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Structure - IV

CE 3251

Course Conducted by:


Sm. Arifur Rahman
Assistant Professor, Part-time Faculty, Architecture
Discipline, Khulna University
Reference Books
• Strength of Materials – Singer (SI Edition)
• RCC – Design of concrete structures by Winter
and Nilson (7th Edition)
Part – A
Design of Beams by
Ultimate Strength Design (USD)
Method
Loads on Buildings
1. Dead load :
a. Self weight of the component
b. Superimposed Dead Load (Partition Wall,
flooring etc.)
2. Live Load (Moveable Objects Load)
3. Environmental Loads (Wind, Earthquake,
hydrostatic load, frost heaving etc.)
Load Combinations

Where, D = Dead load, L = Live load, E = Earthquake Load, H = Hydrostatic


load, W = Wind Load, F = Fluid Load, H = Load due to soil, P = permanent
equipment and Lr = roof live load
Concrete and Steel Strength
• In RCC design, 28 days cylindrical compressive
strength is taken as the design strength of
concrete. It is denoted by f’c. The nominal
value of f’c is 2500 psi and maximum of 8000
psi.
• On the other hand, steel tensile strength is
tested by UTM is specified as design strength
whose value ranges from 50 – 72.5 ksi.
Design Type
• Under rein forced, over reinforced and
balanced design:
Reinforced concrete beam sections in which the tension steel also
reaches yield strain simultaneously as the concrete reaches the
failure strain in bending are called balanced sections.
Reinforced concrete beam sections in which the steel reaches
yield strain at loads lower than the load at which the concrete
reaches failure strain are called under-reinforced sections.

Every singly reinforced beam should be designed as under-


reinforced sections because this section gives enough warning
before failure. Yielding of steel in under-reinforced beam
section does not mean the structure has failed, as when steel
yields, excessive deflection and cracking in beam will occur
before failure which gives enough time to occupants to escape
before the section fails.

The failure in under-reinforced beam section is due to the


concrete reaching its ultimate failure strain of 0.0035 before
the steel reaches its failure strain which is much higher 0.20 to
0.25.
Reinforced concrete beam sections in which the
failure strain in concrete is reached earlier than the
yield strain of steel is reached, are called over-
reinforced beam sections.

If over-reinforced beam is designed and loaded to


full capacity then the steel in tension zone will not
yield much before the concrete reaches its ultimate
strain of 0.0035. This due to little yielding of steel
the deflection and cracking of beam does not occur
and does not give enough warning prior to failure.
Failures in over-reinforced sections are all of a
sudden. This type of design is not recommended in
practice of beam design.
Singly RC Beam
Problem 1
Design a RC Beam b = 12” and d = 19”
respectively. Given, fc’ = 3.5 ksi , fy = 50 ksi and
Md = 1875 k-in.
Solution:
Design of Tension RC:
𝑀𝑑
As =
φ 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − 𝑎Τ2)
𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦
and a =
0.85 𝑓𝑐′ 𝑏
Let, When a = 2.4” then,

1875 ∗1000
As = = 2.34 in2
0.9 ∗ 50000 ∗ (19 −1.2)

2.34 ∗50 ∗1000


then a = = 3.27”
0.85 ∗3.5 ∗1000 ∗12

Again, when a = 3.36” then As = 2.40 in2 and a =


3.35 in (ok)
𝐴𝑠 2.4
ρact = = = 0.01053
𝑏𝑑 12 ∗19
𝑓𝑐′ 87000
ρb = 0.85 ∗ β1 ∗ ∗
𝑓𝑦 87000+ 𝑓𝑦
3500 87000
= 0.85 * 0.85 * ∗
50000 87000+50000
= 0.03211
200
ρmax = 0.75 ρb = 0.0241 > ρact < ρmin = = 0.004
𝑓𝑦
(OK)
ρact < ρmax so, singly RC beam.
Reinforcement Detail
π
Reinforcement Area (in2) A= 𝑑2
4
Dia. (mm)

8 0.078
10 0.12
12 0.19
16 0.31
20 0.487
22 0.59
25 0.76
𝐴𝑠 2.40
𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙 𝑏𝑎𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑧𝑜𝑛, 𝑁 = =
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑥

x N Detail
0.487 4.93 5 nos. 20 mm dia. bar
0.31 7.74 8 nos. 16 mm dia. bar
0.59 4.06 x
0.76 3.16 x
Assignment
Design a RC Beam b = 10” and d = 18”
respectively. Given, fc’ = 3 ksi , fy = 60 ksi and Md
= 2250 k-in.
Design of Doubly RC Beam
Problem 2
Design a beam where factored developed moment is 600
k-ft, fc’ = 4 ksi and fy = 60 ksi. Consider b = 12” and d =
22” and d’ = 2.5”.
Solution: Mmax = φ As 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − 𝑎Τ2)
Where, As max = ρmax bd = 0.75 ρbbd
𝑓𝑐′ 87000
= 0.75 ∗ 0.85 ∗ β1 ∗ ∗ * bd
𝑓𝑦 87000+ 𝑓𝑦
4000 87000
= 0.75 * 0.85 * 0.85 * ∗ * 12 * 22
60000 87000+60000
= 5.64 in2
𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 5.64 ∗60 ∗1000
a= = = 8.29”
0.85 𝑓𝑐′ 𝑏 0.85 ∗4 ∗1000 ∗12
Mmax = φ As 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − 𝑎Τ2)
= 0.9 * 5.62 * 60 * 1000 * (22 – 4.15)
= 5.42 x 106 lb – in = 451.43 k-ft < 600 k-ft
So, the beam is doubly RC.
’ 𝑀𝑑
Compression Zone RC: As =
φ 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 −𝑑′)
600 − 451.43 ∗1000 ∗12
=
0.9 ∗ 60 ∗1000 ∗ (22 −2.5)
= 1.69 in2
𝐴𝑠′ 1.69
ρ' = = = 0.0064
𝑏𝑑 12 ∗22
Tension Zone RC: As = 5.62 + 1.69 = 7.31 in2
𝐴𝑠 7.31
ρ= = = 0.0277
𝑏𝑑 12 ∗22

Check:
𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑑′ 87000
ρഥ = ρ′ + 0.85 ∗ β1 ∗ ∗ ∗
𝑓𝑦 𝑑 87000 − 𝑓𝑦
4000 2.5 87000
= 0.0064+0.85 ∗ 0.85 ∗ ∗ ∗
60000 22 87000 −60000
= 0.02404 < ρ (ok)
Reinforcement Detail
Assignment
Design a beam where factored developed
moment is 1100 k-ft, fc’ = 5 ksi and fy = 72.5 ksi.
Consider b = 10” and d = 20” and d’ = 1”.
Design of T - Beam
• Where will you check T – beam
- Where you find negative moment in support
- Where slab and beam casted monolithically

• Condition for T – beam.


Bf = Effective Flange Width
- Bf = L/4
- Bf = 16 ts + bw [b = bw]
- Bf = C/C spacing of beam
Bf will be minimum of above three values.

Note. If the beam does not satisfy T –beam then check doubly
/ Singly.
Problem - 3
A floor system consists of a 3” concrete slab
supported by a beam of 24’ span and 47” on
centers. Web dimension is determined by –ve
flexural requirements at the supports are bb = 11”
and d = 20”, design the beam for the moment 6400
k-in. fy = 60 ksi and fc’ = 3 ksi. Vu = 90 kip.
Solution: Effective Bf : (i) Bf = 16 ts + bw
= 16*3 + 11 = 59”
(ii) Bf = L/4 = 24*12 / 4 = 72”
(iii) Bf = C/C spacing of beam = 47” (ok)
Approximate Steel Area: Let,
𝑀𝑑 6400 ∗1000
As = = = 6.41 in2
φ 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − 𝑡𝑠Τ2) 0.9 ∗60 ∗1000 ∗(20 −1.5)
𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 6.41 ∗60 ∗1000
a= = = 3.21” > ts so, real t -
0.85 𝑓𝑐′ 𝐵𝑓 0.85 ∗3 ∗1000 ∗47
beam.
Flange Steel:
0.85 𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝐵𝑓 −𝑏𝑤 𝑡𝑠 0.85 ∗3 ∗1000 ∗ 47−11 ∗3
Asf = =
𝑓𝑦 60 ∗1000
= 4.59 in2
ΦMn1 = φ Asf 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − 𝑡𝑠Τ2)
= 0.9*4.59*60*1000*(20-1.5)
= 4.59 x 106 lb – in = 4585.81 k-in
Web Steel:
ΦMn2 = M - ΦMn1 = 6400 – 4585.41
= 1814.59 k-in
a
ΦMn2 = Φ As − Asf fy d −
2
or, 1814.59 * 1000 = 0.9 * (As- Asf) * 60 * 1000 *
(20 – (a/2))
30.6035
or, (As – Asf) = 𝑎
20 −
2
𝐴 𝑠 −𝐴𝑠𝑓 𝑓𝑦
a=
0.85 𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑤
a As – Asf a
3 1.8 3.85
3.91 1.9 4.07
4.12 1.93 4.12

As = 1.93 + Asf = 1.93 + 4.59 = 6.52 in2

Design of Shear Reinforcement:

Vc = 2 𝑓𝑐′ 𝑏𝑑 = 2 * 3000 ∗ 11 ∗ 20 = 24.1 x 103 lb


φ 𝐴𝑣 𝑓𝑦 𝑑
(𝑉𝑢 −𝑉𝑐)
Spacing : 𝑠 = 𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐴𝑣 𝑓𝑦
50 𝑏𝑤
𝑑/2
Using #3 Bar
= 0.9 ∗2 ∗0.11∗60∗1000 ∗20
( 90000−24100)
𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 2∗0.11∗60000
50 ∗11
20/2
3.6
= 𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 24 = 3.6 in = 3.5 in c/c
10
Stirrup Max Spacing = 24 in
Minimum Bar Spacing = 1.5 * Aggregate Size
= Bar Dia
= 1 inch
Max of above three.
Reinforcement Detail
Assignment
A floor system consists of a 6” concrete slab
supported by a beam of 15’ span and 152” on
centers. Web dimension is determined by – ve
flexural requirements at the supports are bb =
12” and d = 14”, design the beam for the
moment 8800 k-in. fy = 72.5 ksi and fc’ = 3 ksi.
Design of Rectangular Uniaxial Column
Solution:
Assignment
• Design tied column for concentric axial load
PDL = 775 kN; PLL = 1120 kN; Pw = 100 kN;
fc = 40 MPa and fy = 414 Mpa

Design square column aim for steel ratio of 0.03.


Select tie bar also.
Part - B
Flexure Stress
Shearing Stress
Principal Stress
Column