to be Packmaster has
conducted, the created and
Packmaster places continue working on
dummy numbers, them in PowerPoint
“WIPs,” or other
placeholders

Once the presentation exists, it is critical that someone fill the role of Packmaster at any given time

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 4 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Overview and basics

This introduction will quickly cover the basics of both PowerPoint and
L.E.K. standards

How do I create an L.E.K.


presentation?

How do I make
How do I use
“L.E.K. Standard”
PowerPoint?
slides?

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 5 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Overview and basics

Microsoft PowerPoint is used to make a series of slides, and is similar to


other MS Office software packages in many ways

Menus / Toolbars

Menus (includes LEK Toolbars: Can add or


Standards): remove. Critical ones
Use for all common include Drawing,
functions (saving, printing, Formatting, and think-cell
etc.) and many others

 Ctrl-”_” shortcuts include -S (save), -A (select all), -P (print), -C (copy), -P (paste), -Z


Shortcuts (undo), -Y (redo)
 Even more useful, the Alt key allows you to access menus using your keyboard, by
typing the key of the underlined word (e.g., alt-E-S brings up the Paste Special menu)
 Abandon the mouse, to the extent possible!

 As in Windows, use the mouse pointer and click to highlight and select things
Mouse/keyboard
selection  Double-clicking generally opens menus, while holding down Ctrl allows you to select
multiple objects

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 6 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Overview and basics

There are a variety of different ways to view slides in PowerPoint

Viewing method Generally used for How to use (shortcut)

Primary Views Normal (with Individual slide viewing and View – Normal (Restore Panes)
pane) editing (alt-V-N)

Slide show Slide presenting View – Slide Show


(F5)

Slide sorter Viewing the overall View – Slide Sorter


presentation to insert, delete, (alt-V-D)
or move slides

Normal Editing Normal editing Editing slides individually “Close Master View” (see below)
vs. Slide Master
Slide Master Making changes that affect all View – Master – Slide Master
slides (alt-V-M-S)

Grids and Guides Use grids Assisting with slide layout Draw – Grids and Guides –
Display grid on screen (alt-R-I-D)

Use guides Ensuring slide content remains Draw – Grids and Guides –
within L.E.K. standard area Display drawing guides on screen
(alt-R-I-I)

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 7 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Overview and basics

Even if you’ve used PowerPoint extensively in prior jobs or school, L.E.K.


standards can be tricky to pick up

How do I create an L.E.K.


presentation?

How do I make
How do I use
“L.E.K. Standard”
PowerPoint?
slides?

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 8 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Overview and basics

Since 2006, L.E.K. has had a unified color scheme across the website,
presentations, and marketing materials worldwide
Standard colors for objects Standard colors for chart content

White text on dark green + bold for 1 0, 92, 66 Dark ‘L.E.K. Logo’ Green
main column/row headings
2 207, 205, 191 Warm Grey

White text on mid green for 3 89, 36,20 Dark Brown


secondary chart/table headings/fills
4 117, 159,114 Mid Green
These colors
should be pre-
5 165, 34, 16 Brick Red loaded into your
Black text on warm grey background
palette; if ever lost,
for large areas of block color with text
6 153, 204, 204 Soft Blue use these codes in
the Color-More
Colors-Custom
7 0, 51, 102 Dark Blue menu to recreate
Blue fill may be used if additional
color-coding helps to clarify content 8 252, 224, 112 Soft Yellow

9 67, 151, 143 Teal*


Brown fill may be used if additional
color-coding helps to clarify content 10 247, 164, 101 Pale Orange*

Note: * Colors 9 & 10, teal & pale orange, should only be used in graphs when more than the standard eight are required CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 9 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Overview and basics

It is highly recommended that you turn on Drawing Guides (alt-R-I-I) to make


sure you position all content within the box below
Top coordinate: 2.09

Slide body content should not stray outside the area defined by this box

The left edge extends no further than the left hand side of the L.E.K Logo

The right edge extends no further than right hand side of ‘confidential’
Left Right
coordinate: The bottom edge extends no further than the edge of the coordinate:
4.29 default body text placeholder (defined by this gray box) 4.29

The top edge may be extended if the tag is only a single line, but always
ensure at least 0.6cm of clear space below the last line of the tag

When a client logo is used in the lower left, the top of the logo should sit no
closer than 2mm from the bottom edge of the default slide body text
placeholder

Bottom coordinate: 3.19

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 10 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Overview and basics

The L.E.K. Standards menu is your starting point for creating new slides,
although it may often be easier to simply modify an existing slide

1 Go to ‘LEK Standards’ menu and


select ‘Insert Slide’ 1

Pick from the menu of slide types


2
to choose from

3 When prompted for a section title,


you can enter the appropriate
agenda item for your ghost

4 Alternatively, you can copy slides


from other files or from elsewhere
in your current presentation

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 11 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Here is a standard L.E.K. – Boston cover slide. To insert a cover slide, go
to the LEK Standards menu, “Insert Slide,” “Cover Boston”

Client logo This window won’t appear, but


may be you should make sure all content
even better fits within this space for when an
actual cover is put on a printed
and bound presentation
Auckland

[Window for covers] Bangkok


Beijing
Name of Client Leave this on all non- Boston
Presentation Title 16pt finalized presentations, but Chicago
remove once finalized London
Los Angeles
Date 14pt Melbourne
DRAFT – subject to revision Milan
Mumbai
Munich
These should all be left-aligned New Delhi
New York
The materials contained in this document are intended to supplement
a discussion between [client] and L.E.K. Consulting LLC on [date]. Paris
These perspectives are confidential and will only be meaningful to
those in attendance.
San Francisco
Make sure to insert the
Shanghai
client’s name and the
Singapore
date of the presentation
Sydney
L.E.K. Consulting llc, 28 State Street, 16th Floor, Boston, MA 02109, USA Tokyo
t: 617.951.9500 f: 617.951.9392 www.lek.com
Wroclaw
Overview and basics

This is the most generic, typical L.E.K. slide imaginable: the graph plus text

The “tag” should be 1-2 lines of 17-pt font


Sales by Region CAGR%
(2004-08) (2004-08)
Millions of dollars  Bulleted text should always be 12- or
80 14-point font and complete sentences
75 Total 35.9

70
- Sub-bullets may be 10-point font if
China 41.4 necessary
60
60 - Never use more than two levels of
bullets, and don’t use periods
50 Europe 37.1
46
 Bullets should generally add color or
40 supporting detail to the tag and graph
31
30 - Don’t waste bullets simply describing
22 all the elements of the graph
20 U.S. 35.1
 Quotations are often used in text
10 “… These quotations should always be
All slides with sourced to the author and
0 information should organization …”
2004 05 06 07 08 have 10-pt sources Dave Titus, L.E.K. Consulting

12.1 13.4 15.3 15.8 14.7 ROS % - It’s OK to respace bullets


Make sure to update the document name (Slide
Note: * Additional detail can be conveyed with an asterisked 10-point font note
Master) and filepath (View – Header and Footer)
Source: Management data, L.E.K. interviews and analysis CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 13 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
The “spider” updates where Overview and basics
we are in that The “ghost” should correspond
organizational structure to the current agenda item

Line graphs and tables are also commonly used at L.E.K.

Average Price of Good X CAGR% Number of Stores at Year-End 2008


(2005-08) (2005-08)

Pounds Rest of
Competitor UK
5.0 World

4.5 Sainsbury’s 5.9 Tesco 504 307


4.0 Tesco 7.3

3.5
M&S (7.2) ASDA 301 31*
3.0

2.5 ASDA (3.6)

2.0 Sainsbury’s 438 46

1.5 Everything aligned to


extent possible
1.0 M&S 305 113
0.5

0.0 “Dropdown boxes” make a


2005 06 07 08 summarizing point and may be
dark green or soft blue

Now that you have an understanding of PowerPoint and L.E.K. standards, it’s time to start making specific slides!
Note: * Excludes Wal-Mart
Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers report (12/08) CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 14 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Agenda

 PowerPoint and L.E.K. Standards: Overview and Basics

 Object Manipulation

 Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

 Tables

 Wordslides

 Appendix

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 15 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Object manipulation

L.E.K. uses PowerPoint’s drawing tools to create and manipulate shapes


(e.g., lines, boxes, arrows, etc.) within slides
 Use the drawing toolbar (pictured left) to create
objects (e.g., lines, boxes, arrows, etc.) in slides
Color the body, line,  To move objects around the screen, highlight the
and text of objects object by clicking on its edge and using the mouse
Use the with these
AutoShapes or keyboard
menu to - It is highly recommended that you turn on “Snap
create a Change the objects to grid” and “Snap objects to other objects” (alt-
variety of width and dash R-I-G-S), to make it easier to place and line things up
objects style of lines - You can still move things one pixel at a time by holding
down the Alt key (if using the mouse) or Ctrl key (if
using the keyboard)
Create text boxes with this - Many objects can be rotated using the green dot, or
moved with a yellow diamond
 To stretch objects, highlight the object, move the
mouse over one of the anchor points on the edge,
click and drag
- To keep the object to scale, stretch it from the corners
while pressing Shift
- To keep the object centered on its current location,
hold Ctrl while stretching
 To color objects, use the three Coloring icons (for
object body, edge line, and text) in the Drawing
toolbar
 You can select multiple objects at once by holding
down Ctrl while clicking on them, and then
manipulate them together
CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 16 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Object manipulation

You can add text to any object simply by typing while it’s selected; by
double-clicking, you can bring up a more detailed formatting menu
 Objects can be selected in two ways: to manipulate
the object, and to control text within it

- To toggle between these two methods, use the F2 and


Esc keys

- Once you are controlling text in an object, simply type a


label

- There are a variety of ways to change the text


formatting: the Font menu under Format; the
Formatting toolbar (shown at left); or keyboard
shortcuts (e.g., Ctrl-B for bold, Shift-Ctrl-< and > to
decrease and increase font size)
Change text Change text
size and style alignment
 Text boxes are just like any other object, except set
by default to have an invisible background and to
automatically resize to fit text that you type

 Double-clicking on an object will bring up the useful


Format AutoShape menu

- This lets you more specifically adjust the size, color,


lines, and arrow attributes of the object

- Even better, the Text Box tab allows you to word wrap
text, change text alignment, and change the size of the
internal margin

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 17 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Object manipulation

The Draw button on the Drawing toolbar is your best friend when it comes
to aligning objects perfectly

 To line up a group of objects, select them


all and go to Draw, Align or Distribute, and
the appropriate selection (e.g., alt-R-A-M
to align horizontally)
- To center an object within the slide as a
whole, toggle on the Relative to Slide button
(alt-R-A-S)

 This menu can also be used to evenly


distribute a group of objects across a
space
- To do this, select them all and go to Draw,
Align or Distribute, and Distribute
Horizontally or Vertically (alt-R-A-H or -V)

 Sets of objects can be grouped as a


single object by hitting alt-R-G to Group
them (available by right-clicking too)
- Grouped objects can always be ungrouped
later by pressing alt-R-U, for Ungroup

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 18 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Object manipulation

Time to test your skills – Exercise 1: Create the spider slide blanked below:

Tips

 Begin a new file for


these exercises by
using LEK Standards
– New File and
following the
instructions
- Select “Letter”
for the paper
size
- Save the file to
your hard drive
 Alternately, save a
copy of this or
another presentation
to your hard drive
and delete
unnecessary
material to create the
new file
 Use connectors for
the lines between the
boxes
 Color the leftmost
box differently (using
L.E.K. standards)

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 19 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Did you put this on the
DRAFT Market landscape
slide “Master?” Did you update the ghost?

Exercise 1 answer & QC check: The specialty coffee value chain can be
divided into three groups of players

Are the middle


boxes centered
with the slide and
each other? Specialty Coffee Market
Participants
Are these boxes
evenly spaced?

Farmers Processors Roast/Retailers

Are box fonts 14-pt and


the appropriate color,
given the background?

Did you add the source?


Source: L.E.K. interviews CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 20 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Agenda

 PowerPoint and L.E.K. Standards: Overview and Basics

 Object Manipulation

 Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

 Tables

 Wordslides

 Appendix

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 21 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

You can make L.E.K.-standard graphs normally in PowerPoint, but L.E.K.


has a special add-in called think-cell that is generally easier to use

How do I create
graphs/charts in
PowerPoint?

Standard
think-cell Add-In
PowerPoint

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 22 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

To create a graph with think-cell, use the Charts button on the think-cell
toolbar, and pick the appropriate type
 To create an L.E.K.-standard chart, click
Think-cell
the Charts button on the think-cell toolbar,
offers all the select the type, and click-and-drag the
most common cursor across the area where you want the
graph types chart to appear
- A generic chart with dummy data will appear,
along with the accompanying think-cell data
sheet containing the chart’s information

- The chart should already have dummy labels


and totals (for stacked bar charts)

 The chart as a whole can be moved or


resized in much the same way as other
PowerPoint objects; click past the data
sheet and it will temporarily disappear

 Make sure to add a graph title above the Y-


axis label, in bold, 14-pt font

 Some other typical L.E.K. icons (e.g.,


Harvey balls, check marks) can also be
created easily, using the Basic button on
the toolbar

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 23 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

Use the data sheet to add new data to the think-cell chart; a best practice is
to set up data in Excel ready to paste into the data sheet in PowerPoint

 Double-clicking a think-cell chart opens a data sheet, Excel Data


which works similarly to Excel; inputting data here will
update the chart automatically

- Change the chart x-values (row 1) and labels


(Series)

- As in Excel, you can input functions (e.g.,


=SUM()) and use shortcuts like Fill Right (Ctrl-R)
Another best practice is to type =CELL(“filename”) into the
upper-left cell of the data to be pasted in; this provides the Excel
- The toolbar in the data sheet even lets you filepath, ensuring that anyone opening the think-cell data sheet
transpose or reverse the vertical order of the with the pasted data later can find the source file
rows!

- For charts with percentage Y-axes, use row 2 to


indicate the absolute value of the column total Use these to
transpose or
- Much like Excel, you can change the format of Think-cell Data Sheet reverse rows
cells (e.g., from absolute numbers to
percentages and vice versa) by right-clicking the
cell(s) and entering the Format Cells menu

 When inputting real data, it’s best to have the data in


an Excel sheet, and set up a “For PowerPoint” section
with the data properly organized so that it can be
easily copied and pasted into the think-cell data sheet

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 24 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

There are two primary ways to manipulate the formatting of think-cell


charts: left-clicking (formatting toolbar) and right-clicking (context menu)
Left-Click: Formatting Toolbar
 Almost any part of a think-cell chart – data series, labels,
axes, or the chart overall – can be selected by clicking on it

- As elsewhere, you can select multiple objects one-at-a-time by


holding down the Ctrl key, or an entire group by holding Shift

- You can modify think-cell text by selecting and typing over it,
but this unlinks it from the datasheet; you can repair the link by
clicking the red exclamation point

 Left-clicking brings up the formatting toolbar, with drop-


down menus that allow you to modify series colors, line
thickness/style, text size/formatting, etc.
Right-Click: Context Menu
 Right-clicking displays the context menu, which allows you
to toggle a variety of chart options, such as totals, labels,
connectors, etc.

The following slides will show the most common chart types and
the nuances/issues of creating them with think-cell

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 25 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

Stacked-bar charts can include series lines as well, and often have series
labels and CAGRs to the right

Forecast Revenue & Net Income Think-cell doesn’t automatically


CAGR%
Millions of Dollars calculate a ‘Total’ CAGR, so it must be
(2007-11)
calculated and added manually
50 48 Total 9.0

44 Other Rev 12.5


45
40
40 Drink Rev 17.4
37
35 33
Added automatic
30 CAGRs by left-clicking
and selecting ‘Series
25 CAGR’

20
Used ‘Combination’
Food Rev 7.6
chart to incorporate a
15 line, but eliminated the
right-hand axis
10
Net Income 15.4
5

0
2007 08 09 10 11

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 26 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

100% stacked bar charts are often used to show breakdowns, and usually
make use of connector lines
The “100%” totals are set to equal sums of the
U.S. BETP Prevalence Breakdown values for each series in the data sheet;
Percent of Millions of Sufferers added a significant digit by left clicking
12.9 8.1 8.1
100
Severe
90 Women 14.8
Undiagnosed 27.2
80 37.2

70 Moderate
Connectors can be added automatically 38.3
60 (within data series) by right-clicking and
hitting “Add Connector,” or manually (as
50 here) by using the Connector button on the
think-cell toolbar at top to draw them
40 Men
Diagnosed 72.8
30 62.8
Mild
20 46.9
Right-click the segments to “Add
Segment Labels,” then left-click
10
the labels to show “Series %”
0
All BETP Sufferers Diagnosed Sufferers Diagnosed Sufferers

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 27 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

Marimekkos (sometimes called Manhattans) are similar to 100% stacked bar


charts, but use bar width to convey the relative size of the bars
Soft Drink Competitor Share by Segment
Percent of Millions of Dollars

87 103 48 51
100

80 Relative size of “areas” All Other


(represented on both
axes) conveys value
60
Cadbury-Schweppes

40
Pepsi
Adjusted label spacing by left-
clicking and dragging ‘Adjust
20 Tickmark Spacing’
Coca-Cola

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Carbonated Soft Drinks Waters Energy/Sports Juices/Teas
Percent

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 28 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

“Flying brick” or “waterfall” slides are useful to show how to reconcile


differences between values
Public Share Value
Dollars per share
30 Extended y-axis by left- Full-bar net totals can be
clicking and dragging added simply by typing “e”
29 in the datasheet 19.22 28.67
“Adjust Axis Extent”

1.89 9.45
9
8 2.21
7.23 1.88
7

6 For excessively large numbers


that would obscure differences
5 between other numbers if held
to the same scale, right-click to
4 introduce a scale-break
Negative values will subtract
3 from the prior bar
2
1
0
Current Share Product Initiative 1 Initiative 2 Potential Share Appreciation 2025 Share
Price Withdrawal Value Value

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 29 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

Bubble charts are useful for showing three dimensions (X-axis, Y-axis, and
size of bubble)
Market Sizes (Unit Volume & Total Value) and Growth Rates
$1M sales
Compound Annual Growth Rate Percentage (2002-2007)
8
Card
Other
7 JNK Insurance
Ace
Group colors can be SG
Labels can be set to Task list
6 assigned using the “Group” display different
column in the data sheet information, and dragged
5 Credit inside/outside of bubbles Charge A color legend is
automatic, but a
Debit
4 Identity size legend may
Trial product be manually
added for clarity
3 Payment TRJ
Store
2
Right-click to set
either diameter or
1 New product B New product A
area equal to size

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Annual Unit Volume (Millions)

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 30 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

On shared presentations, chart functionality is maintained even if clients do


not have think-cell installed
 Some PowerPoint users (e.g., clients) may not
have think-cell installed; however, they can still Revenue CAGR%
update charts, and these changes can be Millions of pounds (2002-06)
converted back to think-cell 40
40
Other 10.7
 If a think-cell chart is opened in PowerPoint without 35 Software 10.7
think-cell installed, it is automatically converted to 35
standard PowerPoint 31
Desktops 23.6
30 28
- If the chart is then modified and re-opened
using think-cell, the user can choose to 25
update the changes manually or continue 25
Screens 18.2
editing without think-cell
20
 However, perfect conversion does not always
occur
15
- Labels are shown as text boxes, not as part
of the chart 10 Laptops 7.5
- Manhattans are shown as objects
5

0
2002 03 04 05 06

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 31 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

Exercise 2: Create the chart slide blanked below:

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 32 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Is this still here? DRAFT Market landscape
Did you update the ghost?

Exercise 2 answer & QC check: TWC’s revenues are forecast to grow at ~6%
per annum through 2011, driven primarily by TV and data WIP
Time Warner Cable Forecast Revenues*
Millions of dollars CAGR%
Did you add the Total and
1,400 Historical Forecast CAGR% labels, with CAGR? (2007-11)

Did you add this division?


1,187 Total 6.1
1,200 Backhaul 13.4
1,119
Did you adjust the Y-axis? 1,055
995 Data 9.5
1,000 940
Dummy
data
800 Dummy
data Phone 2.1

600
A best practice is to label all
dummy data in blank slides with
400 yellow “Dummy” boxes, and work-
in-progress text with “WIP”
TV 6.7
200

Don’t worry about getting the


0 CAGR #s correct– they will
2007 08 09 10 11 be updated later
Note: * Base case assumptions
Source: Management forecasts Did you add the source and note? CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 33 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

Unfortunately, a number of issues exist with think-cell, although there are


also some work-arounds

Issue Description Work-Around

Negative numbers Negative numbers are shown with a Manually remove negative sign and add
negative sign (not parentheses, per brackets (warning: the number will no longer
L.E.K. standards) update if the data changes)
Lack of total CAGR A total CAGR can be calculated but is Manually enter the total CAGR using text
shown in a non-L.E.K.-standard way boxes (use the non-standard CAGR to
quickly calculate)
CAGR data range Only one set of CAGRs is calculated – Manually calculate and enter multiple CAGR
flexibility between the first and last year of data sets / CAGRs between different years
X-axis labels Formatting is messy when there are too Delete alternate year labels
many data series
Only shows net In bar charts with both positive and Manually change “positive” labels and add
totals on razorbacks negative bars in a single year, a net total “negative” labels with text boxes
is displayed, rather than two subtotals
Series with long These are not automatically formatted Enter series name on multiple lines using
names well and tend to take up a lot of space Alt-Enter in the datasheet
Positioning of CAGRs are not necessarily lined up to Manually enter spaces between the series
CAGRs the decimal point by default name and the CAGR
Changing chart type If the chart type changes (with no Redo the chart!
change to the data) there is no easy way
to simply change the chart type

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 34 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

Because of such issues, and in case think-cell is ever unavailable, it’s


critical to know how to make graphs the standard way in PowerPoint

How do I create
graphs/charts in
PowerPoint?

Standard
think-cell Add-In
PowerPoint

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 35 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

The easiest way to create a standard chart in PowerPoint is to insert a new


chart slide using the L.E.K. Standards menu

CONFIDENTIAL
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Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

Unlike think-cell charts, standard charts have two ways to manipulate them:
the object view and the formatting view
Chart Object – Do Not Resize!  A standard chart is similar to any other
object in that it can be clicked on and
dragged around
- However, do not drag the corners to resize the
graph; doing so will stretch and skew the
labels

 To resize the graph, “open” the chart first


- Double-click the graph to open it as a chart
object

Opened Chart – Freely Resize - Alternately, right-click the chart and select
“Chart Object,” “Edit” or “Open” to open it in
the same or a new window

- Once opened, the chart can be resized freely,


without disrupting the labeling or data series

Tip
 Use the right-click key ( ) to open the same
menu you would access by right-clicking

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 37 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

However, similarly to think-cell, you can add data to a standard chart using
the datasheet
Excel Data  Much like in think-cell, double-clicking or
right-clicking to open the object lets you
access its Datasheet
 Data can be added by typing or pasting in
from Excel; the chart will then update
- Again, modify the series labels in the first
row and column
- As before, right-click on cells in the
datasheet to modify their formatting via the
“Number” or other menus
- To transpose the data, open the chart
object again by right-clicking and use the
Standard PowerPoint Chart Data Sheet “By Column” / “By Row” buttons

 However, this datasheet lacks some of


the functionality of the think-cell version
- Cells cannot contain formulas referencing
other cells or worksheets, as in think-cell
- Note that series will appear in the chart in
“Product A” will be at the top vertically reversed order (i.e., in the
of the resulting graph example at left, Product C would be the
bottom series in a bar chart)

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 38 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

With the chart open, you can modify its formatting by double-clicking axes,
series, and labels, as well as by right-clicking to access “Chart Options”

Double-clicking the axis


will bring up the “Format
Axis” menu, allowing you
to modify the formatting of
the line and labels

Double-clicking data series or labels


will allow you to modify their
formatting, including plotting a series
on a secondary axis; single-click to
highlight an individual brick or label

Right-click the main chart area to


access the “Chart Options” menu,
allowing addition of a legend and
other modifications

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 39 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

Modifying the chart type without re-pasting the data is easy in standard
charts: simply open the chart and right-click, selecting “Chart Type”

Standard Chart Types Custom Chart Types (User-Defined)

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 40 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

Standard PowerPoint charts are more basic than think-cell, so you’ll have to
be somewhat clever to create similarly formatted output
Components of Revenue Growth Titles, axis unit labels, CAGRs, etc. must be added
Millions of Dollars (and updated) manually using text boxes

150 To create automatically


5 135 placed column totals, first
10
use a “Total” line in the data
125 20 sheet to list the values you
want to display. Second,
100 double-click this superfluous
100 data series in the open chart
and click on Data Labels-
Values to add values. Third,
double-click these values to
75 manage their formatting and
change their Label Position
alignment to “Inside Base.”
50 Fourth, double-click the
Total data series again and
set Borders and Area to
To create a Flying Brick chart, use a stacked-bar “None.” Finally, double-click
25 graph with “invisible” (i.e., border and area both the y-axis to set the scale
set to “None”) supporting bricks appropriately.

0
2007 Volume Inflation Prices 2008

Many chart types (e.g., marimekkos) are far easier to create in think-cell, which should always be your first choice

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 41 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

Exercise 3: Create the same chart slide again, but using a standard chart:

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 42 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Is this still here? DRAFT Market landscape
Did you update the ghost?

Exercise 3 answer & QC check: TWC’s revenues are forecast to grow at ~6%
per annum through 2011, driven primarily by TV and data WIP

Time Warner Cable Forecast Revenues* Did you create these


Millions of Dollars labels and CAGRs? Are CAGR%
they properly aligned? (2007-11)
1,400 Historical Forecast
Did you create these
totals in the data sheet? 1,187 Total 6.1
1,200
1,119 Backhaul 13.4
1,055
995 Data 9.5
1,000 940
Dummy
data
800 Dummy
data Phone 2.1
600

Did you remember the


400 “WIPs” and “Dummys”?

Is the y-axis scaled TV 6.7


200 appropriately?

0
2007 08 09 10 11

Note: * Base case assumptions


Source: Management forecasts CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 43 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Agenda

 PowerPoint and L.E.K. Standards: Overview and Basics

 Object Manipulation

 Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

 Tables

 Wordslides

 Appendix

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 44 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Tables

To insert a table, go to LEK Standards – Insert Slide – Table (rows &


columns); for the most part, it will come properly formatted*
Headers are 12pt or 14pt bold, left-
Tables must have titles aligned; vertically, the top row is the
Status Before Acquisition
(same as charts) only one with middle-aligned text
Date of Market Marketing
Cash Lead Product Comments
Acquisition Cap Capabilities
Agouron 9/98 $1.9B $62M Viracept was the
market-leading HIV  Peak sales limited
compared to client
protease inhibitor with
~$400M in revenues in
1998
Centocor 7/99 $4.0B $221M
Body is non-bold with
Remicade for RA
achieved $27.5M in  ReoPro sales
declining, pipeline
revenues in 1998 was dry
gray background; text is
2/02 left-aligned,
$1.4B while Cor’s cardiovascular
Cor $633M
numbers are centered** drug Integrilin had  Integrilin sales were
slowing and it lacked
~$200M in revenues in late-stage
2001 compounds

Scios 2/03 $2.0B $50M Scios’s congestive Attraction derived


heart failure treatment from Ph.II product
Natrecor,Symbols
had salessuch
of as check-marks and Harvey balls
White lines thickness is 1pt,
~$100M incan2002 be inserted as objects using the think-cell
except border between header &
body, with 2¼ pt thickness* menu, or as text using symbols from the font
LEK Dingbats – From Wingdings

Note: * Tables inserted from the L.E.K. Standards menu have a light gray border, which should be changed to white; CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 45 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Tables

Simple formatting can be achieved by dragging table borders and using the
formatting toolbar
Column Resizing  Dragging the anchor points at the edge of a
table (similar to other objects) will resize all the
“cells” of the table
- To resize a single row or column, hold the cursor
near the edge until it changes, then click and drag
Drag the column the column to move it
to the right
- As elsewhere, hold down Alt to move it one pixel
at a time

Table Bullets  The formatting toolbar can be used to change


Use the Bullets button
text size or formatting, alignment, or even to
to create bullets, then add bullets
use the ruler positions to
space them properly - To add bullets, highlight the appropriate cells and
click the “Bullets” button

- This will create L.E.K.-standard green bullets;


however, sub-bullets must be created on the next
line by hitting Shift-Alt-Right

- The spacing of bullets and sub-bullets can be


modified using the indent and tab positions on the
ruler

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 46 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Tables

Tables can be formatted in more complex ways using the ‘Tables and
Borders’ toolbar, by right-clicking, and/or with the Format Table menu
Merging Cells  To insert/delete rows or columns, align text vertically,
or even merge or split cells, right-click on highlighted
cells or use the Tables and Borders toolbar

 To modify borders and internal text margins, access


the Format Table menu via “Borders and Fill…” on
the Table button or by right-clicking on highlighted
cells

- To modify table borders, use the Borders tab


and select the style, color, and width, then click
the border diagram or buttons to the right to
apply the formatting

Format Table Menu

Time to show you’re still paying attention…

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 47 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Tables

Exercise 4: Create the table slide blanked out below:

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 48 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
DRAFT Market landscape
Is this still here? Did you update
the ghost?
Exercise 4 answer & QC check: PPIs such as Nexium dominate the acid
reflux market, although Prilosec’s patent loss will continue to affect sales
Acid Reflux Market – Potential Licensees

Product 2007 Sales Description Overall Strength

 AstraZeneca’s higher-priced

Proton Pump Nexium ~$5.0B
Inhibitors successor to Prilosec…

 Highest unit sales…



Prilosec ~$3.9B
- Generic since 200X
Did you
merge these …

Prevacid ~$2.9B
cells?
WIP
… …
WIP
Are bullets
formatted
…

H2-Blockers Zantac ~$31M properly?
Is the text formatting
(bolding, alignment,
… … Did you insert
etc.) correct?
Harvey balls using
the think-cell Basic
…

Antacids [Unbranded] ~$17M button, or with “Insert
Symbol”?

Source: Public financials, L.E.K. analysis Did you remember the source? CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 49 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Agenda

 PowerPoint and L.E.K. Standards: Overview and Basics

 Object Manipulation

 Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

 Tables

 Wordslides

 Appendix

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 50 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Wordslides

To create a “wordslide” of bulleted text, use the L.E.K. Standards menu to


insert one; the textbox can be copied and pasted onto other slides if needed

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 51 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Wordslides

This is an example of a wordslide; quotes can be inserted either manually or


via ‘Insert Quote’ from the L.E.K. standards menu
 Wordslides should always be in 14pt or 12pt font, with generous line spacing
- Line spacing (Alt-O-S) should always be set to 1; some
L.E.K.ers prefer to change the paragraph spacing to be 0.35,
0.35 before and after, but this can vary based on space
- If you exceed the space of the text box, click the icon
in the lower-left to toggle between automatically resizing
the text to fit, or manually controlling it (as at right)

 The bullet point should be used to raise an issue or make a statement which relates to the slide
tag; sub-bullets or quotes then further justify the bullet
- Generic quotes can be created using “Insert Quote” under the LEK Standards menu; however, the
formatting may need to be adjusted
“… The first line of quotes should left-align with other bullets or sub-bullets; also, if quotes are very long and
wrap to multiple lines, the lines should all align on the left. To achieve this, use the indent and tab positions
on the ruler, and hit ‘Tab’ after the initial ellipsis at the start of the quote …”
Dave Titus, L.E.K. Consulting, 9/08
- To create a quote manually, use a sub-bullet with the leading hyphen deleted, include the quotation marks
and ellipses, and hit Shift-Enter, then Tab to place the author and organization
“… Only a few more hours until this PD is over …”
Dave Titus, L.E.K. Consulting, 9/08

 If a wordslide is making a number of dense points, it’s probably a good idea to introduce some
organization with green boxes to the left
CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 52 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Wordslides

Exercise 5: Create the wordslide blanked out below:

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 53 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Market landscape

Exercise 5 answer & QC check: The primary drivers of regional fireplace


variations are fuel availability, climatic differences, and residence size
 Certain fuel types – in particular, cordwood and gas – are much more readily available in
certain parts of the country
Fuel Availability
“…Quote about people in wooded areas having free fuel available …”
Owner, XXXX, TX
Are bullets spaced
- Point about gas prices and production pipelines …
appropriately? Is
WIP everything spelled
Did you remember
correctly?
the WIPs?

 Consumers in warmer regions tend to purchase fireplaces primarily for aesthetic


Climatic reasons, rather than for heat output
Differences “… Vent-free and electric stoves do well in the Southeast …”
Author

“… Another quote …” Are quotes formatted


Are text boxes Author properly? Do they left-
aligned with top of align with each other
green boxes? and with sub-bullets?

 The South and West actually have a higher proportion of large homes with at least one
Typical hearth (~53%) compared with the rest of the country (~44%)
Residence Size - Sub-bullet
WIP

Source: L.E.K. interviews and analysis CONFIDENTIAL


Client Name. Document Title. 54 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Wordslides

Congratulations! You’ve created a five-slide blank presentation. But before


passing on your work, give it another quick QC, checking for the following:

 Does every slide have a ghost (and spider, if appropriate)?

 Did you create properly formatted chart/table titles and axis labels where appropriate?

 Does the text of slides match the charts or other quantitative data?

 Did you fill in tags and other hypothetical text where possible?

 Did you put “WIP” or “Dummy” boxes over all incomplete information?

 Are your slides neat? Are objects aligned?

 Did you run spell-check? (Note: this is no substitute for someone actually proofreading all the
text before a slide is ever presented)

 Did you save and update the footers?

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 55 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Agenda

 PowerPoint and L.E.K. Standards: Overview and Basics

 Object Manipulation

 Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

 Tables

 Wordslides

 Appendix:
- Helpful Tips & Tricks
- Linking think-cell to Excel
- Formatting Troubleshooting

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 56 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Appendix: helpful tips and tricks

Changed your mind about the shapes you want to use? Not a problem…

1. Select the shapes you want to change 2. Use the ‘Change AutoShape’ tool

1 2

Ta Da!

Source: Our brilliant colleagues in L.E.K.-Australia CONFIDENTIAL


Client Name. Document Title. 57 C:\Documents and Settings\d_bishop\Desktop\pd\PPT Tips & Tricks v04.ppt
Appendix: helpful tips and tricks

Selecting, moving and resizing objects, made easier:

 To scroll between objects you would like to select, select one object, then hit Tab or Shift-Tab to
scroll back and forth between objects (for those truly mouse-averse)

 When resizing, hold:


- Alt to resize in smaller increments

- Shift (when re-sizing shapes) to force the proportions to stay the same

- Shift (when re-sizing lines) to force the angle to stay the same

- Ctrl to resize in both directions simultaneously

 Normally, you can only resize one line at a time; however, if you want to resize a number of lines
at once, create a random object, select it at the same time and then resize

Source: Our brilliant colleagues in L.E.K.-Australia CONFIDENTIAL


Client Name. Document Title. 58 C:\Documents and Settings\d_bishop\Desktop\pd\PPT Tips & Tricks v04.ppt
Appendix: helpful tips and tricks

L.E.K. partners and managers love multi-shape diagrams; unfortunately


they also love to change the number of shapes. Use the Insert-Diagram tool
to make adding objects easier in some cases

Debtors Sales
Profits Sales

Profits Cash Flow


Cash Flow

Source: Our brilliant colleagues in L.E.K.-Australia CONFIDENTIAL


Client Name. Document Title. 59 C:\Documents and Settings\d_bishop\Desktop\pd\PPT Tips & Tricks v04.ppt
Appendix: helpful tips and tricks

Use “#N/A” in PowerPoint standard chart data sheets to interpolate

Problem: Your data series has a gap in it. Your Solution: In a standard chart, type “#N/A” in
consultant says it’s OK to straight-line between place of the missing data points and
the two points… but using a calculator is hard PowerPoint will do it for you!

30 30

25 25

20 20

15 15

10 10

5 5

0 0
2003 04 05 06 07 2003 04 05 06 07

Source: Our brilliant colleagues in L.E.K.-Australia CONFIDENTIAL


Client Name. Document Title. 60 C:\Documents and Settings\d_bishop\Desktop\pd\PPT Tips & Tricks v04.ppt
Appendix: helpful tips and tricks

Using Autocorrect to save on extra typing, but be careful

Often we must repeatedly type long-winded terms or company names that take time and effort to spell
out over and over again; in this situation, AutoCorrect can be your friend:

 Go to Tools – Autocorrect (alt-T-A)

 Under “Replace text as you type,” add a


short-hand version of a lengthy term you’ll
have to type often
- Don’t make the short-hand version
something you’ll have to type elsewhere!

 In the example at left, anytime the user


types PSW (space), PowerPoint will
replace this with “Project Shifty Weasel

 This is more helpful than you might think…


just remember to delete them at the end of
the case!

Source: Our brilliant colleagues in L.E.K.-Australia CONFIDENTIAL


Client Name. Document Title. 61 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Agenda

 PowerPoint and L.E.K. Standards: Overview and Basics

 Object Manipulation

 Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

 Tables

 Wordslides

 Appendix:
- Helpful Tips & Tricks
- Linking think-cell to Excel
- Formatting Troubleshooting

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 62 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Appendix: linking think-cell to Excel

Linking think-cell charts to Excel permits charts to be automatically updated


without having to re-paste data, but this can be dangerous
 Think-cell allows Excel tables to be linked into PowerPoint; this can be highly useful in some circumstances
- Sometimes, a small assumption change may require many slides to be updated
- Changes made in Excel will automatically be updated in PowerPoint (including data, labels, label positioning and CAGRs for all
linked charts); multiple charts can be updated without the need for copying and pasting

 Updates can be set to be automatic or to require confirmation


- The user is able to switch between cases to compare output

 Despite the advantages of linking Excel with think-cell, there are several dangers:
- Unintended last-minute updates to a presentation may be made with disastrous consequences
- Automated linking does not remove the need for good spreadsheet formatting and clearly organized and labelled output
- Beware of unintentionally updating packs!

 It is therefore recommended that you follow three rules:

Rule 1 Rule 2 Rule 3


Only use linking functionality Ensure the automatic update is Create a separate hard-wired
when there are significant switched off (step 4 on following worksheet that links all charts to
benefits; do not use linking when page) so that confirmation is think-cell. When an update is
the data is unlikely to change required to update a chart required, hard paste the live
model output into the linked area

Following these rules will mitigate the risks involved in linking Excel to PowerPoint

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 63 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Appendix: linking think-cell to Excel

Setting up links between Excel and think-cell is relatively simple and can be
done in five steps

Step 1 Step 4
Highlight
relevant
data in Excel

Locations details Check or un-check


‘Auto’ for automatic
Step 2 / manual updating
Choose which version to
of charts
show
Right click on a think-cell Step 5
chart and left click on
‘establish Excel link’

Step 3
Update to new
Click on ‘More’ and then
data or revert to
‘Data Links…’ on the
original
think-cell toolbar

Think-cell chart will now automatically update when the Excel file is changed

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 64 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Appendix: linking think-cell to Excel

There are some important things to note about linking think-cell with Excel

 The ‘Excel link’ functionality is able to cope with changing files names

- PowerPoint_v2.ppt can be changed to PowerPoint_v3.ppt and the links will be updated

- Excel_v2.xls can be changed to Excel_v3.xls and the links will be updated

 The only requirement is that both Excel and PowerPoint be open at the same time on the same
computer for updates to occur

- If Excel is not open, then the PowerPoint data is shown in the normal data table rather than Excel

 Links can be broken by right-clicking and choosing “Break Excel link”

 Other functionality includes the ability to transpose data in Excel – right-click on the data table in
Excel and choose ‘transpose’

 However, there are some limitations

- For example, data can be flipped in the data tables; however, when linking data to Excel this functionality
does not exist (the solution is to reorder data manually in Excel)

Linking data can be useful, but should only be used when necessary – discuss with your team!

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 65 Thinkcell PD_v13.ppt
Agenda

 PowerPoint and L.E.K. Standards: Overview and Basics

 Object Manipulation

 Graphs (think-cell and Standard)

 Tables

 Wordslides

 Appendix:
- Helpful Tips & Tricks
- Linking think-cell to Excel
- Formatting Troubleshooting

CONFIDENTIAL
Client Name. Document Title. 66 T101_Intro to Powerpoint_1.08_New.PPT
Appendix: formatting troubleshooting

Finally, some formatting troubleshooting:

Problem Try This

 Find a block of text where the spacing looks correct and


highlight it
Spacing between bullets
doesn’t look right  Click on the paintbrush tool

 Highlight text where spacing looks incorrect

 Click on the paintbrush tool

Mysterious lines appear on  Highlight text where spacing looks incorrect


print-out, but they can’t be  Open relevant slide, select all (Ctrl- A)
seen on screen
 Hold down shift key and click on items that belong on slide until
only unwanted lines are highlighted. Hit delete

Lines or text need to be  Zoom in to 200% or closer to better see the space you’re
squeezed into a small space working with

CONFIDENTIAL
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