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SEJARAH ILMU

MANAJEMEN
SDM

PERTEMUAN #2
ARS 105 6097 – RINA ANINDITA
|
MANAJEMEN PROGRAM STUDI MANAJEMEN
SUMBER DAYA FAKULTAS EKONOMI DAN BISNIS
MANUSIA UNIVERSITAS ESA UNGGUL
How to increase productivity?

Find ways to increase Find ways to Find ways to improve


the efficiency of the understand individuals the operation, decision
individual workers behavior, groups and making and resource
and the whole teams, to motivate allocation
orgnisation them and effectively
lead them
How to increase productivity?

Find ways to increase Find ways to Find ways to improve


the efficiency of the understand individuals the operation, decision
individual workers behavior, groups and making and resource
and the whole teams, to motivate allocation
orgnisation them and effectively
lead them

Classical Behavioral Quantitative


Management Perspective

Classical Behavioral Quantitative


Management Management Management
Perspectives Perspectives Perspectives

Universal Mgt Perspective: One best way


Management Perspectives

Classical Behavioral Quantitative


Management Management Management
Perspectives Perspectives Perspectives
Methods for Insights for moti- Techniques for
enhancing vating performance improving decision
efficiency and and understanding making, resource
facilitating planning, individual behavior, allocation, and
groups and teams, operations
organizing, and
and leadership
controlling
Systems Approach Contingency Perspective
An Integrative
• Recognition of internal • Recognition of the situational
Framework of interdependencies nature of management
Management • Recognition of • Response to particular
Perspectives environmental influences characteristics of situation

Classical Behavioral Quantitative


Management Management Management
Perspectives Perspectives Perspectives
Methods for Insights for moti- Techniques for
Universal enhancing vating performance improving decision
Management efficiency and and understanding making, resource
facilitating planning, individual behavior, allocation, and
Perspectives organizing, and groups and teams, operations
controlling and leadership

Effective and efficient management


THE MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE

THE UNIVERSAL MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE


Classical
Scientific Management
Administrative Management

Behavioral
Hawthorn Study
The Human Relations Movement
Organizational Behavior

Quantitative
Management Science
Operation Management

INTEGRATING PERSPECTIVES FOR MANAGERS


System Approach
Contingency Theory
Classical Management Branches
• Scientific
Management
Increasing the
efficiency of the
individual worker

• Administrative
Management
Focuses on managing
the total organization
Scientific Management
Perspective

Fredrick Taylor Frank and Lillian Gilbreth

Henry Gantt Harrington Emerson


Fredrick Taylor
• Soldiering Employees deliberately
working at a slow pace

To increase the efficiency of the


individual worker
– Redesigned Jobs: Observe, Select, Train ,
Implement PPS

– Piecework pay system – Any work that is


produced above the target level of output
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth

(Husband and Wife) Industrial engineers

Frank Bricklaying
Standardization of Materials
Procedures to perform the job
Result- Increase output by 200%

Lillian Industrial psychology + Personnel mgt

Both “Cheaper by the Dozen”


Henry Gantt

Developed other
techniques,
including the
Gantt chart, to
improve working
efficiency
through
planning/schedul
ing
Henry Gantt – A scheduling Devise

Completed Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4

Planned 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10 11 12 15 16 17 18 19 22 23 24 25 26

1. Design

2. Purchase Parts

3. Fabricate Bodies

4. Fabricate Frames

5. Build Drive Trains

6. Assemble Carts

7. Test Carts
Harrington Emerson
• Consultant -1910

• Interstate Commerce
Commission

• By using Scientific
management railroads could
save $1 million a day

• Advocated job specialization


in both managerial and
operating jobs.
How would the scientific mgt scholars improve
the productivity of workers at Bapco?

Fredrick Taylor Frank and Lillian Gilbreth

Henry Gantt Harrington Emerson


How would the following scientific management scholars improve
the productivity of workers at Bapco?

Frank and
Fredrick Taylor Lillian Gilbreth

Harrington
Henry Gantt Emerson
Classical Management Branches
• Scientific
Management
Increasing the
efficiency of the
individual worker

• Administrative
Management
Focuses on managing
the total organization
Administrative Management

• Focuses on managing the total


organization

Henry Fayol,
Max Weber
Chester Barnard
Lyndall Urwick
Administrative Management Perspective

Henry Fayol Max Weber

Chester Bernard Lyndal Urwick


Henri Fayol

•French industrialist

•Systematize the
practice of
management

•Identified managerial
functions
Max Weber

• German
Sociologist
• Bureaucratic
Structure
– guidelines for
structuring the
organization in the
most efficient way
Chester Barnard
• ‘The Functions of the
Executive’- book

• Subordinates Acceptance of
Authority
= f (understands it;
able to comply with it;
views it as appropriate)
Lyndall Urwick
• Scientific Mgt + Administrative
Mgt

• Advanced our thinking


managerial functions and
managerial effectiveness

• No specific new contributions but


rather the integration of the
previous theories
Administrative Management Perspective

Henry Max
Fayol Weber

Chester Lyndal
Bernard Urwick
Contributions Limitations

+ Foundations - Is it appropriate
now

+ Identified - Is it universal
processes, skills,
functions

- Is it right to treat
+ mgt valid subject employees as tools
of scientific
inquiry
The Behavioral Management Perspective

Placed emphasis
on individual
attitudes and
behaviors and
on group
processes and
recognized the
importance of
behavioral
processes in the
work place.
Branches of Behavioral Mgt Perspective

• Hawthorne Studies

• The Human
Relations
Movement

• Organizational
Behavior
Hawthorn Studies
• Years 1927-1932
• Founder
Elton Mayo & Colleagues
• Place Western Electric

• Lighting Experiment
• Piecework Incentive Pay
• Interview program
Hawthorn Studies - Findings

Importance of
Human Element

• Recognition - Feeling
important

• Belonging to a group –
relationships
The Human Relations Movement
• Proposed that workers
respond primarily to
the social context of the
workplace, including
social conditioning,
group norms, and
interpersonal dynamics

– Maslow’s Hierarchy
of Need

– McGregor Theory X
&Y
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Self-actualization needs

Esteem needs

Social needs

Safety needs

Physiological needs

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Behavioral Theory on How Employees Behave Toward Work - pessimistic

Employees

– dislike work.

– are irresponsible.

– lack ambition.

– resist change.
Another Theory on How Employees Behave – Optimistic

Employees are

– willing to work.

– self directed.

– accept responsibility.

– creative.

– self-controlled

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Organizational Behavior
• Psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, and
medicine.
• Individual + Group + organizational processes

• Stress, motivation, group dynamics, interpersonal


conflict, job satisfaction, organizational politics
Organizational Behavior
• A contemporary field focusing on behavioral
perspectives on management.
– Draws on psychology, sociology, anthropology,
economics, and medicine.
• Important topics in organizational behavior
research:
– Job satisfaction and job stress
– Motivation and leadership
– Group dynamics and organizational politics
– Interpersonal conflict
– The structure and design of organizations
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights
1–35
reserved.
Contributions Limitations

+ Challenged - Prediction of
thinking human behavior
+ Insights into
- motivation
- group -Adaptation
dynamics
- interpersonal -Communication
processes in
The Quantitative Management Perspective
Decision making,
mathematical
models, use of
computers
– Management
Science

– Operations
Management
The Quantitative Management Perspective
•Management Science
– Focuses specifically on the
development of mathematical
models (simplified
representation of a system,
process, or a relationship)

•Operations Management
– Applies quantitative techniques
(mgt science) to management to
help the organization produces
goods and services more
efficiently and to run the
operation
• Inventory Mgt
• Linear Programming
Mgt Science and Operations Management
Mgt Science and Operations Management
Mgt Science and Operations Management

• BEQ = FC / (TC-VC)

• Development mathematical equation

• Application of Mathematical Equation – using BEQ to determine


the minimum quantity that must be produced to cover all the costs
Contributions Limitations

• Techniques to assist - Not fully able to


in decision making
predict human
•  Awareness of behavior
complex
organizational
processes - Costs vs. other
skills
• Planning and
controlling
- Assumptions
Are the three
management
perspectives
contradictory or
complimentary
An Integrative Framework of
Management Perspectives
Systems Approach Contingency Perspective
• Recognition of internal • Recognition of the situational
interdependencies nature of management
• Recognition of • Response to particular
environmental influences characteristics of situation

Classical Behavioral Quantitative


Management Management Management
Perspectives Perspectives Perspectives
Methods for Insights for moti- Techniques for
enhancing vating performance improving decision
efficiency and and understanding making, resource
facilitating planning, individual behavior, allocation, and
organizing, and groups and teams, operations
controlling and leadership

Effective and efficient management

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.


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