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Needs &
Motivation ……buy what???

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Consumer Needs and Motivation
 All are different
 All are not so different…?

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Consumer Needs and Motivation
Psychologists and consumer behaviorists
agree that most people tend to experience
the same kinds of needs and motives;
they simply express these motives in
different ways.

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Consumer Needs and Motivation
 An understanding of human motives is
very important to marketers, It enables
theme to understand and to predict
human behavior in the market place.
 Human needs- Consumer needs are the
bases of all modern marketing, needs are
the essence of marketing concepts.

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Consumer Needs and Motivation
 The key to a company survival,
Profitability and growth in a highly
competitive marketing environment is its
ability to identify and satisfy unfulfilled
consumer needs better and sooner than
the competition.

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Consumer Needs and Motivation
 Marketers do not create needs, though in
some instances they may make consumers
more keenly aware of unfelt needs.

 …..

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Consumer Needs and Motivation
 In short success stories show that
marketer focusing to fulfill the customer
We see lot of failure stories around us that
companies not recognize or understand
consumer needs.

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 Motivation is the driving force within
individuals that impels them to action.

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Figure 4.1 Model of the Motivation

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Types of Needs
 Innate Needs
– Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are
considered primary needs or motives e.g
need for food, water, air, sex, shelter
 Acquired Needs
– Learned in response to our culture or
environment. Are generally psychological
and considered secondary needs e.g self
esteem, prestige, affection and Power.
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Which Types of Needs…

 Home ………. Shelter need

 Big Home …….Parties…..Social
 In E-5, F-10………Ego needs

 Paris Perfumes,…Swiss cosmetics etc…

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Is a body spray
an innate or
acquired need?

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 The sought-after results of motivated
behavior, All behavior is goal oriented.
 Generic goals are general categories of
goals that consumers see as a way to
fulfill their needs
 Product-specific goals are specifically
branded products or services that
consumers select as their goals.
 ….

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The Selection of Goals
 The goals selected by an individual
depend on their:
– Personal experiences
– Physical capacity
– Prevailing cultural norms and values
– Goal’s accessibility in the physical and
social environment
– Person’s self Image …
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Discussion Question
 What are three generic goals you have set
for yourself in the past year?
 What are three product-specific goals you
have set in the past year?
 In what situations are these two related?
 How were these goals selected? Was it
personal experiences, physical capacity, or
prevailing cultural norms and values?

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Motivations and Goals

Positive Negative
 Motivation  Motivation
– A driving force A driving force away
toward some object from some object or
or condition condition
 Approach Goal  Avoidance Goal
– A positive goal – A negative goal
toward which from which
behavior is directed behavior is directed
away. ...
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Rational versus Emotional Motives
 Rationality implies that consumers select
goals based on totally objective criteria
such as size, weight, price, or miles per
 Emotional motives imply the selection of
goals according to personal or subjective

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Discussion Question
 What products might be purchased using
rational and emotional motives?
 What marketing strategies are effective
when there are combined motives?

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The Dynamic Nature of Motivation
Motivation is highly dynamic and is
constantly changing in reaction to life
experiences. …

A) Needs and Goals are Changing

B) Substitute Goals
C) Frustration

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A) Needs and Goals are Changing
 Needs are never fully satisfied …
 New needs emerge as old needs are
satisfied ….
 Success and failure Influence Goals ….

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B) Substitute Goals
 Are used when a consumer cannot attain
a specific goal he/she anticipates will
satisfy a need
 The substitute goal will dispel tension

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C) Frustration
 Failure to achieve a goal may result in
 Some adapt; others adopt defense
mechanisms to protect their ego.

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Defense Mechanism
 Methods by which people mentally
redefine frustrating situations to protect
their self-images and their self-esteem

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What type of
mechanism is
using in this ad?

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Defense Mechanisms
 Aggression
 Rationalization
 Regression
 Withdrawal
 Projection
 Autism
 Identification
 Repression

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Arousal of Motives
 Most of individual’s specific needs are
dormant much of the time the arousal of
any particular set of needs at a specific
point in time may be caused by internal
stimuli found in the individual’s
physiological condition, emotional or
cognitive processes or stimuli in the
outside environment

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Arousal of Motives
 Physiological arousal
 Emotional arousal
 Cognitive arousal
 Environmental arousal

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Philosophies Concerned with
Arousal of Motives
 Behaviorist School
– Behavior is response to stimulus
– Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored
– Consumer does not act, but reacts
 Cognitive School
– Behavior is directed at goal achievement
– Needs and past experiences are reasoned,
categorized, and transformed into attitudes and

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Figure 4.10


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Discussion Question
 What are three types of products related
to more then one level of Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Needs.
 For each type of product – consider two
brands. How do marketers attempt to
differentiate their product from the

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Motivational Research
 Qualitative research designed to uncover
consumers’ subconscious or hidden
 Attempts to discover underlying feelings,
attitudes, and emotions

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Qualitative Motivational Research
 Metaphor analysis
 Storytelling
 Word association and sentence completion
 Thematic apperception test
 Drawing pictures and photo-sorts

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Consumer Needs and Motivation

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“Growing seed makes No sound, but falling trees

makes huge noises, destruction is always noise but
creation is always quite, that is the real power of

“Growing seed makes No sound, but falling trees

makes huge noises, destruction is always noise but
creation is always quite, that is the real power of