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Turbocharger

What Is Supercharging ? And


Turbocharger ?

 Supercharging is the process of the increasing of the weight of


the charged air by increasing the density of the charged air.

 Turbocharging is one kind of supercharging by using exhaust


gas turbocharger.

 It is a device in which the energy prasent in the exhaust gas


expelled from the engine cylinder is utilized in driven in gas
turbine, which is connected to a centrifugal air blower and air
is supplied to scavenge air trunk.
 Working Cycle :-
Turbocharger
Used In Marine
Industry

Constant
Pulse System
Pressure System
 Constant Pressure System Turbocharger :-
 No exhaust grouping

 Exhaust gases enter into large common manifold and then to turbine

 Firing order not considered

 Advantages :-
 Good performance in high load (Efficient when Bmep is above 8 bar)
 More suitable for high output engine
 There is no need to group the cylinders exhaust into multiple of three.
(Simple piping system)
 No exhaust grouping
 High turbine efficiency due to steady flow of exhaust.
 The work transfer at the turbine wheel is smooth.
 Reduction in SFOC (Specific Fuel Oil Consumption) of 5% – 7%
Disadvantages :-
 When running at reduced speed and starting up low available
energy at turbine. Thus it supplies inadequately air quantity of the
scavenge pressure necessary for efficient scavenging and
combustion.

 It require scavenge assistant (Auxiliary Blowers).

 Poor response in changing load.


 Turbocharger Arrangement in
Pulse System :-
 Pulse System of Turbocharging :-
• Makes full use of the higher pressure and temperature of the exhaust gas during
the blow down period.
• While rapidly opening the exhaust valves, exhaust gas leave the cylinder at high
velocity as pressure energy is converted into kinetic energy to create the
pressure wave or pulse in exhaust.
• These pressure waves or pulses are lead directly to the turbocharger.
• Exhaust pipe, so constructed in small diameter, is quickly pressurized and
boosted up to form pressure pulse or wave.
• Pressure waves reach to turbine nozzles and further expansion takes place.

 Advantages :-
 At low load and low speed it is more efficient (Still efficient when Bmep is < 8
bar)
 No need assistant of scavenge pump and blower at any load change.
 It is highly response to change engine condition giving good performance of all
speed of engines.
 High available energy at turbine
 Good turbocharger acceleration
 Disadvantages :-
 The exhaust grouping is complicated.
 Different sizes of exhaust pipes are needed for
spare.

 High pressure exhaust from one cylinder would


pass back into another cylinder during the low
pressure scavenging period thus adversely
effecting the combustion efficiency.
Variable Geometry Turbocharger :-
 In order to draw the highest efficiency from marine engines, they
must be run at the highest rated RPM. However, with several
norms, traffic rules, fuel efficiency factor etc., marine engines
cannot always be operated at high speed. As the RPM of the
engine reduces, the air supply from the turbocharger also
reduces, starving the combustion space of air and resulting in
improper combustion and increased fuel consumption. To
counter this problem, auxiliary blowers are fitted. These blowers
come into action at particular low loads.

 Variable Geometry Turbocharger or Variable Turbine Angle (VTA)


Turbocharger is the solution for supplying sufficient scavenge air
to marine engine’s cylinder at all load ranges. Let’s find out what
is VTA and how does it works.
 The VGT or VTA consists of nozzle rings equipped with
adjustable angle changing vanes.

 Each vane is connected to control a ring using a lever, which


reduces the thermal hysteresis and increases the positional
accuracy.

 The vane position or the angle is adjusted by the control ring


connected to the electric positional motor via reduction gear.

 The control system governs the action of the microprocessor


controlled positional motor. The position or angle of vanes is
thus altered after comparing the feedback signals of – air
pressure after the blower, and exhaust gas temperature before
and after the turbocharger.
 Advantages of VGT :-
 Works on the entire load range of the engine.
 Eliminates the need of auxiliary blower.
 Reduces the fuel consumption.
 Reduces exhaust smoke emission and hence air
pollution.
 Lower’s CO2 , Nox, and Sox emission.
 Reduces soot and carbon deposits on combustion
and exhaust space.
 Reduces fouling of engine parts.
 Improves efficiency of the engine.
 Economical in operation.