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Lecture #1 Summary

 Construction industry has one of the highest


accident rates. Very little data on worker health
impacts. ( pekerjaan konstruksi memiliki salah satu kecelakaan
tertinggi sedangkan data tentang dampak kesehatan sangat sedikit)
 Difference between following the law and
making it a work culture (Perbedaan antara mengikuti hukum
dan membuatnya menjadi budaya kerja)
 Safety & Health have been secondary project
objectives but is gaining importance today.
(Keselamatan & Kesehatan telah tujuan proyek sekunder tapi semakin
penting hari ini.)
 Practices vary widely between companies in the
same country and across countries (Praktek bervariasi
antara perusahaan di negara yang sama dan di seluruh negara.)
What is an Accident ?

 An unplanned event ? (which may or may


not result in damage – injury)

• Can we “plan” to avoid an “unplanned” event ?


Bisakah kita "rencana" untuk menghindari
"tidak direncanakan" acara?

• Is a near-miss an accident ?
MAJOR
ACCIDENT

MINOR
29 ACCIDENTS

NO DAMAGE OR

300
NO INJURY
CASES
Accident Theories –

(why do accidents occur &


how can they be prevented)

Accident Proneness
Goals-Freedom Alertness
Adjustment-Stress
Distractions Theory
Chain of Events
Accident Proneness Theory
 Are some people more accident prone ?
Accident proneness “ A personal idiosyncrasy predisposing the
individual who possess it in a marked degree to a relatively high
accident rate” [Farmer & Chambers 1929]

“The innate propensity for accidents”

Traits for propensity


Fatalistic
Extroverted
Aggressive
Accident Proneness Theory
 Perception and willingness to take risks - Risk
Proneness

 Age .vs. Risk Proneness

 Situation .vs. Risk Proneness

 Only few hypotheses have been validated


statistically

How can it be applied to reduce accidents ?


Goal Freedom Alertness
by Kerr

 Psychologicallyrewarding environment
leads to safe work performance

 Well defined goal by Management through worker


participation

 Freedom to pursue the goal

 Results in Alertness to achieve the goal

How can it be applied to reduce accidents ?


Adjustment-Stress Theory
Kerr

 Diversion/Stress compromises safe


performance

 Complement to earlier 2 theories – GFA

 Diversion –External or Internal


Adjustment-Stress Theory
 Internal Stress
 Fatigue, Alcohol, Anxiety

 External Stress
 Noise, Illumination, Temperature

 Generated on Job or Outside

 Management Focus to reduce job stress –


 cost, time restrictions
 Unsafe environment
 Poor interpersonal relationships

 Mgmt sensitivity to outside job stresses


Proportion of Accidents Explained

Adjust Stress
55%
Goal Freedom Alert
Accd prone
Adjust Stress
Goal Freedom Alert
Accd prone 35%
10%
Distractions Theory-Internal
Hinze

 Accident causation theory applied to a


situation where there is a recognized
hazard.

 Focus on
 Task (High task achievement)
 Distraction (Low task achievement)

 Are productivity and safety in conflict ?


Distractions Theory-Internal
Distraction Due to work hazard

High
Low
Focus

High
Low Focus
Low High
Task Achievement
Distractions Theory-Internal
Example- Painter standing on a support
Distraction from the activity
High
Low
Focus

High
Low Focus
Low High

Task Achievement
Distractions Theory-External
(Mental Distractions)

Example- Preoccupation with issues not related to work


External Distraction Source!! (positive or negative)
High High
Focus

Low
Focus

Low
Low High
Task Achievement

HOW CAN MANAGEMENT APPLY DISTRACTIONS THEORY ?


Chain-of-Events Theory

• Accidents are a result of a series of events

• If any event in this series or chain had not occurred the


accident might be averted

• Last event is usually caused by the worker - so the


worker is usually blamed

• Chain of events is not strictly a theory but a means to


prevent/analyze accidents.
Chain-of-Events Theory

Situation:

* Worker falls of 3rd story & is seriously injured


* Not wearing safety belt
* No rails around perimeter
* Worker assumed safety belt is not available
* Others were not wearing safety belts
* Long form to fill to get belt from store

Who is responsible ?

How could the chain be broken ?


Chain-of-Events Theory

• Basically MANAGEMENT
• Chain of event analysis shows that in
most accidents management can
somehow break the chain
* Enforce Procedures * Poor maintenance
* Inadequate Facilities * Inadequate Planning & Layout
* Poor Design or Selection * Failure to Recognize hazard
* Poor Attitude * Lack of Comprehension
* Inadequate Training * Inadequate Coordination
PROJECT ORG

MANAGEMENT

UNSAFE ACTS UNSAFE CONDITION

WORKER

INJURY
Summary- Accident Theories
 Accident Proneness

 Goals-Freedom Alertness

 Adjustment-Stress

 Distractions Theory

 Chain of Events