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Group 8 PGPIM 2018-20



  • 1. Examine effects of demographic difference among individuals

    • 1. Wide range of experience and multiple perspectives

    • 2. Difficult to communicate and develop work norms

  • 2. Examine the impact of cultural orientation on preferences for group processes

    • 1. Varying tolerance levels for uncertainty, cooperation and confrontation of conflict

    • 2. Members with strong value for collectivism are more cooperative

    • 3. Members with strong value for hierarchy prefer strong team leaders

    • 4. Members who value egalitarianism prefer participative team leadership




Management challenges in Same- Culture teams Management challenges: Multicultural versus same-culture teams



Personality and Communication Conflict (conflict in team literature)

Interpersonal tension between members, ego clashes and heated discussions. Usually expressed as sarcasm, aggression or

accusations Differences of Opinion about work (task conflict)

Differing viewpoints about facts and priorities for the task at hand. This kind of challenges were constructive for the team unless

emotions were kept out

Deciding on a Work Method or Approach (administrative or procedural conflict)

Differing viewpoints about the procedure to be adopted to accomplish task at hand

Issues with timing and scheduling

These involve around how to spend team time, how much time to spend on team tasks and meetings. Some members

preferred long meetings until task was accomplished while others preferred quick meetings for coordinating work

Problems with contribution and workload distribution

This dealt with members disrupting group processes, like lack of commitment or not upholding responsibilities. For example, members arriving late for meeting or not

completing their assigned work.


  • Crosscultural management describes organizational behavior within countries and cultures

  • It compares organizational behavior across countries and


  • It seeks to understand how to improve the interaction of

coworkers, managers, executives, clients, suppliers, and alliance partners from around the world

How to use Hofstede's Six Dimensions of Culture to work

effectively with people from a range of cultural and geographic backgrounds

  • Power Distance Index (high versus low) : This refers to the degree of inequality that

exists and is accepted between people with and without power. A high PDI score indicates that a society accepts an unequal, hierarchical distribution of power, and that people understand "their place" in the system. A low PDI score means that power is shared and is widely dispersed, and that society members do not accept situations where power is distributed unequally. Application: According to the model, in a high PDI country, such as


(100), team members will not initiate any action, and they like to be guided and

directed to complete a task. If a manager doesn't take charge, they may think that the task

isn't important.

  • Individualism Versus Collectivism : This refers to the strength of the ties that people have to others within their community. A high IDV score indicates weak interpersonal connection among those who are not part of a core "family." Here, people take less responsibility for others' actions and outcomes. In a collectivist society, however, people are supposed to be loyal to the group to which they belong, and, in exchange, the group will defend their interests. Application: Central American countries Panama and Guatemala have very low IDV scores (11 and six, respectively). In these countries, as an example, a marketing campaign that emphasizes benefits to the community would likely be understood

Masculinity Versus Femininity (MAS) : This refers to the distribution of roles between men and women. In masculine societies, the roles of men and women overlap less, and men are expected to behave assertively. Demonstrating your success, and being strong and fast, are seen as positive characteristics. In feminine societies, however, there is a great deal of overlap between male and female roles, and modesty is perceived as a virtue. Greater importance is placed on good relationships with your direct supervisors, or working with

people who cooperate well with one another. The gap between men's and women's values

is largest in Japan and Austria, with MAS scores of 95 and 79 respectively. In both countries, men score highly for exhibiting "tough," masculine values and behaviors, but, in fact, women also score relatively highly for having masculine values, though on average

lower than men.

Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI): This dimension describes how well people can cope with anxiety. In societies that score highly for Uncertainty Avoidance, people attempt to make life as predictable and controllable as possible. If they find that they can't control their own lives, they may be tempted to stop trying. These people may refer to "mañana," or put their fate "in the hands of God." People in low UAI-scoring countries are more relaxed, open or inclusive. Bear in mind that avoiding uncertainty is not necessarily the same as avoiding risk. Hofstede argues that you may find people in high-scoring countries who are prepared

Long- Versus Short-Term Orientation: This dimension was originally described as "Pragmatic Versus Normative (PRA)." It refers to the time horizon people in a society display. Countries with a long-term orientation tend to be pragmatic, modest, and more thrifty. In short-term oriented countries, people tend to place more emphasis on principles, consistency and truth, and are typically religious and nationalistic. Application: The U.S. has a short-term orientation. This is reflected in the importance of short-term gains and quick results (profit and loss statements are quarterly, for example). It is also reflected in the country's strong sense of nationalism and social standards.

Indulgence Versus Restraint (IVR): Countries with a high IVR score allow or encourage relatively free gratification of people's own drives and emotions, such as

enjoying life and having fun. In a society with a low IVR score, there is more

emphasis on suppressing gratification and more regulation of people's conduct and

behavior, and there are stricter social norms. Application: According to the model, Eastern European countries, including Russia, have a low IVR score. Hofstede

argues that these countries are characterized by a restrained culture, where there is

a tendenc


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Direct versus Indirect confrontation

Difference in perception of conversation tone and direct confrontation across cultures. Multicultural teams dealt with different cultural expectation about an appropriate expression

of disagreement Norms for problem solving and Decision making

Difference in preference for a more analytical problem solving and relationship building process versus a more

efficiency focused approach to decision making. These challenges were compounded in multicultural teams due to fundamental differences regarding legitimate approach to problem solving.

Time, Urgency, and Pace

Focused on cultural differences in expectations for project deliverable timelines. The multicultural teams had to address asymmetries in time estimates that differed by significant time periods

Differences in Work norms and Behaviours

In case of multicultural teams there was a differing perception of people arriving late for meetings. People viewed it as rude and also offensive depending upon their culture

Violations of Respect and Hierarchy

Caused by differing respect for status, the chain of command and business practices that created unorthodox power differentials

Inter Group Prejudices

The challenges stem from pre-existing hatred, anger and distrust seeping into the workplace. The most common

problems are from pre-existing prejudice and discrimination along division of gender, religion and ethnicity

Lack of Common Ground

These include behaviours or business practices that interfered with coordinating work, but that were not based on innate prejudices. The complexity of managing multicultural teams stems from the indirect messages resulting from language differences


This includes challenges caused by negative reactions to accents and the different meaning of some words. Problems

stemmed from members equating lack of fluency with lack

of intelligence

Thought you had Agreement? Implicit versus Explicit Communication

This includes challenges about differences in interpreting

the level of commitment behind agreements. The same culture tens did not struggle with these issues however the multicultural teams struggled as different words were

interpreted differently across cultures

Thank You