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By: Tricia Lim (161778Z)

Group D
o Major environmental issue in India
o Largest source: Urbanization at an
uncontrolled rate
o Led to generation of untreated sewage
o Treatment plants are not operated or
• Improper design
• Poor maintenance
• Lack of electricidal supply
• Absentee employees and poor
o 209 out of 3,119 Indian towns and cities
have partial sewage treatment facilities
o Only 8 have full wastewater treatment
o Water contains high level of bacteria and
chemicals such as ammonia, lead, nickel
and pesticides
o Water becomes inconsumable
o Leads to low levels of health and diseases
especially in the rural areas
• Cholera
• Tuberculosis
• Diarrhoea
Example: The Ganges River
o 114 Indian cities dumped untreated
sewage from human and industrial waste
o Partially cremated bodies were also
dumped due to religious reasons
o Lack of toilets and sanitation facilities
causes open defecation and locals to
bathe in the river
o High water pollution leads to major high
Filtration Reverse
o Membrane process used in water
o Separates undesired water components
o 99.99% of parasites, bacteria, viruses and
high-molecular organic substances as well
as other particles are removed
o applications are widespread
o Includes different types of water such as
surface, spring or well water
o Consumes very little energy
o Works well even with fluctuating water
• heavy rainfall
o Forces like pressure or concentration
gradients lead to a separation through
a semipermeable membrane
o Suspended solids and solutes of
high molecular weight are retained in the
so-called retentate
o Water and low molecular weight solutes
pass through the membrane in the filtrate
o Used in industry and research for purifying
and concentrating macromolecular (103 -
106 Da) solutions
• Effectively removes most particles,
pyrogens, microorganisms, and colloids
above their rated size
• Produces highest quality water for least
amount of energy
• Regenerable

• Will not remove dissolved inorganics
o Uses a semipermeable membrane
o Remove ions, molecules, and larger
particles from drinking water
o Applied pressure is used to
overcome osmotic pressure,
o Remove many types of dissolved and
suspended species from water, including
o Used in both industrial processes and the
production of potable water
o Solute is retained on the pressurized side of
the membrane and the pure solvent is
allowed to pass to the other side
o Large molecules or ions can’t pass
through the pores
o smaller components of the solution
(solvent molecules) to pass freely
o Effectively removes all types of
contaminants to some extent
– particles, pyrogens, microorganisms,
colloids and dissolved inorganics
o Requires minimal maintenance

o Flow rates are usually limited to a certain
gallons/day rating
Waste water Discharge of
management Oil Spills
 Industrial discharges interfere with
operation of local sanitary sewers and
wastewater treatment plants
 Leads to discharge of untreated or
inadequately treated pollutants into local
o Implement pollution control programs
such as setting wastewater standards for
o Set water quality standards for all
contaminants in surface waters
o Unlawful to discharge any pollutant into
navigable waters, without a permit
• Controls discharges
o Point sources are discrete conveyances
such as pipes or man-made ditches
o Ensures industries pre-treat pollutants in
their wastes
o To protect local sanitary sewers and
wastewater treatment plants
 Harms animal and plant life
 Contaminate food sources and nesting
 Petroleum oils can form tars that persist in
the environment for years
o Programme prohibits oil or hazardous
substance spills in quantities and requires
actions to prevent future spills
o Prevent oil from reaching navigable
waters and adjoining shorelines, and to
contain discharges of oil
o Developing and updating the facility’s oil
spill emergency response plans
o Testing emergency response equipment
o Periodically performing mock spill response
o Notifying federal, state, and local
agencies in case of an incident
o Mitigating all spills and discharges
o Ensuring employees have required training
• Storing or handling petroleum, fuel oil,
sludge oil, and oil mixed with waste
• Transferring oil by using motor vehicles
or rolling stocks
Shortage of water
Water purification
• Filtration
• Reverse osmosis

Preventing water pollution

Environmental policies
• Implementing waste water management
• Proper discharge of oil spills