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ANATOMI DAN

FISIOLOGI TELINGA
Arrum Anggraeni
Anatomi
External ear
External ear

■ Auricule : irregularly shaped plate of elastic cartilage that is covered by thin skin.
■ The elevated margin of the auricle is the helix.
■ lobule (lobe) consists of fi brous tissue, fat, and blood vessels.
■ Tragus a tongue-like projection overlapping the opening of the external acoustic
meatus
External ear

■ Arterial supply to the auricle is derived mainly from the posterior auricular and superfi
cial temporal arteries
■ nerves to the skin of the auricle are the great auricular and auriculotemporal nerves
– auriculotemporal nerves, a branch of CN V3

■ The lymphatic drainage of the auricle:


– The lateral surface of the superior half of the auricle  superfi cial parotid lymph
nodes
– the cranial surface of the superior half of the auricle  the mastoid lymph nodes
and deep cervical lymph nodes
– the remainder of the auricle  superfi cial cervical lymph nodes
External Acoustic Meatus

■ The lateral third-- S-shaped canal is cartilaginous and is lined with skin that is
continuous with the auricular skin.
■ The medial two thirds -- is bony and lined with thin skin.
■ The tympanic membrane, approximately 1 cm in diameter, is a thin, oval
semitransparent membrane at the medial end of the external acoustic meatus.
– Innervated by:
■ C.N V3  auriculotemporal nerve  External surface of the tyhpanic membrane
■ C.N X  a small auricular branch of the vagus (CN X)
■ C.N IX  The internal surface of the tympanic membrane
■ External Acoustic Meatus
Middle Ear

The contents of the middle ear are the:


■ Auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes).
■ Stapedius and tensor tympani muscles.
■ Chorda tympani nerve, a branch of CN VII
■ Tympanic plexus of nerves.
Auditory ossicles
Stapedius and tensor tympani muscles

■ tensor tympani arises from the superior one is exposed to loud sounds
surface of the cartilaginous part of the
pharyngotympanic tube, the greater
wing of the sphenoid, and the petrous ■ stapedius is a tiny muscle inside the
part of the temporal bone pyramidal eminence (pyramid)
– Insertio: into the handle of the – Insertio: neck of the stapes
malleus (manubrium mallei) – stapedius pulls the stapes
– The tensor tympani pulls the posteriorly and tilts its base in the
handle medially  tensing the oval window  reducing the
tympanic membrane  prevent oscillatory range, also prevents
damage to the internal ear when excessive movement of the stapes.
Walls of Typanic Cavity
■ tegmental wall (roof),
– formed by the tegmen tympani  separates the tympanic cavity from
the dura mater
■ The jugular wall (floor)
– formed by a layer of bone  separates the tympanic cavity from the
internal jugular vein.
■ labyrinthine (medial) wall (medial wall)
– Separates the tympanic cavity from the internal ear
■ membranous (lateral) wall
– formed almost entirely by the tympanic membrane
– superiorly formed by the bony wall of the epitympanic recess
– The mastoid wall (posterior wall)
– connecting the tympanic cavity to the mastoid cells
– The anterior carotid wall
– separates the tympanic cavity from the carotid canal
Moore. Clnically oriented anatomy. 7th ed
Internal Ear

BONY LABYRINTH
■ a series of cavities contained within the otic capsule of the petrous part of the
temporal bone
■ Contains perilymph
■ Cavities:
– Cochlea
– Vestibule of Bony Labyrinth
– semicircularis canals
Internal Ear

MEMBRANOUS LABYRINTH
■ The labyrinth contains endolymph, a watery fluid similar in composition to
intracellular fluid
■ consists of more parts than does the bony labyrinth:
– Vestibular labyrinth: utricle and saccule, two small communicating sacs in the
vestibule of the bony labyrinth
– Three semicircular ducts: in the semicircular canals
– Cochlear labyrinth: cochlear duct in the cochlea.
FISIOLOGI
Telinga luar

• Aurikulus atau pinna (daun telinga):  Tdd bagian kartilaginous di sebelah


luar dan bagian oseus (tulang) di
 Tdd lempeng fibrokartilaginus yang
sebelah dalam
terbungkus oleh jaringan ikat dan kulit
 Kulit yang melapisi saluran
 Kulit yang menutupinya tipis dan
mengandung kelenjar keringat
mengandung banyak rambut halus
modifikasi  serumen (sekresi
serta kelenjar sebasea
lengket yang menjebak partikel-
 Lekukan pada aurikulus yang partikel kecil asing)
membentuk orifisium meatus
auditorius eksterna  konka • Membran timpani
 Membran tipisyang semi transparan
• Meatus auditorius eksterna:
dan memisahkan telinga tengah
 Berawal dari konka membentang ke dengan meatus auditorius eksternus
dalam sebagai kanalis yang sedikit
 Bergetar ketika terkena gelombang
melengkung dgn panjang sekitar 55
suara
mm
Telinga tengah / kavum timpani
• Osikulus auditorius
 Tiga buah tulang yang tersusun berbentuk rantai yang membentang melewati telinga
tengah dari membran timpani hingga foramen ovale: maleus, inkus, dan stapes
 Sewaktu membran timpani bergetar sebagai respons terhadap gelombang suara 
rangkaian tulang ini ikut bergerak dengan frekuensi yang sama  memindahkan
frekuensi getaran ini dari membran timpani ke jendela oval
Telinga tengah / kavum timpani

• Otot auditorius
 Terdapat 2 buah otot skeletal yang melekat pada osikulus: tensor timpani dan
stapedius
 Fungsi M. Tensor Timpani: menarik membran timpani dan menjaganya agar
selalu berada dalam keadaan teregang atau terentang  penting untuk
proses transmisi gelombang suara yang dapat mencapai setiap bagian dari
membran timpani
 Fungsi M. Stapedius: mencegah gerakans tapes yang berlebihan. Saat
kontraksi  menarik kolum stapes ke belakang dan mengurangi gerakan
footplate terhadap cairan dalam koklea
Telinga tengah / kavum timpani

• Tuba Eustachii
 Saluran yang terbentang dari dinding anterior telinga tengah ke dalam
nasofaring
 Menghubungakan telinga tengah dengan pars posterior rongga hidung 
bentuk saluran udara antara telinga tengah dan atmosfer  tekanan antara
kedua sisi membran timpani akan sama besarnya
Refleks timpani

• Merupakan refleks atenuasi yang ditandai oleh kontraksi involunter muskulus


tensor timpani dan stapedius ketika merespon suara yang keras
• Kedua otot tsb kontraksi  manubrium maluis bergerak ke dalam sedangkan
stapes tertarik keluar  rigiditas osikulus auditorius  transmisi suara berkurang
• Makna relfeks timpani
 Melindungi membran timpani terhadap kemungkinan ruptur karena suara
yang keras
 Mencegah terfiksasinya footplate os stapes pada foramen ovale ketika
mendengar suara yang keras
 Membantu melindungi kokea terhadap kerusakan akibat suara yang keras
■ The cochlea
contains the organ
of Corti, the sense
organ for hearing.
■ The organ of Corti, contains auditory hair cells that are the receptors for sound.
■ Hair cells are mechanoreceptors; they generate neural signals when their surface
hairs are mechanically deformed in association with fluid movements in the inner
ear
■ Th e pistonlike action of the stapes against the oval window sets up pressure waves
in the upper compartment  pressure is dissipated in two ways as the stapes
causes the oval window to bulge inward:
– (1) displacement of the round window  does not result in sound reception; it
just dissipates pressure.
– (2) deflection of the basilar membrane
■ thin vestibular membrane  into the cochlear duct, through the basilar
membrane lower compartment round window to alternately bulge outward and
inward.