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VVT-i 1

VVT-i
(Variable Valve Timing
intelligent)
VVT-i 2

INTRODUCTION
1. HERE’S WHAT I LOOK FOR IN AN ENGINE !
2. BASIC OPERATION OF THE FOUR-STROKE
ENGINE
3. PROCESS OF DRAWING AIR-FUEL
MIXTURE INTO CYLINDER
4. ENGINE RPM AND VALVE TIMNG
5. VVT-i CONTROL
6. VVT-i ADVANTAGE
7. VALVE TIMING
VVT-i 3
1. HERE’S WHAT I LOOK FOR IN AN ENGINE
“I wish it had more Wouldn't it be wonderful if your
“I wish it had better
power” engine addressed all of your
gas mileage” needs? Such as one that has
“I don’t need
to refuel yet” plenty of power yet uses very
little fuel and is friendly to the
environment?

“I want engine that is


“Even exhaust environmentally
“I wish engine friendly”
performed smoothly fumes are clean”
even in heavy traffic”

“I wish they
wouldn’t demand
so much”
VVT-i 4

The VVT-i is an all-comprehensive


engine control system that has
achieved high levels of the
seemingly opposing performance
of "higher power output", "lower
fuel consumption", and "cleaner
exhaust gases".

VVT-i
VVT-i 5
2. BASIC OPERATION OF THE
FOUR-STROKE ENGINE
Before we learn how the VVT-i system operates, let us first review
the basic operation of the four stroke engine.

Intake Compression
stroke stroke

Exhaust Combustion
stroke stroke
VVT-i 6
3. PROCESS OF DRAWING AIR-FUEL
MIXTURE INTO CYLINDER
As the piston begins its descent from its top-dead-
Intake lag (1) center, a vacuum is created in the cylinder, causing the
pressure in the cylinder to become lower than that of
the intake port. The air-fuel mixture that was standing
It takes me
by in the intake port does not move immediately when
awhile
the vacuum that is created in the cylinder is ready to
to get moving.
draw the air-fuel mixture into the cylinder.

Top-dead-center
The drawing of the air-fuel
mixture into the cylinder is
slightly delayed in relation to
the descent of the piston, a
phenomenon know as "intake
lag".
VVT-i 7
Due to the "intake lag", even after the
Intake lag piston turns around at its bottom-dead-
(2) center and begins its descent, the pressure
There’s   in the cylinder for sometime remains lower
plenty of than that of the intake port.
room for us

Until this difference in


pressure is eliminated
by the further
ascension of the
piston, the air-fuel
mixture continues to
be drawn into the
But they’re cylinder.
pushing
harder! Engines are normally
designed with these
factors in mind.

Bottom-dead-center

Consequently, in order to draw in as much air-fuel mixture as possible during the


intake stroke, it is important to take the "intake lag" into consideration when
determining the timing of the opening and closing of the intake valve.
VVT-i 8
4. ENGINE RPM AND VALVE TIMING
During low engine rpm (1)

The intake lag varies in accordance with the engine rpm


It’s not because the piston's descent speed is proportionate to the
pulling me engine rpm.
in very fast

Because the piston


descends at a slow speed
and the air-fuel mixture
also flows at a slow speed,
only a slight resistance is
created against the
I caught drawing of the air-fuel
up with mixture into the cylinder.
you Therefore, the air-fuel
mixture in the intake port
I’m
is drawn into the cylinder
coming
without lagging too far
down
behind the movement of
slowly
the piston.
VVT-i 9

During low engine rpm (2) Because the "intake lag" is


short, the difference in
pressure that is created in
the cylinder and in the
intake port at the piston's
bottom-dead-center is only
slight. Therefore, the
pressure in the cylinder
becomes higher than the
pressure in the intake port
as soon as the piston starts
to ascend. Therefore, a
larger amount of air-fuel
mixture can be drawn in if
I’m full
the intake valve is opened
Now.
near the piston's top-dead-
center and closed near the
bottom-dead-center.

Bottom-
dead-center
VVT-i 10

During high engine rpm (1) Because the piston


descends at a fast speed
and the air-fuel mixture
also flows at a fast speed,
a considerable amount of
It’s all the way resistance is created
down there against the drawing of the
already. air-fuel mixture into the
cylinder. Therefore, the
air-fuel mixture in the
intake port is drawn into
the cylinder lagging
considerably behind,
without being able to catch
There’s no up with the movement of
way to the piston.
catch up.
VVT-i 11

During high engine rpm (2) When the "intake lag"


becomes long, even after
the piston turns around at
its bottom-dead-center and
begins its ascent, the
pressure in the cylinder for
some time remains lower
than that of the intake
port. Thus, the air-fuel
mixture continues to be
drawn into the cylinder for
quite some time after the
There’s
plenty more
piston has begun its
room for ascent.
me.
Therefore, during high rpm
operation, a larger amount
of air-fuel mixture can be
drawn into the cylinder
when the intake valve is
Bottom-dead- opened earlier than the
center top-dead-canter, and
closed later than the
bottom-dead-center.
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5. VVT-i CONTROL
The VVT-i improves the engine's overall performance based on the
engine rpm and the extent to which the throttle valve is opened.
When greater power is needed, it changes the timing to that which
enhances torque, and when less power is needed, it changes the
timing to that which enhances fuel economy and cleaner exhaust
gases.

Let us confirm how the VVT-i achieves "high power output", "low
fuel consumption", and "clean exhaust gases" by using the various
driving condition as the VVT-i control example.
VVT-i 13
Idling (1)
Because the intake lag that occurs during idle
minimal, it is not necessary to open the intake
valve early. However, on a conventional engine
in which the valve timing is fixed, the valves
open early because they are designed with the
It’s hard to intake lag in mind, which takes place during
get high-rpm operation.
through.

Vacuum

When the air-fuel mixture I’m Exhaust


is contaminated in this getting gas
manner, it does not pulled in!
produce reliable
combustion and results in
an unstable engine rpm.
For these reasons, in
conventional engines that
avoid valve overlap, it
becomes necessary to
raise the rpm at idle to a
certain extent.
VVT-i 14

Idling (2)

The exhaust
gases are not
coming in.

During idle, the VVT-i


delays the timing at which
the intake valve opens to
eliminate the valve
overlap, thus preventing
the exhaust gases from
flowing back into the
intake port.
VVT-i 15
Light & medium load driving (1)

During normal driving, the VVT-i advances the valve timing to achieve a large
valve overlap. During normal driving, when the throttle valve is not opened too
widely, a vacuum is created in the intake port. Similar to when the engine is
idling, when the valve overlap is large, this vacuum causes the exhaust gases to
flow back into the intake side.

Why does the VVT-i increase the valve overlap, which


could the state of the air-fuel mixture to worsen?
VVT-i 16
Light & medium load driving (2)

As the exhaust gases are drawn in, the vacuum in the intake port becomes lower
and reduces the resistance (the force that tries to pull the piston upward) during
the descent of the piston during the intake stroke.

Now I can
move more
smoothly!

The engine's power loss is reduced and fuel


economy is increased.
VVT-i 17
Light & medium load driving (3)

The unburned fuel that is contained in the exhaust gases is re-introduced into
combustion, resulting in a decreased amount of HC emissions and cleaner
exhaust gases.

I’m clean!

There’s less NOx The mixing of the inactive


because it doesn’t gases into the air-fuel
get too hot. mixture lowers the
combustion temperature,
resulting in a decreased
amount of NOx emissions
and cleaner exhaust gases.
VVT-i 18
Heavy-load with low & medium rpm (1)
When the driver is about to depress the accelerator pedal all the way to start
accelerating, the engine rpm is low and the piston is operating at a low speed,
so the intake lag of the air-fuel mixture is short.

Under such conditions,


when the piston turns
around at its bottom-dead-
center, the pressure in the
cylinder and the pressure
in the intake port soon
reach their equilibrium.
Click Therefore, unless the
I’m full now intake valve is closed
before the piston ascends,
the air-fuel mixture gets
pushed back. by advancing
the timing of closing the
intake valve, and enable
the valve to close when the
piston is near the bottom-
Bottom-dead-
dead-center, a sufficient
center
amount of air-fuel mixture
can be drawn in.
VVT-i 19
Heavy-load with low & medium rpm (2)

Overlap : Large

However, closing the intake valve early also means that the intake valve opens
early, causing the valve overlap to increase. during idle, if the valve overlap is
large, the exhaust gases flows back due to the vacuum that is present in the
intake port. However, during sudden acceleration, in the intake port is low, and
there is practically no back flow of the exhaust gases.
VVT-i 20
Heavy-load with high rpm

When the accelerator pedal


continues to be depresses, the
I’m going to engine rpm increases, resulting in a
delay it a little. longer intake lag.

I can’t catch up
with the piston.
Using sensors to
monitor the engine
rpm, the VVT-i
gradually delays the
timing to close the
It’s getting valve so that the
gradually maximum amount of
earlier. air-fuel mixture can be
drawn in according to
the increase in the
engine rpm.
VVT-i 21
6. VVT-i ADVANTAGE

(1) Stable combustion can be obtained even at a low rpm.


Thus, with the lower idle rpm, the engine achieves better
fuel economy.

(2) The engine's power loss is reduced and fuel economy is


increased.
The exhaust gases are cleaner.

(3) To maximize the potential of the engine.


VVT-i 22
7. VALVE TIMING
During Idling

Eliminated overlap TDC


TDC

Amount of exhaust gas


blowing-back to intake
EX
port is contained EX

IN
Stabilized combustion IN

Improved fuel economy BDC


BDC
VVT-i 23

During light & medium-load

Increased overlap

Internal EGR Reduced


rate is pumping loss
increased

Reduced NOx
emission and Improved
re-burning of fuel economy
HC
VVT-i 24

During heavy-load, low & medium rpm

Closing timing of intake


valve is advanced

Amount of mixture
blowing-back to intake port
is contained

Improved volumetric
efficiency

Improved out put


VVT-i 25

During heavy-load, high rpm

Closing timing of intake


valve is retarded
according to engine
speed.

Timing matched with


inertia force of intake air is
set.

Improved volumetric
efficiency

Improved output
VVT-i 26

Range Operation Valve timing


Summary State
TDC BDC
Idling
1 IN
EX
Wide Open Throttle Light
IN
2 Load
EX
Range 4 Range 5
Medium
Load IN
3
daoL

Range 3 EX
Medium
4 rpm & IN
Range Heavy Load
Range 2 EX
1
High rpm
Engine rpm IN
5 & Heavy
Load
EX
VVT-i 27

D16D VVT-i SYSTEM


1. RELATED COMPONENTS
2. OPERATION
3. VVT-i CONTROL
VVT-i 28
1. RELATED COMPONENTS
(1) VVT-i controller
(2) OCV (Oil Control Valve)
(3) Cam angle sensor
(4) Engine revolution sensor

Cam
OCV
angle sensor

VVT-i
controller

Crank
angle sensor K3-VE
VVT-i 29

(1) VVT-i controller (K3-VE)

Lock pin
Hydraulic
pressure Spring
force

During engine running When engine is


In stopped state
Retard
Advance

(Fixed on housing)

(Fixed on intake camshaft)


VVT-i 30

(1) VVT-i controller (EJ-VE)


Lock pin
Hydraulic
pressure Spring
force

During engine running When engine is


In stopped state

Vane
Rotor ( Fixed on exhaust camshaft )

Camshaft drive gear


( Fixed on camshaft drive gear )
Housing
VVT-i 31
(2) OCV (Oil Control Valve)

Operating direction of spool valve

Large Duty Small


ratio
Advance Retard
chamber chamber

Drain Pump Drain Spool valve


VVT-i 32
(3) Cam angle sensor

K3-VE Timing pin

Two turns of engine

Cam angle sensor Cam angle sensor output

EJ-VE
VVT-i 33
(4) Engine revolution sensor

K3-VE

EJ-VE
VVT-i 34
2. OPERATION
(1) Advance operation
(2) Retard operation
(3) Retention operation
VVT-i 35
(1) Advance operation (K3-VE)

Advance Signal
Duty ratio : Large

VVT-i
controller
Rotating
direction

Engine
ECU

Oil Drain
pressure
Operating direction
of spool valve
VVT-i 36
(1) Advance operation (EJ-VE)

Advance Signal
Duty ratio : Large

Oil
pressure Drain

OCV

Engine
ECU
Intake   Exhaust
camshaft camshaft
VVT-i 37
(2) Retard operation (K3-VE)

Retard signal
Duty ratio: Small

Rotating
direction
Operating direction
of spool valve

VVT-i
controller
Engine ECU

Drain Oil pressure


VVT-i 38
(2) Retard operation (EJ-VE)

Retard signal
Duty ratio: Small

Oil
Drain pressure

OCV

Engine
ECU
Intake Exhaust  
camshaft camshaft
VVT-i 39
(3) Retention operation (K3-VE)

Retention signal
Duty ratio : Middle

Engine ECU

Oil pressure
VVT-i 40
(3) Retention operation (EJ-VE)

Retention signal
Duty ratio :
Middle

Oil pressure

OCV

Engine
ECU
Intake Exhaust
camshaft camshaft
VVT-i 41
3. VVT-i CONTROL
(1) Outline
(2) Control
(3) Valve timing
VVT-i 42
(1) Outline (K3-VE)
VVT-i controller
Advance Cam angle sensor

Retard

Intake cam shaft


OCV

Exhaust cam shaft

Oil pump

Engine revolution sensor

ECU
Each sensor
VVT-i 43
(1) Outline (EJ-VE)
Cam angle sensor
Signal rotor
Intake cam shaft

Exhaust cam shaft

VVT-i controller

Signal rotor

Oil pump OCV

Engine revolution sensor

Each sensor
VVT-i 44
(2) Control

Engine ECU

Throttle sensor
OCV Target valve timing Pressure sensor

Feedback
Compensation Water temp.
control
sensor
Engine revolution
Actual valve timing sensor
Cam angle sensor
VVT-i 45
(3) Valve timing (K3-VE)

TDC
IN open
2°EX close
30° 12°
Engine
Valve  
rotating
direction Timing
Intake  : 
Open  :  BTDC   30° ~  -
12°
Close :  ABDC   10° ~
52°
Exhaust  :
52° Open  : BBDC 30°
IN close Close  :  ATDC 2°
10° 30°EX open
   
BDC
VVT-i 46
(3) Valve timing (EJ-VE)

TDC

EX  
6 close
°

IN  
open Valve  
Timing
40 Intake  : 
Open  :  BTDC   40° ~  - 2°
Close :  ABDC   20° ~ 62°
Exhaust  :
Open  : BBDC 44°
Close  :  ATDC 6°
62    
°
44°
IN close EX open
20°

BDC