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Definisi, Karakteristik, Contoh

Aplikasi Sistem Informasi


Geografi (SIG)

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Learning Outcomes

Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa


akan mampu :
• Menjelaskan mengenai konsep dasar,
keunggulan, karakteristik dan contoh-
contoh aplikasi SIG (C2 , TIK-01)

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Outline Materi

• Materi 1 : Definisi SIG


• Materi 2 : Keunggulan SIG
• Materi 3 : Karakteristik SIG
• Materi 4 : Contoh Aplikasi SIG

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Definisi SIG (1)

• Menurut Rhind (1989).


A computer system that can hold and use data
describing places on the Earth’ surfaces.

• Menurut Burrough (1986)


A set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will,
transforming, and displaying spatial data from the real
world for a particular set of purposes.

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Definisi SIG (2)

• Menurut Prof. Jacob Rais (2001)


Sistem Informasi berbasis komputer dengan memakai
data digital berujuk pada lokasi geografis di muka bumi.

• Menurut ESRI ( ESRI White Paper, 2001 )


A computer software that links geographic information
(where things are) with descriptive information (what
things are).

• Lainnya,
Lihat buku referensi. (Eddy Prahasta : “Konsep-konsep
Dasar SIG”, hal.56-57, 2001, dsb.)
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Definisi SIG (3)

Geographic Information Systems


Describing Our World
• We can describe
any element of our
world in two ways:
Attribute Information:
Location Information: What is it?
Where is it?
Species: Oak
Height: 15m
Age: 75 Yrs
51°N, 112°W

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Definisi SIG (4)

ESRI Canada :

GIS is a system of computer software, hardware and


data, and personnel to help manipulate, analyze and
present information that is tied to a spatial location.

• Spatial location – usually a geographic location


• Information – visualization of analysis of data
• System – linking software, hardware, data
• Personnel – a thinking explorer who is key to the power of
GIS

GIS : A method to visualize, manipulate, analyze,


and display spatial data
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Definisi SIG (5)
http://www.gis.com :
GIS is a technology that is used to view and analyze data
from a geographic perspective. The technology is a piece
of an organization's overall information system
framework.
GIS links location to information (such as people to
addresses, buildings to parcels, or streets within a
network) and layers that information to give you a better
understanding of how it all interrelates. You choose what
layers to combine based on your purpose.
Within a few hours of the destruction of Space Shuttle
Columbia, GIS accurately modeled the shuttle's debris
location and distribution.
(see this image)
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Definisi SIG (6)
Three Views of a GIS (http://www.gis.com)
A GIS is most often associated with maps. A map, however, is
only one of three ways a GIS can be used to work with
geographic information. These three ways are:
1. The Database View: A GIS is a unique kind of database of
the world—a geographic database (geo-database). It is an
"Information System for Geography." Fundamentally, a GIS is
based on a structured database that describes the world in
geographic terms.

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Definisi SIG (7)
Three Views of a GIS (http://www.gis.com)
2. The Map View: A GIS is a set of intelligent maps and other
views that show features and feature relationships on the
earth's surface. Maps of the underlying geographic
information can be constructed and used as "windows into the
database" to support queries, analysis, and editing of the
information. This is called geovisualization.

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Definisi SIG (8)
Three Views of a GIS (http://www.gis.com)
3. The Model View: A GIS is a set of information transformation
tools that derive new geographic datasets from existing
datasets. These geoprocessing functions take information
from existing datasets, apply analytic functions, and write
results into new derived datasets.

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Keunggulan SIG (1)

• Kemudahan & Kecepatan Akses Data yang


bervolume besar
• Kemampuan untuk :
 Mencari detil berdasarkan area atau thema
 Membuat link ke data set lain
 Menganalisa karakteristik spasial dari data
 Melakukan update data dengan cepat & murah
• Menghasilkan output sesuai kebutuhan :
Peta, Grafik, Daftar Alamat, Ringkasan data statistik ,
dsb.

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Keunggulan SIG (2)
• Kemudahan & Kecepatan Akses Data yang
bervolume besar
GIS contains many layers of information:

These are just a few of


the kinds of layers a
GIS can contain:

• Base Map Data


• Elevation
• Surface Geology

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Keunggulan SIG (3)

• Kemampuan untuk membuat link ke data set lain

GIS software links the location


data and the attribute data:

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Keunggulan SIG (4)
• Kemampuan untuk menganalisa karakteristik spasial

Attribute Questions:
GIS software can answer What provinces have more
questions about our world: than 1.5 million people?

Spatial Questions:
What provinces border
Saskatchewan?

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Keunggulan SIG (5)
• Kemampuan untuk menganalisa karakteristik spasial

GIS can analyze data


in many ways:

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Keunggulan SIG (6)

• Menghasilkan output sesuai kebutuhan :


Peta, Grafik, Daftar Alamat, Ringkasan data
statistik, dsb.
Data Statistik
1 BPPT Jl Thamrin No.8
2 Kominfo Luas wilayahMerdeka
Jl Medan 230 km
3 Garuda Rata-rata
Jl Medankepadatan
Merdeka 120 org/km
GDP 100
4 Sari Pan Jl Thamrin
UMR 760.000

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Karakteristik SIG (1)

• Kombinasi data spasial & non-spasial

YOUR CHOICE:

TABULAR DATA?
State Population (1991)
Johor 2,074,297
Kedah 1,304,800
Kelantan 1,181,680
Melaka 504,502

OR MAP?
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Karakteristik SIG (2)

• Kemampuan manipulasi data untuk


berbagai aplikasi

• Base Map Data


• Elevation
• Surface Geology

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Contoh Aplikasi SIG (1)

• Environmental
• Public Utilities
• Agriculture
• Marketing
• Park Management
• Health Care
• Real Estate
• Emergency
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Contoh Aplikasi SIG (2)
• Environmental

• What are
the effects
of Global
Warming?

Land cover and temperature relationships are


made clear when the data are seen at once
using Geotechnology. 21
Contoh Aplikasi SIG (3)
• Public Utilities

• Is it safe to
dig here?

A proposed excavation, identified by


address, is compared to pipelines in the area
using Geotechnology.
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Contoh Aplikasi SIG (4)
• Agriculture

• How can I
improve food
production?

Geotechnology is used in
making crop management
decisions to maximize yields
and minimize fertilizer input.
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Contoh Aplikasi SIG (5)
• Marketing

• How can I
optimize my
Marketing
Campaign?
Geotechnology can query a database and
identify only those areas with the highest
household income within a specified distance
of a store. 24
Contoh Aplikasi SIG (6)
• Park Management

• Will the new


building spoil
the Park
Scenery?
Park planners use Geotechnology to
determine if a new Visitor Centre can be seen
from the peak.
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Contoh Aplikasi SIG (7)
• Health Care

• What
Communities
are at risk
from
Disease?
Geotechnology identifies
communities at risk of River
Blindness and helps determine
the impact of treatment. 26
Contoh Aplikasi SIG (8)
• Real Estate

• Where is
my Dream
Home?
With Geotechnology, an agent can
show a map of a neighborhood and a
picture or video of the actual
properties.
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Contoh Aplikasi SIG (9)
• Emergency

• What is the
fastest route
to the
Hospital?
Geotechnology can choose the
fastest route to a hospital. The
GIS can take into account
traffic and other impediments. 28
Penutup

• Mahasiswa diharapkan telah memahami


konsep-konsep dasar SIG, khususnya :
Definisi, Keunggulan, Karakteristik,
Contoh Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Geografi.

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