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Dr. Upik A. Miskad, PhD

Unhas Research Center

Cells are the basic units of living organisms.

Although a nerve cell looks entirely different
from a red blood cell, their organizations are
essentially the same.

Cells (Prokariotik dan eukaryotik)

An organism may contain
many types of somatic cells,
each with distinct shape and

However, they all have the

same genome.
Sel berproliferasi untuk tumbuh dengan membelah
Pergantian sel yang rusak atau mati penting untuk
menjaga kelangsungan hidup.
Perbaikan jaringan meliputi dua proses:
Regenerasi,yang berarti penggantian sel mati dengan
proliferasi sel yang jenisnya sama
Penggantian oleh jaringan ikat atau fibroplasia
Sel dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok berdasarkan
kemampuan proliferatifnya dan hubungannya
dengan siklus sel.
Sel yang terus membelah secara
berkesinambungan (sel labil), seperti epitel
permukaan,dan sel sumsum tulang serta
Sel diam (stabil), sel yang secara normal lambat
mengalami pergantian tetapi dapat membelah
dengan cepat sebagai respon terhadap berbagai
rangsangan misalnya sel hati, ginjal, fibroblast,
otot polos dan endotel.
Sel yang tidak membelah (permanent), yang tidak
dapat menbelah setelah lahir contohnya, sel saraf
(neuron), otot rangka dan otot jantung.
Cell cycle
G1 = gap phase 1
S = DNA synthesis
G2 = gap phase 2
M = mitosis

The cell cycle is an ordered set of events, culminating in

cell growth and division into two daughter cells
Details of cell cycle

The major events of the cell cycle are:

• DNA replication (S phase)
• Separation of duplicated chromosomes and cellular
constituents (M phase)
Mitosis: The Dance of the
Once the chromosomes have replicated, the cell is
ready to begin mitosis.
Mitosis is the period when the cell divides. Mitosis
consists of a sequence of four stages: prophase,
metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
A good mnemonic device to remember
this is: I've Probably Mixed All This Up!!

I've - Interphase
Probably - Prophase
Mixed - Metaphase
All - Anaphase
This - Telophase
Up - Back up to the top!
Events of Prophase I (save for synapsis and crossing over) are similar to those in
Prophase of mitosis: chromatin condenses into chromosomes, the nucleolus dissolves,
nuclear membrane is disassembled, and the spindle apparatus forms
Metaphase I
Metaphase I is when tetrads line-up along the equator of the spindle. Spindle fibers
attach to the centromere region of each homologous chromosome pair. Other
metaphase events as in mitosis.
Anaphase I
Anaphase I is when the tetrads separate, and are drawn to opposite poles by the spindle
fibers. The centromeres in Anaphase I remain intact.
Telophase I
Telophase I is similar to Telophase of mitosis, except that only
one set of (replicated) chromosomes is in each "cell".
Depending on species, new nuclear envelopes may or may not
form. Some animal cells may have division of the centrioles
during this phase
Prophase II
During Prophase II, nuclear envelopes (if they formed
during Telophase I) dissolve, and spindle fibers reform.
All else is as in Prophase of mitosis. Indeed Meiosis II
is very similar to mitosis.
 Metaphase II | Back to Top
 Metaphase II is similar to mitosis, with spindles moving chromosomes into
equatorial area and attaching to the opposite sides of the centromeres in the
kinetochore region.
 Anaphase II | Back to Top
 During Anaphase II, the centromeres split and the former chromatids (now
chromosomes) are segregated into opposite sides of the cell
Telophase II
Telophase II is identical to Telophase of mitosis. Cytokinesis separates the cells.
See you in the next lecture

Thank you