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Introduction to

Research and
Research Methods Resita Is
1501103010017
AN INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH & RESEARCH METHODS

LUCY ROBIN ERZA CINDY

Definitions Stages of the  Background reading Data Ethical issues


research & information Collection in research
Research process gathering
approaches
Definition

Research Is ...
… a process of enquiry and investigation; it is systematic,
methodical and ethical; research can help solve practical problems
and increase knowledge.
THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH IS TO…

Investigate existing Provide solutions to


situations or Purpose problems
problems 1 Purpose 2

Generate new
knowledge
Purpose Explore and analyse
more general issues
3 Purpose 4

Explain new
phenomenon
Purpose Construct or create
new procedures or
5 Purpose 6 systems
DIFFERENT Exploratory
TYPES OF
Descriptive
RESEARCH:
Analytical
Predictive
RESEARCH APPROACHES
Research can be approached in the following ways:

Quantitative/ Applied/Basic Deductive/


Qualitative Inductive
RESEARCH PHILIOSOPHIES

Research is not ‘neutral’, but reflects a


range of the researcher’s personal interests,
values, abilities, assumptions, aims and
ambitions.
Research Philosophies

Positivistik Phenomenological
Research
Positivistic
Methodologies  Surveys
 Experimental Studies
 Longitudinal Studies
 Cross-sectional Studies

The main research methodologies


are summarised below and can
be linked to positivistic and Phenomenological
phenomenological research  Case Studies
positions or approaches.  Action Research
 Ethnography (participant observation)
 Participative Enquiry
 Feminist Perspectives
 Grounded Theory
STAGES OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS
The main stages of research can be summarised, as below :

1. Establish a general field of interest


2. Undertake preliminary & background reading on the subject to be researched to
discover with what is known already and to suggest the choice of an appropriate
research methodology.
3. Narrow your ideas to a workable topic or research proposal and give it a title.
4. Preparation of information gathering ‘tools’, e.g. questionnaires, interview sheets etc
(if relevant) & then information gathering stage.
5. Collation, analyse and interpretation of research data.
6. Write first draft of research project report.
7. Revision and re-write dissertation; submit dissertation.
Getting Started Your Research
1. Establish a general field of interest:

There is which must be considered before starting the research :

The project has The project is concerned The problem area Preparing and writing
with problem solving, the project necessitates
to be a piece of should have a strong policy-
must be of a
applied sufficient depth so ten weeks full-time
based thrust and must have work equivalent, that is
research and a sound conceptual basis. as to allow a
a minimum of 400
problem detailed analysis. hours.
solving.
2. Background & Preparatory Reading
This is an essential stage of the research process, for the following reasons:

It is essential to know what work has


been done previously in the topic
area.

It will help you therefore identify research


possibilities and to tailor or slant your particular
research project to gain new insights or
perspectives on the chosen topic

This in turn will help you develop a


research methodology appropriate to
the chosen project

It will help you to justify your choice of


research topic at the project proposal
stage to your supervisor/tutor.
SOME USEFUL INTERNET SITES FOR BUSINESS STUDENTS

Research Index (list


Bank of England Emerald (academic of UK market National Statistics JISC (academic
(UK economic publications) research & Online (UK publications)
reports) telemarketing government)
http://fiordiliji.eme companies) http://www.jisc.ac.
http://www.bankof raldinsight.com http://www.statisti uk
england.co.uk www.researchinde cs.gov.uk
x.co.uk
3. Gather Information & Data
The ways that data can be gathered include:

1 2 3 4
One-to-one Participant A questionnaire
interviews Focus groups observation survey
• Specific Information Request
Focus groups can be a 1. Complete participant
• Category
1. Structured useful way of finding out 2. Complete observer
what the main issues • Multiple Choice
2. Semi-structured 3. Observer as participant
and concerns of any • Scale
3. Unstructured group are. 4. Participant as observer • Ranking
• Grid or Table
• Open Questions
Probability Sampling Non-Probability Sampling

SIZE & SAMPLING


Main Methods
Main Methods: 1. Convenience Sampling
2. Voluntary Sampling
1. Systematic Sampling
3. Purposive Sampling
2. Stratified Sampling 4. ‘Snowball’ Sampling
3. Cluster Sampling 5. Event Sampling
6. Time Sampling
RESPONSE RATES
There are techniques that can help improve response rates to
postal or electronic questionnaires :

• Follow-up calls
• Pre-contact with respondents
• Type of postage
• Rewards
• Personalizing the questionnaire
• Emphasising Confidentiality
• Appeals to the respondent
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN
RESEARCH
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2003, p. 131) summarise the main issues to
consider, although the ethical issues surrounding these items are not
always clear-cut:
• The rights of privacy of individuals.
• Voluntary nature of participation – and the rights of
individuals to withdraw partially or completely from the
process.
• Consent and possible deception of participants.
• Maintenance of the confidentiality of data provided by
individuals or identifiable participants and their
anonymity.
• Reactions of participants to the ways in which researchers
seek to collect data.
• Effects on participants of the way in which data is
analysed and reported.
• Behaviour and objectivity of the researcher.
RESEARCH TENSIONS

1. Misleading People

2. Publishing Results

3. Confidentiality
THANKS FOR ATTENTION
CREATED BY
Resita Is
(1501103010017)

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