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ORGANIZATIONAL

IDENTIFICATION
SHANGHAI TANG
• Shanghai Tang
• What are the key tensions and challenges in Shanghai Tang? How
did they come about?
• What is the shared organizational identity definition Shanghai Tang
have (central, distinctive, continuous).
• Who defined in practice the organizational identity in the past, and
how?
• What do the designers and business people identify with?
• How would you solve the issues going forward?
MAX (U), LOVE,
MOTIVATION AND HOW TO
MANAGE IT
FACT ON PUNISHMENT
DOES IT REALLY WORK?

- IT WORKS TOWARDS AVOIDANCE


- IT MAKES YOU STOP DOING
- LEARNED HELPLESSNESS

IT NEVER MOTIVATES YOU = INCREASE EFFORT

IN FACT ALL PERFORMANCE-AVOID MOTIVATION =


TO AVOID INCOMPETENCE OR NEGATIVE APPRAISAL

ALWAYS LEAD TO LOWER PERFORMANCE


MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS PROJECTED
ON TO AN ORDINAL SCALE OF UTILITY

Figure 9.2.
THE KEY PERSPECTIVES
• Self-interest, Max (U), The invisible hand. The economic perspective:
• Adam Smith assumed = people are both motivated to increase their self-interest,
but they are also motivated to refrain from harming others (the Pareto principle)
• Game theory, neoliberalism – Friedman, H. Becker, Bucchanan (rational choice
theory) = the person pursue self-interest without regard – or even with active
disregard – for their impact on others.
• Context oriented the work itself
• The feminist critique and Herzberg’s findings – love and achievement matters
• The capacity of being Human (Activity theory)
• A social perspective on desire and emotions
INSIGHTS FROM CONTENT THEORIES

• Only higher level motives and performance can construe motivation as


appetite (THAT MEANS NEEDS!!!! I want to attain, learn, become), preventive
and protective aspects do not motivate.
• Achievement, power, recognition, and justice
• The process of setting goals, having influence on goals motivates
• But people also differ according to their self constructed traits
CONTEXT ORIENTED
• The job that I am doing:
• Meaningfulness (what is it a part of)
• Experienced responsibility
• Knowledge of result
• Skill variety
• Task identity
• Task significance
• Autonomy and feedback

• But there is no such thing as general factors


HERZBERG’S (1987) MODEL
Figure 9.3.

Herzberg’s
(1987) motivators and
hygiene model
(based
on Herzberg, 2003:
87–96).
Reproduced by
permission
of Harvard Business
Publishing.
AND WHERE IS THE
LOVE?
THE ECONOMIC APPROACH AND
THE FEMINIST CRITIQUE
• “Rather than thinking about love versus money, we can think about love and
money” .
• Doctors, Nurses and other caring workers, however, find it hard to refuse
overtime, much less go on strike, because of the deeply embedded
professional ethic that one simply does not walk away from a helpless
patient or child, unless someone else is there to take over. They are to some
extent … “prisoners of love.”

• The point here is that we can’t think in either-or we must always think in terms
of both-and.

• Neither do we only have one goal in everything we do


SOME FOUNDATIONS
(NIELS ENGELSTED 2017)
• Intentionality = we are all moving!

• Self-interest = egocentric
• Other-interest = Altruism (Responsibility, Entitlement)
• Common-interest = We contribute to somebody we don’t know – we even
give to an anonymous poor.
MOTIVATION – LEARNING FROM
HERZBERG, NATURE AND FEMINIST
• The problem is – that the concept of motivation is
based on THAT WE LACK or LOOSE SOMETHING.
• Desire: “Platonic logic of desire forces us to make
a choice between production and acquisition.
From the moment that we place desire on the side
of acquisition, we make desire an idealistic
(dialectical, nihilistic) conception, which causes us
to look upon it as primarily a lack: a lack of an
object.” (Deleuze and Guattari 1987: 25)
A NEW CONCEPT OF DESIRE
• The “nature” of desire is not in objects or lack, but energy.
• Desire functions by Connecting Different things into systems or networks
(desiring-machines, agencement, Body without Organs)
• Desire is linked to innovation and imagination.
EMOTIONS
• A different level of consciousness
• It is a way of perceiving and judging, which is based on “my imagined or
perceived relation to my opportunities, constrains and “objects” in my
environment”.
• It have different temporal dimensions (Illouz calls it background emotion and
situation emotions).
• Here we discuss it with the classical concepts of affect/arousal, emotions,
sentiments
LEVELS OF EMOTIONS
• Arousal/affect: is a Momentarily discrete, instinctive, and multiplex
physiological process that activates specific pleasing or distressing feelings,
specific bodily, facial, and vocal expressions, and specific approach or
withdrawal action tendencies. However, different disciplines study different
aspects of emotion at different levels of analysis.
• Emotions are situational evaluations of my relations to objects, opportunities
and constrains.
• Sentiments is a more generalized concept of my temporal relations to social
concepts, situations and relations
COMPARING TO MOTIVATION
• Arousal = here and now • I suddenly want to do which differ
imagination and judgement from my routine

• Emotion = situational judgement • I think I would do x in this situation, I


want to do it or the opposite.

• Sentiment – history connecting past • I actually like my job and want to


and future continue doing it.
JELIANG CASE B AND C
• What feelings does Jielang and her friends show in the case?
• What does that show about their judgement of their situation, the company,
management etc.?
• Are these feelings a problem?
• Analyze and discuss which perspectives on emotions and motivation that
best explains Jieliang and her friends/colleagues emotions and motivation.

• Should we as management change anything based on this?


• If yes, what and how
• If No, why and how will you prevent negative aspects to arise from these
feelings.