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referensi, acuan atau subjek/objek yang

'refer to' dalam sebuah kalimat dalam Bahasa

Inggris adalah untuk menyatakan rujukan
terhadap pronoun (kata ganti)

Sebelum memahami reference, pahami terlebih

dahulu materi seperti subjek, objek, kata ganti
milik, keterangan tempat, serta posisinya didalam
sebuah kalimat
Kalimat 1: Aisah bought a new wallet yesterday

Kalimat 2: She Love it

Pertanyaan : she and it refers to


She = Aisah\ and it = new wallet

Sebagai Sebagai objek Sebagai kata
subjek (She like us(objek)) ganti milik(kgm)
(She(subjek (She
)like us) like my(kgm)
I me my
You you Your
She her Hers
He Him his
We Us Our
They them their
it it its
Can you see the eleventh graders? They are
cleaning the school yard now.

"they“ : the eleventh graders

Mr. Robinson helped the car crash victims. He

took them to the hospital.

"he" : Mr. Robinson

"them“ : the car crash victims.

I met Mr. Paulo, an old painter who owns a small art
stall by the Piedra River, yesterday. He said that his
only son had been died for many years and he was
buried in a cemetery about an hour drive away from
here. He had no other family members. He looked
very lonely and fragile that it broke my heart.

What does the words “he” in the second sentence

refer to?
1. Mr. Paulo

2. his only son

1. Anaphora (sth before)
Rujukan terhadap sesuatu yang telah
disebutkan sebelumnya

Reference Refers to
It / its Single noun before
She / her / hers Single female person before
He / his / him Single male person before
They / their / theirs Plural nouns before
This / that Noun / phrase / clause /
sentence before
There / here Place (mentioned) before
catatan :
1. “It” sebagai kata ganti (pronoun) benda tunggal,
misalnya menggantikan : a cat, the photo, my
camera, the dream, an organization, the boy’s

2. “He” sebagai kata ganti orang laki-laki, misalnya

menggantikan : a boy, a photographer, a
cameraman, Andi, my brother, an actor, dll.

3. “They” sebagai kata ganti orang atau benda yang

lebih dari satu, misalnya menggantikan : some
cats, two photos, calendars, people, Andi and
Jono, my brothers, our activities, dll
2. Cataphora (sth after)
Rujukan terhadap sesuatu yang akan disebutkan

It + be + N It refers to the Noun

It + modals + be + N It refers to the Noun
It + has + been + N It refers to the Noun
There is + N It refers to the Noun
There are + N It refers to the Noun
There will be + B It refers to the Noun
It is a sunny day.
It refers to a sunny day
It’s you.
It refers to you
It was Friday yesterday.
It refers to Friday
There is a ball under the table.
There refers to a ball.
It takes ten minutes to do the task.
It refers to to do the task
It is stupid to hide oneself mistakes.
It refers to to hide oneself mistakes
Refer to somebody/something

1. to mention or speak about someone or


a. We agreed never to refer to the matter again.

b. Although she didn’t mention any names,
everyone knew who she was referring to.
He likes to be referred to as ‘Doctor Khee’.
The hospital now refers to patients by name, not
case number.
2. to look at a book, map, piece of paper etc for
Ex : He gave the speech without referring to his

3. if a statement, number, report etc refers to

someone or something,
Ex : it is about that person or thing The figures refer
to our sales in Europe.
4 refer somebody/something to
somebody to send someone or something to a
person or organization to be helped or dealt with
Ex : My doctor is referring me to a dermatologist.
My complaint was referred to the manufacturers.
4. refer somebody/something to
somebody to send someone or something to a
person or organization to be helped or dealt with
Ex : My doctor is referring me to a dermatologist.
My complaint was referred to the manufacturers.

5 refer somebody to something formal to tell

someone where to find information
Ex : Readers are referred to the bibliography for further
refer as
• Why do I refer to Euclidean geometry
as a physical theory rather than a branch of
• Botanists often give up and refer to such groups
as ` aggregates' or ` complexes'.

• Where a convergent or divergent margin has

a significant transform component it
is appropriateto refer to it as an oblique-slip margin

• Once
the dictionary was available, society gained in cohe
sion because anyone could refer to it
as an outside source for comparison
refer to phrasal verb [transitive]
• refer to something to mention something I refer to your
letter of 22 March.

• refer to something to be about something or give

information about somethingThese figures refer to first
quarter sales.

• refer to drawer written abbreviation R/D the words ‘refer

to drawer’ are written on a cheque by a bank when the
bank refuses to pay the cheque, usually because there is not
enough money in the account
• refer something to somebody/something to send a
problem to another place so that a decision can be madeThe
merger is likely to be referred to the Monopolies and Mergers
Commission.Disputes can be referred to arbitration.
Tugas 2 Young Crab and His Mother
Why do you(1) walk sideways like that? " Asked the
mother to her(2) child crabs." You(3) have to walk
straight forward with your(4) toes facing out."
"Show me(5) how to walk is good mom," said the
little crab to his(6) mother," I am(7) very eager to
Hearing his(8) words, the mother crab was trying to
walk straight a head. But she(9) could also just walk
to the side, like the way her son is running. And when
the mother crab was trying to turn the toes outward,
instead she (10) tripped and fell to the ground nose
Do not explain how people should act unless you can
provide a good example.
1. You refer to …….
2. He refer to …….
3. You refer to ……
4. your refer to ……
5. me refer to …….
6. his refer to ……
7. I am refer to ……
8. His refer to ……
9. She refer to …….
10.she refer to …….
1. A duck swam in the pool. When I
caught, it flapped its wings.
it / its refers to …...

2. Budi’s mother sings with her friends. She looks

She / her refers to ……

3. Yudi’s sister called him with his short name.

him / his refers to ……

4. There are some roses in the garden. They are

they refers to ……
5. Maria lost her money. This made her sad.
this refers to ……..

6. Mimin sometimes cries in the night. I am often

afraid of that.
that refers to………

7. The beach is now in disorder. We never

go there anymore.
there refers to …….
8. "That is Ali. He is Andy’s elder brother“
“he” refer to …..

9. "Besides decorating the town, the statues also

turn out to be helpful for people from out of town to
find places they are seeking in Boyolali“
They refer to ……..

10. "The old woman said that her daughter had

been died for many years and she was buried in
a cemetery about an hour drive away from
she refer to ……..
Buatlah masing masingnya 5 kalimat yang
menggunakan “ refer to “ untuk:
a. Refer to Somebody
b. Refer to Something