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T Cells and Cellular Immunity

 Classes of T Cells
 T Helper Cells (CD4+ T Cells)
 T Cytotoxic Cells (CD8+ T Cells)
 T Regulatory Cells
Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs)
Extracellular Killing by the Immune System
Antibody Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity
Cytokines: Chemical Messengers of Immune
Cells
Immunological Memory
Types of Adaptive Immunity
T Cells and Cellular Immunity
 T cells are derived from stem cells of bone marrow
 These stem cells migrate to the thymus where they mature
into T cells
 Thymic selection eliminates many immature T cells
 Mainly responsible for clearance of intracellular bacteria
T Cells and Cellular Immunity
 T cells require antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to become
activated.
 T cells respond to Ag by T cell receptors (TCRs)
 Pathogens entering the GIT or respiratory tracts pass
through:
 M (microfold) cells over
 Peyer’s patches (secondary lymphoid organs), which contain
APC
Differentiation of B cells and T cells
Classes of T Cells
 T cells are clasified according to their functions and cell
surface of glycoproteins called CDs.
 T Helper Cells
 T Cytotoxic Cells (T Killer Cells)
 T Regulatory Cells
T Helper Cells (CD4+ T cells)
found on lymphocytes
 TH1 cells activate cells involved in cellular immunity. Secrete
the cytosine IFNγ. Promotes IgG antibody production.
 TH2 cells are associated with allergic reactions and parasitic
infections. Secrete the cytokine IL4. Promotes IgE
production.
 T helper cells are activated by MHC class II on APCs. After
binding an APC, CD4+ T cells secrete cytokines that activate
other T cells and B cells
T Helper Cells in Action
T Cytotoxic Cells (CD8+ T Cells)
present on all nucleated cells
 Target cells are self-cells carrying endogenous antigens
 Activated into cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)
 CTLs recognize Ag + MHC I
 Induce apoptosis in target cells
 CTLs release perforin and granzymes
CTL Mediated Cytotoxicity
Apoptosis
T Regulatory Cells
 T regulatory cells suppress T cells against self.
Antigen-Presenting Cells
(APCs)
 APCs include B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages.
 Dendritic cells are the primary APCs.
 Activated macrophages are effective phagocytes and APCs.
 APCs carry antigens to lymphoid tissues where T cells that
recognize the antigen are located
Dendritic Cell
These antigen-presenting cells are named for their long arms
or dendrites. They are especially plentiful in the skin and
mucous membranes
Activated Macrophages
When activated, macrophages become larger and ruffled
Extracellular Killing by the Immune
System
 Natural Killer (NK) cell lyse virus-infected cells, tumor cells
and parasites. They kill cells that do not express MHC class I
antigens.
Kiss of Death
Cell-Mediated Immunity
Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated
Cytotoxicity
 In ADCC, NK cells and macrophages lyse antibody-coated
cells.
ADCC
If the organism such as parasitic worm, is too large for ingestion and
destruction by phagocytosis. It can be attacked by immune system cells
that remain external to it.
Cytokines: Chemical
Messengers of Immune Cells
 Cells of the immune system communicate with each other by
means of chemicals called cytokines.
 Interleukins (IL) are cytokines that serve as communicators
between leukocytes.
 Chemokines cause leukocytes to migrate to an infection.
 Alpha interferon and IFN-ß protect cells against viruses. Gamma
interferon increases phagocytosis.
 Tumor necrosis factor promotes the inflammatory reaction.
 Hematopoietic cytokines promotes development of blood
stem cells
 Overproduction of cytokines leads to a cytokine storm
Summary for Cytokines
Immunological Memory
 The relative amount of antibody in serum is called antibody
titer.
 The response of the body to the first contact with an antigen
is called the primary response. It is characterized by the
appearance of IgM followed by IgG.
 Subsequent contact with the same antigen results in a very
high antibody titer and is called the secondary, anamnestic, or
memory response. The antibodies are primarily IgG.
The Primary and Secondary immune
responses to an antigen
Types of Adaptive Immunity
 Immunity resulting from infection is called naturally acquired
active immunity; this type of immunity may be long-lasting.
 Antibodies transferred from a mother to a fetus
(transplacental transfer) or to a newborn in colostrum results
in naturally acquired passive immunity in the newborn; this
type of immunity can last up to a few months.
 Immunity resulting from vaccination is called artificially acquired
active immunity and can be long-lasting.
 Artificially acquired assive immunity refers to humoral antibodies
acquired by injection: this type of immunity can last for a few
weeks.
 Serum containing antibodies is often called antiserum
 When serum is separated by gel electrophoresis, antibodies are
found in the gamma fraction of the serum and are termed immune
serum globulin, or gamma globulin.
Types of Adaptive Immunity
 Naturally acquired active immunity – Resulting from
infection
 Naturally acquired passive immunity – Transplacental or
via colostrum
 Artificially acquired active immunity – Injection of Ag
(vaccination)
 Artificially acquired passive immunity – Injection of Ab