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Curriculum Integration Research:

Re-examining Outcomes and


st
Possibilities for the 21 Century
Classroom
課程統整研究:
重新檢視21世紀課堂的結果與可能
課程統整研究: 重新檢視21世紀課堂的結果與可能

1. Why Integrated Curriculum?


2. Integrated Curriculum Models and Features
3. Implications for Practice and Outcomes
Why Integrated Curriculum?

Benefits for using integration as a curricular model


1. coherent concept development
2. depth of knowledge
3. opportunities for individualization
4. motivational improvements
5. enhanced sense of community
6. brain development
7. overall achievement effects
Why Integrated Curriculum?
Benefits for using integration as a curricular model
1. coherent concept development
(1) Hartzler &Erickson:
Integrated studies lead to coherence in learning with
the associated development of more elaborated
concept development
(2) Hartzler:
A. Integration is a way to teach holistically through
interconnectedness at all levels of schooling
B. applying multiple intelligences and higher-order thinking skills
within a context of performance assessment and
under the simultaneous assumption that knowledge cannot be
boxed into “subjects”
Why Integrated Curriculum?
Benefits for using integration as a curricular model
1. coherent concept development
(3) Jacobs & Drake:
integrating creative writing, music, and/or arts
enhances student achievement in other subject areas
(4) Hartzler:
application of skills from process-oriented disciplines
strengthens both the skill and content learning in the
subject areas into which process is integrated
Why Integrated Curriculum?
Benefits for using integration as a curricular model
2. depth of knowledge
(1) Hartzler & Drake:
encourage multiple intelligences, and allows for the
infusion of literacy and/or thinking skills
(2) Jacobs & Wiggins & McTighe:
Deeper learning and improved problem-solving can be
expected, particularly on transfer problems where
application of knowledge to novel contexts is required
Why Integrated Curriculum?
Benefits for using integration as a curricular model
2. depth of knowledge
(3) Billig & Furco :
Interdisciplinary integration also enhances critical-
thinking skills
(4) Bransford & Hartzler
The higher–order cognitive processing incorporated
leads to longer-lasting achievement regardless of
socioeconomic status by embedding skills, expanding
content knowledge, and increasing understanding
Why Integrated Curriculum?
Benefits for using integration as a curricular model
3. opportunities for individualization
(1) Hartzler:
Integrated programs reveal more individualized
learning opportunities than traditional methods
(2) Drake and Reid:
Opportunities to differentiate instruction are more
available in integrated studies
Why Integrated Curriculum?
Benefits for using integration as a curricular model
4. motivational improvements
(1) Catterall, Dumais, Hampden Thompson, Goldschmidt,
Jung, Guthrie, Klauda, Ho,Hughes, Bailey, Karp,
Mac Iver, Smithrim, Upitis, Upitis:
Curriculum integration promotes student involvement or
participation in school and enhanced motivation for
academic learning
(2) Drake & Erickson & Jacobs
heightens curricular relevance and therefore, student
engagement in learning across all levels of schooling
Why Integrated Curriculum?
Benefits for using integration as a curricular model
4. motivational improvements
(3) Catterall et al & Furco & Hughes et al:
Attendance, graduation, and college attainment rates
are positively impacted
(4) Atkin & Drake and Burns & Reeves
students become more engaged and less prone to
attendance and behavior problems
Why Integrated Curriculum?
Benefits for using integration as a curricular model
5. enhanced sense of community
(1) Rake & Reid:
Collaboration & revision of curriculum
& PLC (pedagogy & professional growth),
& ideas about assessment
(2) Mac Iver
effective problem solving when meeting with other
faculty and/or parents /create a
greater sense of community, and can lower feelings of
isolation
(3) Mac Iver & Smithrim and Upitis
Integration increases feelings of connection among teachers
as well as team spirit among students
Why Integrated Curriculum?
Benefits for using integration as a curricular model
6. brain development
(1) Catterall et al & Furco & Hughes et al:
dendrite growth allowing for more and better brain
connections and in sync with pedagogical “best practices”
(2) Jensen
the brain thrives in a context of personal meaning and
variety, and processes best when making connections
Why Integrated Curriculum?
Benefits for using integration as a curricular model
7. overall achievement effects
(1) Vars:
students in interdisciplinary programs perform as well or
better than in traditional approaches
(2) Atkin & Drake and Burns & Reeves
These integrated curricular programs are successful across
all four core academic areas (Language Arts, Mathematics,
Social Studies, and Science), and at all grade levels
課程統整研究: 重新檢視21世紀課堂的結果與可能
課程統整研究: 重新檢視21世紀課堂的結果與可能
課程統整研究: 重新檢視21世紀課堂的結果與可能
Why Integrated Curriculum?

Implications for Practice and Outcomes


1. relevant, standards-based, and meaningful
(Standards should be used to ensure purpose and
relevancy of integrated learning experiences)
2. (1) explicitly make required connections to enable the
connected learning (engagement and relevance)
(2) Intentional instructional practices will impact engagement
and relevance, allowing students to connect ideas and
transfer their knowledge across content areas
Why Integrated Curriculum?

Implications for Practice and Outcomes


3. innovative and efficient scheduling of time
4. teaching teams should remain stable for three years or more
/teaching teams require time to build trust and work through
differences and should be considered a long-term commitment
5. At least a semester is needed for students and teachers to begin
showing academic results
Why Integrated Curriculum?

Implications for Practice and Outcomes


6. Professional development should be in place to move teachers
to consistent, standards-based implementation of learning
progressions and 21st Century skills as well as effective
implementation of options within the integrated framework
7. newer media requirements / newer technologically-based
record- keeping systems and digital portfolio repositories
Why Integrated Curriculum?

Implications for Practice and Outcomes


8. State, federal, and university sponsored programs have
demonstrated greater success
9. policies around teacher training, certification, and evaluation