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WEEK 9

MOORING & DYNAMIC POSITIONING SYSTEMS


MATERI PERKULIAHAN

1. Pengantar Sistem Permesinan & Teknologi BLP


2. Macam-macam Bangunan Lepas Pantai
3. Tahapan Pembangunan Rigs
4. Proses & Operasi Bangunan Lepas Pantai
5. Visualisasi Bangunan Lepas Pantai
6. Permesinan Penunjang Pengeboran
7. Permesinan Penunjang Produksi
8. Ujian Tengah Semester (UTS)

9. Mooring Systems
10. Dynamic Positioning Systems untuk Bangunan Lepas Pantai
11. Survey & Inspeksi Permesinan Bangunan Lepas Pantai 1
12. Survey & Inspeksi Permesinan Bangunan Lepas Pantai 2
13. Inspeksi Pekerjaan Bawah Air
14. Regulasi & Rules
15. Decommissioning Bangunan Lepas Pantai
16. Ujian Akhir Semester (UAS)
The initial SPM configuration used a 12,000 kg
concrete mooring block (Figure 2 and Photo 3) and
chain tension members supported by a surface
float (Photo 4). The cage was connected to the
SPM using bridles running horizontally from the
submerged cage rim and intersecting the SPM
chain in a pear link connection. The overall length
of chain provided a watch circle radius of
approximately 70 m.
DYNAMIC POSITIONG SYSTEMS
MATERI PERKULIAHAN

1. Pengantar Sistem Permesinan & Teknologi BLP


2. Macam-macam Bangunan Lepas Pantai
3. Tahapan Pembangunan Rigs
4. Proses & Operasi Bangunan Lepas Pantai
5. Visualisasi Bangunan Lepas Pantai
6. Permesinan Penunjang Pengeboran
7. Permesinan Penunjang Produksi
8. Ujian Tengah Semester (UTS)

9. Mooring Systems
10. OFFSHORE Dynamic Positioning Systems
11. Survey & Inspeksi Permesinan Bangunan Lepas Pantai 1
12. Survey & Inspeksi Permesinan Bangunan Lepas Pantai 2
13. Inspeksi Pekerjaan Bawah Air
14. Regulasi & Rules
15. Decommissioning Bangunan Lepas Pantai
16. Ujian Akhir Semester (UAS)
MINGGU 6 :
MOORING SYSTEMS & DYNAMIC POSITIONING
DI BANGUNAN LEPAS PANTAI
Banyak aktifitas BLP khususnya tipe Floating Structure yang memerlukan
untuk mengatur posisi spesifiknya baik secara permanen ataupun temporer.

Untuk itu bangunan tersebut dilengkapi dengan sistem pasif berupa mooring
atau Sistem aktif semacam Dynamically controlled propellers.
Metode klasik untuk menetapkan posisi dan arah haluan di laut adalah dengan
menggunakan beberapa buah jangkar dengan tali yang terhubung ke
beberapa unit fairleads disekitar kapal.

Dengan anchor winch tersebut posisi


dan arah kapal menghadap dikontrol
oleh luasan yang dibatasi dengan
jangkauan tali mooring.

Tipe “ Spread mooring system” ini


masih sering dipakai di offshore
crane vessels, drilling rigs, dan
dredgers untuk mengontrol kapal
secara akurat.

Penggunaan tipe spread morring


untuk anchoring secara permanen di
laut ganas tidak layak karena beam-
winch, wave dan current memberikan
load dan gerak yang kuat sehingga
tidak mampu di-counteracting oleh
sistem mooring.
The so-called 'single point mooring' concept concentrate all anchor lines at one single
point around which the vessel is allowed to weather vane.

This means that the vessel normally obtains an optimal bearing with the respect to the
wind, wave and current conditions and that beam-on conditions are prevented. The
'single-point' originally was based on a separate buoy rotating around a so-called
chain table connected to the anchor chains. The vessel was moored to the buoy by
means of a hawser.

Systems of the second generation featured a rigid yoke connection between bow and
buoy still allowing for vertical motions between the two. As a next step the chain table
was directly connected to vessel's bow; the so-called bow-turret. Today this concept
has evolved to the so-called internal turret with the chain table underneath or inside a
turret integrated in the ship's hull.

This concept is now used for Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO)
systems based on barges or ships either new built hulls or converted trading tankers.
The oil and gas is produced from the subs wells by means of flexible risers and
entering the vessel through sophisticated swivels on the turret structure. After
separation and further processing the oil and gas is stored in the tanks inside the
vessel. Offloading takes place by means of a shuttle tanker is connected to the vessel
by means of a hawser. Alternatively the shuttle tanker is maintaining position relative
to the FPSO by means of active propeller, rudder and thruster control.
This so-called Dynamic Positioning (DP) was firstly developed for drill ships in deep
water. The DP system comprises the following modules:
position reference
control
propulsion

The system is based on thrust, which is controlled in magnitude, and direction on


the basis of estimated external forces such as wind loads (feed forward) and
deviations from the required position (feed back).
DP is a favoured system when anchor systems are impractical or even not feasible. In
extreme water depths the mooring system is not any longer capable of holding it's
own weight. When the vessel has to move frequently such as in pipe laying, anchor
handling is a limiting factor for the efficiency of the operation and DP can be an
economic alternative. In some cases such as with pipe line and seafloor surveying
it is required that the vessel follows a pre-described track in a continuous way.
Another feature of DP-vessels is that they are able to work in areas with many
subsea wells, pipe lines etcetera, utilisation of anchors is prohibited.
A specific area of station keeping is the offshore installation of platforms. For the
installation of jacket structures and platform topsides normally use is made of
large crane vessels with revolving cranes which are capable of lifting a complete
jacket structure from a transportation barge and then lower it into the water
upending it and lower it on the seafloor. After the jacket has been secured to the
seafloor the topside is lifted from a barge and set onto the jacket. Such installation
operations are often critical with respect to wave induced motions and rigging
tensions.
From the above examples it is clear that the station keeping system is often a crucial
component in offshore operations. Not only the investment and the efficiency of
the operation greatly depend on the system but it is also of eminent importance
for safely of people and environment. The performance of the station keeping
system is therefore an important aspect in the design, engineering and
construction of the vessel as well as during it's operational life time.
The performance of the station keeping systems is determined by:
the accuracy of station or track keeping
the loads in the anchoring system
the required power and fuel consumption of the DP system

On board measurements play an important role in present day offshore


operations. Most vessels are permanently or temporarily equipped with the
measurement system to monitor selected quantities for various reasons:
Control
Testing
Operations support
Logging

R&D
Computational approach
The potential theory underlying SHIPMO hinges on the slenderness of the ship's hull
and on linearity of the hydrodynamic forces. The assumption of slenderness opens up
the opportunity for a 2-D 'stripwise'-solution of the hydrodynamic forces in waves.
After evaluation of the hydrodynamic reaction forces and wave induced excitation of
the individual sections (usually twenty) the total solution is obtained by integration
over the ship length. The assumption of linearity implies that the results are valid for
relatively small motions and that the ship is supposed to have vertical sides.
The program is actually split up into two parts. In the first part the hydrodynamic
reaction forces, expressed in added mass, damping and wave forces, are calculated. In
this part one has the choice to use a simple Lewis transform, or a 'close-fit' mapping or
a sophisticated 2-D diffraction solution. In the second part of the program the sectional
coefficients are integrated over the ship length and the equations of motion are solved.
The integration can also be carried out for a segment of the ship, which gives the
possibility to calculate the internal loads in the hull, like bending moments, shear
forces and torsional moment. The added resistance in waves can be calculated by
three approximation methods: Boese, Havelock and Gerritsma/Beukelman. The
program was recently adapted to accommodate catamaran hull forms in a simplified
way.
Input
main particulars (displacement, draft, trim angle);
ship's body plan;
metacentric heights;
position of centre of gravity;
radii of gyration for roll, pitch and yaw;
ship speed;
wave direction, wave height and wave period (regular, irregular);
weight distribution curve, if bending moments and shear forces are to be calculated;
a preprocessor is available to calculate roll damping contributions of:
bilge keel, rudder, skeg, exposed shaft
fin stabilizer, passive or active
roll stabilization tank.
Output
motions: heave, pitch, roll, sway and yaw;
relative wave elevation;
bending moments, torsion moment and shear forces;
absolute motions, velocities and accelerations at arbitrary locations;
added resistance due to waves;
fin stabilizer angles.

All results are available in the form of Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs) in
the frequency domain. In order to obtain a meaningful interpretation of the motion
characteristics the results have to be combined with a wave climate and motion
criteria. An interface with the program WASCO was developed to facilitate an
efficient handling at this part of the analysis.
FLEXIBLE MARINE RISER DI DEEP & SHALLOW WATERS
Introduction
The adoption of flexible pipe for marine risers as an integral part of offshore production
systems is no longer viewed as exploratory in nature. Recent installations of key
systems world wide have proved the concept to be technically acceptable, economically
attractive and often representing a unique solution.
Though flexible pipe as a marine product was introduced to the offshore market in the
early seventies it was not till 1978 that flexible risers were specified and installed in the
Enchova field offshore Brazil [1] as part of a floating production system.
Acceptance of flexible marine risers as components of floating production systems or
for connection of export lines to a loading buoy as a viable long term engineering
solution was up to recently dependent on the ability of the prospective user or the
manufacturer to demonstrate the adequacy of the design configuration chosen. Such
evaluation requires certain dynamic analytical models which could only be evaluated
through model test or the luxury of full scale validation by actual experience in the field
alone with simulated life cycle tests. The availability of such proven tools today along
with extensive variety of tests performed so far on samples of the flexible pipe itself and
the actual field experience in Enchova [1] Balmoral [2] Jolliet [3] and Green Canyon
Block 29 [4] to mention a few, help remove the barriers of acceptance but not
necessarily lower the guard in so far as the careful and often lengthy design procedure
which such an application calls for. Similar to other engineering technological
breakthroughs, development often depends on the availability and ease of use of the
analytical tools capable of properly simulating the behaviour of flexible marine riser in
the ocean environment in which it is expected to operate survive, installed and removed
if necessary. Life expectancy of 15 - 20 years in not uncommon and life cycle analysis is
therefore required in addition to the above mentioned design criteria.
The most convincing proof of acceptance of flexible marine risers is best demonstrated
if one reviews the outstanding projects currently committed to such engineering
solutions in Brazil, Canada, Australia, South East China, North Sea and the Gulf of
Mexico. Some projects require an extensive trade off study in order to compare the
flexible and rigid pipe options, taking into consideration the product, its installation,
removal, and its ability to survive the environment. Technology and economy each play
a major role in such a comparison and the design often represent a rational
compromise. The two cases selected for presentation and discussion in this paper are
different, since it involves the design of a riser system for two extreme water depth
condition one in over 2000ft and the other below 100ft. In either case a trade off study
was not necessary, since flexible riser was the only rational solution available in such
water depth and the associated environmental conditions on site. These cases were
selected in order to illustrate the differences in riser configurations and the approach
necessary to be taken in each case as well as to emphasise similarities, such as the
temporary nature of the installation and the expected removal within a short time, reuse
of system components and the consideration as later discussed.
In order to demonstrate the design methodology of such flexible risers, a short
discussion of the design approach and the analytical tools available for it must be given
first followed by the design verification stages which one should undertake as part of
the riser analysis prior to discussing the effects on the pipe itself namely resulting
stresses, and the product capabilities to withstand such loads.
The results of the analysis for the two cases are the essence of this paper. Typical
outputs illustrating the critical aspects of the riser configuration selected and their
sensitivity to the assumptions made in each of the analytical phases used are
discussed.
Flexible Riser Analysis and Design
Flexible pipes and risers are critical components of offshore field developments
because they provide the means of transferring fluids or power between subsea units
and a topside floating platform or buoys. These risers accommodate floating platform
motion and hydrodynamic loading by being flexible. In storm conditions they undergo
large dynamic deflections and must remain in tension throughout their response. They
are consequently manufactured to possess high structural axial stiffness and relatively
low structural bending stiffness. These structural properties provide only a small
resistance to lateral disturbances caused by wave and current induced hydrodynamic
loadings. Their global dynamic behaviour can therefore be considered as more
mechanical, or force dependent, than structural. In contrast, behaviour near the end
connectors of a system is governed by local structure stiffness properties.
The design of a flexible riser system has to account for a combination of complex
loading and motion phenomena. A major part of the design is therefore the system
analysis where it is necessary to perform large deflection analysis of those tensile
structures when subjected to dynamic boundary conditions and non-linear
hydrodynamic loading. Such analysis must be performed by a software package which
is fast enough to enable the engineer to adequately assess the effect of different
parameters on the system and yet is rigorous in its structural modelling and solution of
the inherent equations of motion [5][6].
Characteristics of Flexible Riser Systems
Flexible pipe is defined as a composite of layered materials which form a
pressure containing conduit. The pipe structure allows large deflection
without a significant increase in bending stresses [7]. The pipe is therefore
designed so that it has a low bending stiffness and can accommodate high
internal and external pressures. The pipe construction will either be of a
bonded type (whereby layers are bonded together using adhesive and are
then vulcanised in an oven to form a homogeneous structure) or non-bonded
(whereby individual layers remain separated allowing internal relative
movements). Typical materials used for construction include: polymers,
textile, steel and fabrics.

From an engineering analysis point of view, the technical characteristics of a flexible


riser system are:
tension dominated structure;
hydrodynamic loading due to waves and current;
dynamic boundary condition due to movement of vessel;
pinned/clamped boundary conditions;
system can be partially in air / partially submerged;
possible connection to a subsurface body;
possible change in weight along length of system;
possible surface contact at seabed.
Design Methodology Criteria
Efficient design of flexible riser systems is only made possible by using computer-
based solution techniques. The basic steps required in design of a flexible riser
system are set out in this section.
The design of flexible riser systems is usually based on allowable pipe curvatures and
tensions, which are prescribed by the pipe manufacturer, and clearances between the
riser and other structures and boundaries during its dynamic response. The allowable
curvatures and tensions are based on full-scale test procedures and stress analysis
carried out by the manufacturer and these limits ensure that the pipe is not over-
stressed when responding to dynamic loads and vessel motions. The system is
generally designed such that the pipe is always in tension throughout its dynamic
response cycle. Minimum clearances are also specified to avoid clashing problems
between riser and seabed or riser and vessel and between the riser or other adjacent

risers, cables or mooring systems.


Riser Configuration Selection
Industry practice calls for several types of riser configurations which are typically used
in conjunction with Floating Production/Loading Systems. The standard five
configurations generally used are: Free-hanging Catenary, Lazy-S, Steep-S, Lazy Wave
and Steep Wave. Figure 1 illustrates the two types of configurations which are
discussed in this paper.

Although dynamic response of a riser system to extreme and operational


environmental conditions plays the key role in selection of a particular configuration,
other important factors that should also be considered during this phase are:
Interference with other riser systems and mooring lines
Activity of other vessels in the vicinity
Ease of laying and retrieval and future requirements of maintenance

Inspection and work over operations.


The dynamic response of a particular riser system is directly related to the
environmental loadings due to the combined wave-current field flow coupled with the
interaction arising from the structural non-linear behaviour of the riser itself. The spatial
and temporal distribution of the integral properties of wave such as mass, momentum,
pressure and energy, set the ground for the selection of a particular riser configuration
for a particular depth of water.
Consider a progressive wave moving in the positive horizontal axis (figure 2). For
simplicity considering small amplitude wave theory, the wave kinetic energy
concentration averaged over one wave period at any elevation above the bottom is
given by:
KE(s) = (a2rg2k2) * (cosh[2ks]) / ( 4s2(cosh[kh])2) ) ..........(1)
In order to represent the above relation in dimensionless form, the ratio of the kinetic
energy at any elevation S to that at the mean free surface is given by
KE(s) / KE(h) = cosh[2ks] / cosh[2kh] ..........(2)
Equation (2) is plotted in figure 3 for the case of h/L=0.05 (conventional shallow
water limit). The figure shows that for the case of shallow water waves the energy
concentration is nearly uniform with depth, while for case of deep water waves the
energy is concentrated near the surface.
It should be highlighted that the effects due to wave-currents interaction should
always be considered in design and analysis as it might cause a significant change
in the magnitude and distribution of fluid forces. This change of fluid forces could
be dramatic, as seen by Ismail [9], in coastal waters not only due to the strong
current shear but also due to the characteristics of shoaling waters. The
parameters which also usually sensitive to wave-current interaction effects, include
hydrodynamic force coefficients, current velocity profiles and relative direction of
waves and currents.

To illustrate the suitability of a particular configuration for a particular water depth,


two riser design cases were studied in deep and shallow waters. The results of
these studies are in the following section. The computer analyses were carried out
at Wellstream's engineering offices using computer program FLEXRISER developed

by Zentech, London.
Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring (CALM)
Single Point Moorings
The Single Point Moorings Dataset or SPM identifiy all of the systems employed for offshore
loading, offshore storage and onshore loading at the shore terminal. SPM systems may be
independent facilities or part of an offshore platform such as an FPSO’s (Floating Production
Storage Offloading Facility) TRMS (Turret Riser Mooring System).

The different types of SPMs are;


• ALC Articulated Loading Column • ALP Articulated Loading Platform
• ARTC Articulated Loading Column • BMIT Bottom Mounted Internal Turret
• BTM Buoyant Turret Mooring • CALM Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring
• CALM SY Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring Soft Yolk • CALRAM Catenary Anchor Leg Rigid Arm
• CBM Catenary Buoy Mooring • CONTROL Control Buoy
• ELSBM Exposed Location Single Buoy Mooring • FLP Floating Loading Platform
• FTSPM Fixed Tower Single Point Mooring • JSY Jacket Soft Yoke
• OLT Offshore Loading Tower • RMD Rigid Mooring Buoy
• RRT Rigid Riser Tower • SAL Single Anchor Loading
• SALM Single Anchor Leg Mooring • SALRAM Single Anchor Leg Rigid Arm Mooring
• SALS Single Anchor Leg Storage • SBM Single Buoy Mooring
• SBS Single Buoy Storage • SLB Submerged Loading Buoy
• SPAR Floating Cylinder Facility • SPM Single Point Mooring
• SPOLS Single Point Offshore Loading System • SPT Single Point Turret
• STL Submerged Turret Loading • TCMS Tripod Catenery Mooring and Loading Sys.
• TOWER Loading Tower • TRMS Turret Riser Mooring System
• UKOLS Ugland Kongsberg Offshore Loading System • VALM Vertical Anchor Leg Mooring
CALM merupakan pilihan paling efisien dan ekonomis untuk mooring dan (off)loading
tankers. CALM systems juga dinamakan untuk characteristic curve pada anchor legs
yang menjaga posisi buoy. Buoys ini juga dikenal sebagai single buoy mooring,
monobuoy atau loading buoy. CALM buoys dapat dirancang sebagai berth untuk
segala ukuran tanker termasuk Ultra Large Crude Carriers (ULCCs).

Aplikasi Utama CALM system:


Short term mooring: untuk import-export fluida antar onshore & offshore
facilities dan tanker
Permanent Mooring: untuk production dan storage systems
Semi-permanent Mooring: permanent mooring dengan kemudahan
kemampuan disconnect untuk mengevakuasi facility in case terjadi
severe weather conditions.

Type Lain :
Turntable Buoy: buoy dengan geostatic fixed
buoy body (moored to the seabed) and a
rotating mooring table (Conventional Design)

Turret Buoy: buoy dengan geostatic turret dan a


buoy body, which is rotating around the turret.
Bluewater’s concept of turret mooring has been
adopted industry-wide as the major
concept for permanently mooring tank
DYNAMIC POSITIONING
adalah teknik untuk menetapkan
posisi dari sebuah benda terapung
(floating vessels) secara otomatis
(terutama pada un-anchored vessels)
didalam toleransi yang spesifik
dengan menggunakan gaya thrust
untuk melawan gaya-gaya dari angin,
ombak, dan arus yang cenderung
untuk memindahkan atau menggeser
vessel dari posisi operasinya.

PERKEMBANGAN + EVOLUSI Reliability didukung :


- Peningkatan available power
- Advanced control equipment
- Peningkatan akurasi terhadap level intensity dari wind + wave
Position umumnya ditentukan dengan istilah “ PERCENT OF WATER DEPTH”
Horizontal Position Error
PERCENT OF WATER DEPTH 
Water Depth x 100

- Akurasi dari positioning system umumnya diambil sebesar 1%


(usaha untuk menetapkan posisi dengan akurasi 1% atau kurang hanya mungkin
terjadi pada kondisi calm water & wind)

- Maximum permissible error umumnya sebesar 5%


(Pada 5% water depth : sudut vertical dari drill-pipe 30)
(Pada 10% water depth : drill string bengkok atau rusak)
(Pada 10% water depth : jika wave dan gerak kapal tinggi maka string dapat
putus dan hilang)

- Peningkatan kedalaman air membuat tugas DP menjadi lebih mudah, karena percentase
yg sama dari water depth memungkinkan lebih besar gerakan pada air yang lebih dalam
Misal : - Jika disyaratkan akurasi 5% : maka sulit untuk mencapai akurasi 5 ft
untuk kedalaman air 100 ft.
- Pada kedalaman air 1000 ft jika akurasi yang diijinkan 5% maka
string akan aman jika terjadi pergerakan sampai 50 ft

Bagaimanapun semakin dalam air akan timbul aspek lain yang secara
parsial mungkin dapat merugikan, misal sulitnya menentukan posisi
ELEMEN DARI DP :
1. POSITION MEASUREMENT atau CONTINOUS MEASUREMENT
(mengacu terhadap ocean bottom bore-hole)

2. CONTROL RESPONSE
atau DETERMINATION CORRECT THRUSTER RESPONSE
(mengacu terhadap position measurement result)

3. THRUST RESPONSE atau REALIZING BODY FORCES


(aksi akibat hasil dari komando sistem kontrol)
1. POSITION MEASUREMENT atau CONTINOUS MEASUREMENT

A. TAUT LINE SYSTEM


- Sistem ini menggunakan sebuah tali berdiameter kecil yang diikat dengan
pemberat pada bagian dasar badan rigs

- 2 buah axis-inclinometer dipasang untuk menentukan/menetapkan sudut dari tali


terhadap posisi vertikal. Sudut vertikal mengacu pada shipboard coordinate system :
- bow-stern axis inclination
H
- post-starboard axis inclination Tan  
D
Keuntungan Taut Line System : H
x 100% % displacem ent
- Sederhana dan ekonomis D
- Visible evident selama operasi
- Semua peralatan diatas deck
- Rapid deployment
- Cocok untuk di shallow water
- Tidak terpengaruh oleh noise bawah air

Kelemahan Taut Line System :


- Kegagalan mechanical (tensioning system)
- Perubahan pada heading besar harus dilakukan dengan
melalui 2 unit
- Error akibat drag dari arus
TAUT LINE INCLINOMETER

- TIPE GRAVITY SENSING


- Tidak mampu membedakan antara true angle dari akselerasi
vertikal dan akselerasi horizontal)

- Problem tersebut dapat diatasi dengan 2 metode alternatif :

a. Gyroscopically stabilized inclinometer :


(Bersifat tidak sensitif terhadap akselerasi horizontal)

b. Membatasi respon kapal hanya pada input dari periode yang


lebih panjang gerakan gelombang
2. ACCOUSTIC POSITION REFERENCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

Jika tautline menggunakan wire untuk mengkomunikasikan secara mekanis


posisi dari dasar laut ke permukaan, maka accoustic system menggunakan
gelombang suara bawah air.

- Gelombang akustik merambat lebih cepat di air dibandingkan di udara

- Kecepatan suara di air hampir 3300 mph (4,4 kali lebih cepat dibanding di udara)

- Contoh sistem akustik pada gambar (SBL type) :


- SBL memiliki accoustic beacon yang diletakkan di bottom dan kapal
dilengkapi dengan 4 buah hydrophones

- Beacon mentransmisikan pulsa akustik dengan interval reguler ke


hydrophone arrays

- Pada saat kapal dijaga pada titik referensi beacon (drill hole) maka signal
akustik datang pada semua hydrophones secara simultan

- Jika kapal bergeser dari titik referensi maka hydrophone terdekat akan
menerima gelombang akustik pertama dan hydrophone terjauh menerima
gelombang terakhir. Perbedaan waktu antara hydrophone terdekat dan ter-
jauh digunakan sebagai signal processor, dimana outputnya berbanding
lurus terhadap % water depth positioning error
- Rolling akan dideteksi oleh starboard/portside hydrophore

- Perubahan jarak dari hydrophone ke beacon akibat rolling menuntut SBL


memerlukan Vertical Reference Unit (VRU) untuk mengukur pitch + rolling

- VRU dapat mengeliminir pitch dan roll induced error pada signal hydrophone

- Hydrophone analogi dari antena : higher frequency smaller hydrophone size

- Noise level direduksi dengan memilih HF system (high frequency)


(Karena noise dari rig cenderung low frequency)
Sumber noise :
- Propeller cavitation
- Thruster final drive gear
- Final chain drive reduction
- Machineries noise
- Gas bubbles
3. POSITIONING MEASUREMENT SYSTEM LAINNYA :

- Long Baseline Accoustic Systems

- RADAR

- DECCA, RAYDIST atau LORAN


(Merupakan LBL system yang merely 2 atau lebih transmitter yang
tersebar pada jarak sekian mile)

- INERSIAL SYSTEM
(Pada submarine navigation system) : mahal + rahasia + patented

- SATELLITE NAVIGATION
2. CONTROL RESPONSE
atau DETERMINATION CORRECT THRUSTER RESPONSE

DP System mengontrol 3 derajat kebebasan kapal (dari 6 yang ada), yaitu :


- Surging (bow, stern translational motion)
- Swaying (port, starboard translational motion)
- yawing (rotational motion about vertical axis)

ASPEK-ASPEK :
1. Purity of position determination signal
2. Linear System (yang memungkinkan mengontrol
masing-masing surge, sway, dan yaw secara terpisah)
3. Signal Conditioning
- Error signal pada setiap degrees
- Low Pass Filtering

4. Active Wind Compensation (AWC)


- Problem menentukan Slow Filter untuk membuang wave motion sementara Quicker
Filter untuk meningkatkan Wind Recovery diatasi oleh AWC
- Wind Speed + arahnya ditujukan ke unit BLACKBOX
5. Basic Controller Action
Masing-masing degrees dikontrol terpisah, overall control 3 channel :

1. Fore-aft position controller OUTPUT CONTROLLER


2. Port-starb. Position controller (Forces + Thrusts)
3. Heading position controller = INPUT untuk THRUSTER LOGIC
3. THRUST RESPONSE atau
REALIZING BODY FORCES
Ada 3 Tipe :

1. FIXED TYPE : mampu reversing


- Utama : surging
- Lateral Thrust: swaying
- Yawing : differential operation dari thruster
dengan cara memberi net-moment tanpa net-thrust

2. AZIMUTHING TYPE :
- Arah utama untuk surging dan swaying
- Yawing : differensial action dari 2 atau lebih
thruster untuk menghasilkan yaw moment
tanpa net-surge atau sway-force

3. CYCLOIDAL PROPELLER :
- Spesial vertical paddle wheel thruster unit dengan
cycloidal pitch variation
- Mirip azimuthing untuk thruster logic-nya
- 10 kali lebih cepat responsif dari azimuthing
- Menerima komando surge + sway tanpa ditransforma-
sikan dulu ke besarnya dan arah dari thrust
sebagaimana azimuth
SEKIAN

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