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KOMPENDIUM

KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN - PEMBANGUNAN

PENDUGAAN
DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN

Dikoleksi oleh:
Soemarno
Pslp-pdklp-ppsub, Malang 2012
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

Kehidupan manusia tidak bisa dipisahkan dari lingkungannya,


baik lingkungan alam, lingkungan sosial, dan lingkungan
binaan. Makhluk hidup bernapas respirasi) memerlukan
oksigen dari udara lingkungan sekitarnya. Manusia makan,
minum, menjaga kesehatan, semuanya memerlukan
dukungan lingkungan sekitarnya.

Lingkungan yang terdiri dari sesama manusia disebut


juga sebagai lingkungan sosial.
Lingkungan sosial inilah yang membentuk sistem
pergaulan yang besar peranannya dalam membentuk
kepribadian seseorang.

Sumber: http://afand.abatasa.com/post/detail/2405/lingkungan-hidup-kerusakan-lingkungan-pengertian-kerusakan-
linkungan-dan-pelestarian-.htm ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

Pengertian lingkungan adalah segala sesuatu yang ada di sekitar


manusia yang memengaruhi perkembangan kehidupan manusia
baik langsung maupun tidak langsung.

Lingkungan bisa dibedakan menjadi lingkungan biotik dan abiotik.


Jika kalian berada di sekolah, lingkungan biotiknya berupa teman-
teman sekolah, bapak ibu guru serta karyawan, dan semua orang
yang ada di sekolah, juga berbagai jenis tumbuhan yang ada di
kebun sekolah serta hewan-hewan yang ada di sekitarnya.

Adapun lingkungan abiotik berupa udara, meja kursi, papan tulis,


gedung sekolah, dan berbagai macam benda mati yang ada di
sekitar.

Sumber: http://afand.abatasa.com/post/detail/2405/lingkungan-hidup-kerusakan-lingkungan-pengertian-kerusakan-
linkungan-dan-pelestarian-.htm ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

Secara khusus, istilah lingkungan hidup digunakan untuk menyebutkan “segala


sesuatu yang berpengaruh terhadap kelangsungan hidup segenap makhluk
hidup di bumi”.
Menurut UU No. 23 Tahun 1997, lingkungan hidup adalah kesatuan ruang
dengan semua benda dan kesatuan makhluk hidup termasuk di dalamnya
manusia dan perilakunya yang melangsungkan perikehidupan dan
kesejahteraan manusia serta makhluk hidup lainnya.

Unsur-unsur lingkungan hidup dapat dibedakan menjadi tiga, yaitu:

1. Unsur Hayati (Biotik)

Unsur hayati (biotik), yaitu unsur lingkungan hidup yang terdiri dari makhluk
hidup, seperti manusia, hewan, tumbuh-tumbuhan, dan jasad renik. Jika kalian
berada di kebun sekolah, maka lingkungan hayatinya didominasi oleh
tumbuhan. Tetapi jika berada di dalam kelas, maka lingkungan hayati yang
dominan adalah teman-teman atau sesama manusia.
Sumber: http://afand.abatasa.com/post/detail/2405/lingkungan-hidup-kerusakan-lingkungan-pengertian-kerusakan-
linkungan-dan-pelestarian-.htm….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
Unsur-unsur lingkungan hidup dapat dibedakan menjadi tiga, yaitu:

2. Unsur Sosial Budaya


Unsur sosial budaya, yaitu lingkungan sosial dan budaya yang dibuat manusia
yang merupakan sistem nilai, gagasan, dan keyakinan dalam perilaku sebagai
makhluk sosial. Kehidupan masyarakat dapat mencapai keteraturan berkat
adanya sistem nilai dan norma yang diakui dan ditaati oleh segenap anggota
masyarakat.

3. Unsur Fisik (Abiotik)


Unsur fisik (abiotik), yaitu unsur lingkungan hidup yang terdiri dari benda-benda
tidak hidup, seperti tanah, air, udara, iklim, dan lain-lain. Keberadaan lingkungan
fisik sangat besar peranannya bagi kelangsungan hidup segenap kehidupan di
bumi.
Bayangkan, apa yang terjadi jika air tak ada lagi di muka bumi atau udara yang dipenuhi
asap? Tentu saja kehidupan di muka bumi tidak akan berlangsung secara wajar. Akan
terjadi bencana kekeringan, banyak hewan dan tumbuhan mati, perubahan musim yang
tidak teratur, munculnya berbagai penyakit, dan lain-lain.

Sumber: http://afand.abatasa.com/post/detail/2405/lingkungan-hidup-kerusakan-lingkungan-pengertian-kerusakan-linkungan-dan-pelestarian-
.htm….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
KERUSAKAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
Bentuk kerusakan lingkungan hidup dapat dibedakan menjadi dua jenis, yaitu:

1. Bentuk Kerusakan Lingkungan Hidup Akibat Peristiwa Alam


Berbagai bentuk bencana alam yang akhir-akhir ini banyak melanda Indonesia telah
menimbulkan dampak rusaknya lingkungan hidup. Dahsyatnya gelombang tsunami yang
memporak-porandakan bumi Serambi Mekah dan Nias, serta gempa 5 skala Ritcher yang
meratakan kawasan DIY dan sekitarnya, merupakan contoh fenomena alam yang dalam
sekejap mampu merubah bentuk muka bumi.
Peristiwa alam yang berdampak pada kerusakan lingkungan hidup :

a. Letusan gunung berapi


Letusan gunung berapi terjadi karena aktivitas magma di perut bumi yang menimbulkan
tekanan kuat keluar melalui puncak gunung berapi.

Bahaya yang ditimbulkan oleh letusan gunung berapi antara lain berupa:
1. Hujan abu vulkanik, menyebabkan gangguan pernafasan.
2. Lava panas, merusak, dan mematikan apa pun yang dilalui.
3. Awan panas, dapat mematikan makhluk hidup yang dilalui.
4. Gas yang mengandung racun.
5. Material padat (batuan, kerikil, pasir), dapat menimpa perumahan, dan lain-lain.

Sumber: http://afand.abatasa.com/post/detail/2405/lingkungan-hidup-kerusakan-lingkungan-pengertian-kerusakan-linkungan-dan-pelestarian-
KERUSAKAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

b. Gempa bumi
Gempa bumi adalah getaran kulit bumi yang bisa disebabkan karena beberapa
hal, di antaranya kegiatan magma (aktivitas gunung berapi), terjadinya tanah
turun, maupun karena gerakan lempeng di dasar samudra. Manusia dapat
mengukur berapa intensitas gempa, namun manusia sama sekali tidak dapat
memprediksikan kapan terjadinya gempa.

Oleh karena itu, bahaya yang ditimbulkan oleh gempa lebih dahsyat
dibandingkan dengan letusan gunung berapi. Pada saat gempa berlangsung
terjadi beberapa peristiwa sebagai akibat langsung maupun tidak langsung, di
antaranya:

1.Berbagai bangunan roboh.


2.Tanah di permukaan bumi merekah, jalan menjadi putus.
3.Tanah longsor akibat guncangan.
4.Terjadi banjir, akibat rusaknya tanggul.
5.Gempa yang terjadi di dasar laut dapat menyebabkan tsunami (gelombang
pasang).
Sumber: http://afand.abatasa.com/post/detail/2405/lingkungan-hidup-kerusakan-lingkungan-pengertian-kerusakan-linkungan-dan-pelestarian-
KERUSAKAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
c. Angin topan
Angin topan terjadi akibat aliran udara dari kawasan yang bertekanan tinggi menuju ke
kawasan bertekanan rendah.
Perbedaan tekanan udara ini terjadi karena perbedaan suhu udara yang mencolok.
Serangan angin topan bagi negara-negara di kawasan Samudra Pasifik dan Atlantik
merupakan hal yang biasa terjadi. Bagi wilayah-wilayah di kawasan California, Texas,
sampai di kawasan Asia seperti Korea dan Taiwan, bahaya angin topan merupakan
bencana musiman. Tetapi bagi Indonesia baru dirasakan di pertengahan tahun 2007. Hal
ini menunjukkan bahwa telah terjadi perubahan iklim di Indonesia yang tak lain
disebabkan oleh adanya gejala pemanasan global.

Bahaya angin topan dapat diprediksi melalui foto satelit yang menggambarkan keadaan
atmosfer bumi, termasuk gambar terbentuknya angin topan, arah, dan kecepatannya.
Serangan angin topan (putting-beliung) dapat menimbulkan kerusakan lingkungan hidup
dalam bentuk:
1. Merobohkan bangunan.
2. Rusaknya areal pertanian dan perkebunan.
3. Membahayakan penerbangan.
4. Menimbulkan ombak besar yang dapat menenggelamkan kapal.

Sumber: http://afand.abatasa.com/post/detail/2405/lingkungan-hidup-kerusakan-lingkungan-pengertian-kerusakan-linkungan-dan-pelestarian-
.htm ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
KERUSAKAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

Badai adalah cuaca yang ekstrem, dapat berupa hujan es dan badai salju
hingga badai pasir dan debu.
Badai disebut juga siklon-tropis, berasal dari samudera yang suhunya hangat.
Badai bergerak di atas laut mengikuti arah angin dengan kecepatan sekitar 20
km/jam.

Badai bukan angin-ribut biasa. Kekuatan anginnya dapat mencabut pohon besar
dari akarnya, meruntuhkan jembatan, dan menerbangkan atap bangunan
dengan mudah. Tiga hal yang paling berbahaya dari badai adalah sambaran
petir, banjir bandang, dan angin kencang. Terdapat berbagai macam badai,
seperti badai hujan, badai guntur, dan badai salju.

Badai paling merusak adalah badai topan (hurricane, yang dikenal sebagai
angin siklon (cyclone) di Samudera Hindia atau topan (typhoon) di Samudera
Pasifik.

(diunduh dari: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Badai)

Sumber: http://afand.abatasa.com/post/detail/2405/lingkungan-hidup-kerusakan-lingkungan-pengertian-kerusakan-linkungan-dan-pelestarian-
.htm ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
KERUSAKAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
2. Kerusakan Lingkungan Hidup karena Faktor Manusia

Manusia sebagai penguasa lingkungan hidup di bumi berperan besar dalam menentukan kelestarian lingkungan
hidup. Manusia sebagai makhluk ciptaan Tuhan yang berakal budi mampu merubah wajah dunia dari pola
kehidupan sederhana sampai ke bentuk kehidupan modern seperti sekarang ini. Namun sayang, seringkali apa
yang dilakukan manusia tidak diimbangi dengan pemikiran akan masa depan kehidupan generasi berikutnya.
Banyak kemajuan yang diraih oleh manusia membawa dampak buruk terhadap kelangsungan lingkungan hidup.

Beberapa bentuk kerusakan lingkungan hidup karena faktor manusia, antara lain:
1. Terjadinya pencemaran (pencemaran udara, air, tanah, dan suara) sebagai dampak adanya kawasan industri.
2. Terjadinya banjir, sebagai dampak buruknya drainase atau sistem pembuangan air dan kesalahan dalam
menjaga daerah aliran sungai dan dampak pengrusakan hutan.
3. Terjadinya tanah longsor, sebagai dampak langsung dari rusaknya hutan.

Beberapa ulah manusia yang baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung membawa dampak pada kerusakan
lingkungan hidup antara lain:
1. Penebangan hutan secara liar (penggundulan hutan).
2. Perburuan liar.
3. Merusak hutan bakau.
4. Penimbunan rawa-rawa untuk pemukiman.
5. Pembuangan sampah di sembarang tempat.
6. Bangunan liar di daerah aliran sungai (DAS).
7. Pemanfaatan sumberdaya alam secara berlebihan di luar batas.
KERUSAKAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
2. Kerusakan Lingkungan Hidup karena Faktor Manusia

Manusia sebagai penguasa lingkungan hidup di bumi berperan besar dalam menentukan kelestarian lingkungan
hidup. Manusia sebagai makhluk ciptaan Tuhan yang berakal budi mampu merubah wajah dunia dari pola
kehidupan sederhana sampai ke bentuk kehidupan modern seperti sekarang ini. Namun sayang, seringkali apa
yang dilakukan manusia tidak diimbangi dengan pemikiran akan masa depan kehidupan generasi berikutnya.
Banyak kemajuan yang diraih oleh manusia membawa dampak buruk terhadap kelangsungan lingkungan hidup.

Beberapa bentuk kerusakan lingkungan hidup karena faktor manusia, antara lain:
1. Terjadinya pencemaran (pencemaran udara, air, tanah, dan suara) sebagai dampak adanya kawasan industri.
2. Terjadinya banjir, sebagai dampak buruknya drainase atau sistem pembuangan air dan kesalahan dalam
menjaga daerah aliran sungai dan dampak pengrusakan hutan.
3. Terjadinya tanah longsor, sebagai dampak langsung dari rusaknya hutan.

Beberapa ulah manusia yang baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung membawa dampak pada kerusakan
lingkungan hidup antara lain:
1. Penebangan hutan secara liar (penggundulan hutan).
2. Perburuan liar.
3. Merusak hutan bakau.
4. Penimbunan rawa-rawa untuk pemukiman.
5. Pembuangan sampah di sembarang tempat.
6. Bangunan liar di daerah aliran sungai (DAS).
7. Pemanfaatan sumberdaya alam secara berlebihan di luar batas.
PENCEMARAN UDARA

….. kehadiran satu atau lebih kontaminan di atmosfir dengan kuantitas dan
durasi yg menyebabkan gangguan kesehatan thd manusia, kerusakan thd
tumbuhan, menyebabkan penyakit thd hewan, kerusakan thd material atau
menyebabkan ketidaknyamanan thd kehidupan/material dan mengganggu
thd kegiatan keseharian.

Pencemaran udara utama: Partikel, SO2, CO, Ox, NO2 dan HC

Sumber pencemar udara


1. Sumber alam, sumber akibat aktifitas manusia
2. Sumber titik, sumber area
3. Transportasi, pembakaran bhn bkr sbr tdk bergerak, industri, sampah,
lain2
Efek pencemar udara
1. Terhadap manusia
2. Terhadap binatang
3. Terhadap tumbuhan
4. Terhadap material.
PENCEMARAN UDARA

Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or


biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or
other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural
environment or built environment, into the atmosphere.

The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system


that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric
ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a
threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.

Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_pollution


DAMPAK PENCEMARAN UDARA
Konsep dasar pendekatan metodologi untuk melakukan analisis ilmiah
dari dampak potensial terhadap kualitas udara akibat usulan
proyek/kegiatan
Health effects
Air pollution is a significant risk factor for multiple health conditions including
respiratory infections, heart disease, and lung cancer, according to the WHO. The health
effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing
and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions.

These effects can result in increased medication use, increased doctor or emergency room visits,
more hospital admissions and premature death. The human health effects of poor air quality are far
reaching, but principally affect the body's respiratory system and the cardiovascular system.
Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the
degree of exposure, the individual's health status and genetics.

The most common sources of air pollution include particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen
dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Both indoor and outdoor air pollution have caused
approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide. Children aged less than five years that live
in developing countries are the most vulnerable population in terms of total deaths
attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollution
Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_pollution
AIR QUALITY
Air quality is defined as a measure of the condition of air relative to the
requirements of one or more biotic species or to any human need or purpose.
Air quality indices (AQI) are numbers used by government agencies to characterize the quality of
the air at a given location.
As the AQI increases, an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience
increasingly severe adverse health effects.
To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor or model.
The function used to convert from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by pollutant, and is
different in different countries. Air quality index values are divided into ranges, and each range is
assigned a descriptor and a color code. Standardized public health advisories are associated with
each AQI range. An agency might also encourage members of the public to take public
transportation or work from home when AQI levels are high.

Most air contaminants do not have an associated AQI.


Many countries monitor ground-level ozone, particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon
monoxide and nitrogen dioxide and calculate air quality indices for these pollutants.

The AQI can worsen (go up) due to lack of dilution of air emissions by fresh air.
Stagnant air, often caused by an anticyclone or temperature inversion, or other lack of
winds lets air pollution remain in a local area, leading to haze.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Quality_Index ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


AIR QUALITY HEALTH INDEX (AQHI) - CANADA

The Air Quality Health Index or (AQHI) is a scale designed to help understand
the impact of air quality on health. It is a health protection tool used to make
decisions to reduce short-term exposure to air pollution by adjusting activity
levels during increased levels of air pollution.

The Air Quality Health Index also provides advice on how to improve air quality by
proposing behavioral change to reduce the environmental footprint. This index pays
particular attention to people who are sensitive to air pollution. It provides them with
advice on how to protect their health during air quality levels associated with low,
moderate, high and very high health risks.

The Air Quality Health Index provides a number from 1 to 10+ to indicate the
level of health risk associated with local air quality. On occasion, when the
amount of air pollution is abnormally high, the number may exceed 10. The
AQHI provides a local air quality current value as well as a local air quality
maximums forecast for today, tonight, and tomorrow, and provides associated
health advice.

Risk: Low (1-3) Moderate (4-6) High (7-10) Very high (above 10)
Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Quality_Index ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
AIR QUALITY HEALTH INDEX (AQHI) - CANADA
Air Quality
Health Risk Health Messages
Health Index
At Risk population *General Population
Enjoy your usual outdoor
Low 1-3 Ideal air quality for outdoor activities
activities.

Consider reducing or No need to modify your usual


rescheduling strenuous outdoor activities unless you
Moderate 4-6
activities outdoors if you are experience symptoms such as
experiencing symptoms. coughing and throat irritation.

Reduce or reschedule strenuous Consider reducing or rescheduling


activities outdoors. Children and strenuous activities outdoors if you
High 7-10
the elderly should also take it experience symptoms such as
easy. coughing and throat irritation.

Avoid strenuous activities Reduce or reschedule strenuous


outdoors. Children and the activities outdoors, especially if you
Very high Above 10
elderly should also avoid experience symptoms such as
outdoor physical exertion. coughing and throat irritation.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Quality_Index ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


THE AIR POLLUTION INDEX (API) - HONG KONG

The Air Pollution Index (API) levels for Hong Kong are related to the measured
concentrations of ambient respirable suspended particulate (RSP), sulfur
dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
over a 24-hour period based on the potential health effects of air pollutants.

An API level at or below 100 means that the pollutant levels are in the
satisfactory range over 24 hour period and pose no acute or immediate health
effects. However, air pollution consistently at "High" levels (API of 51 to 100) in
a year may mean that the annual Hong Kong "Air Quality Objectives" for
protecting long-term health effects could be violated. Therefore, chronic health
effects may be observed if one is persistently exposed to an API of 51 to 100 for
a long time.

"Very High" levels (API in excess of 100) means that levels of one or more
pollutant(s) is/are in the unhealthy range.

The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department provides advice to the


public regarding precautionary actions to take for such levels.
Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Quality_Index ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
THE AIR POLLUTION INDEX (API) - HONG KONG
API Air Pollution Health Implications
Level
0 - 25 Low None expected.
26 - 50 Medium None expected for the general population.
Acute health effects are not expected but
51 - 100 High chronic effects may be observed if one is
persistently exposed to such levels.
People with existing heart or respiratory
illnesses may notice mild aggravation of
100 - 200 Very High their health conditions. Generally healthy
individuals may also notice some
discomfort.
People with existing heart or respiratory
illnesses may experience significant
aggravation of their symptoms. There may
201 - 500 Severe
also be widespread symptoms in the healthy
population (e.g. eye irritation, wheezing,
coughing, phlegm and sore throats).
Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Quality_Index ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
The API - CHINA

The API level is based on the level of 5 atmospheric pollutants, namely sulfur
dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), suspended particulates (PM10), carbon
monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) measured at the monitoring stations throughout
each city.
An individual score is assigned to the level of each pollutant and the final API is the
highest of those 5 scores. The pollutants can be measured quite differently. SO 2,
NO2 and PM10 concentration are measured as average per day. CO and O3 are more
harmful and are measured as average per hour. The final API value is calculated per
day.
The scale for each pollutant is non-linear, as is the final API score. Thus an API of
100 does not mean twice the pollution of API at 50, nor does it mean twice as
harmful. While an API of 50 from day 1 to 182 and API of 100 from day 183 to 365
does provide an annual average of 75, it does not mean the pollution is acceptable
even if the benchmark of 100 is deemed safe. This is because the benchmark is a 24
hour target. The annual average must match against the annual target. It is entirely
possible to have safe air every day of the year but still fail the annual pollution
benchmark.

API dan Dampak Kesehatan (Daily Targets):


Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Quality_Index ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
The API - CHINA
Tingkat Pencemaran
API Dampak Kesehatan
Udara
0 - 50 Excellent No health implications
51 -100 Good No health implications
Slight irritations may occur, individuals with breathing or heart
101-150 Slightly Polluted
problems should reduce outdoor exercise.
Slight irritations may occur, individuals with breathing or heart
151-200 Lightly Polluted
problems should reduce outdoor exercise.
Healthy people will be noticeably affected. People with
breathing or heart problems will experience reduced
201-250 Moderately Polluted
endurance in activities. These individuals and elders should
remain indoors and restrict activities.
Healthy people will be noticeably affected. People with
breathing or heart problems will experience reduced
251-300 Heavily Polluted
endurance in activities. These individuals and elders should
remain indoors and restrict activities.
Healthy people will experience reduced endurance in
activities. There may be strong irritations and symptoms and
300+ Severely Polluted may trigger other illnesses. Elders and the sick should remain
indoors and avoid exercise. Healthy individuals should avoid
out door activities.
Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Quality_Index ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
The AQI - USA
The air quality index is a piecewise linear function of the
pollutant concentration. At the boundary between AQI
categories, there is a discontinuous jump of one AQI unit.

To convert from concentration to AQI the equation:

is used, where: I = the (Air Quality) index, C = the pollutant


concentration, Clow = the concentration breakpoint that is ≤
, Chigh = the concentration breakpoint that is ≥ , Ilow = the
index breakpoint corresponding to Clow, = Ihigh the index
breakpoint corresponding to Chigh.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Quality_Index ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


The AQI - USA
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses the following AQI:
Air Quality Index Levels of Health Colors
(AQI) Values Concern

0 to 50 Good Green
51 to 100 Moderate Yellow
101 to 150 Unhealthy for Sensitive Orange
Groups
151 to 200 Unhealthy Red
201 to 300 Very Unhealthy Purple

301 to 500 Hazardous Maroon


Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Quality_Index ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
PENDEKATAN KONSEPTUAL STUDI DAMPAK TERHADAP
LINGKUNGAN UDARA
Tahap 1: Tahap 4:
Identifikasi dampak Prediksi dampak
rencana kegiatan
thd kualitas udara

Tahap 2: Tahap 5:
Deskripsi kondisi Penilaian dampak
lingkungan udara penting
yg ada

Tahap 3: Tahap 6:
Informasi peraturan Identifikasi dan
perundangan dan penentuan
pedoman meng tindakan mitigasi
kualitas udara
PERATURAN PERUNDANGAN
• PP RI No 41 Th 1999 Ttg Pengendalian pencemaran udara
• KEPMENLH No KEP-13/MENLH/3/1995 Ttg Baku mutu emisi sumber tidak bergerak
• PERMENLH No 07 Th 2007 Ttg Baku mutu emisi sumber tidak bergerak bagi ketel uap
• PERMENLH No 05 Th 2006 Ttg Ambang batas emisi gs buang kendaraan bermotor lama
• SK Gubernur Propinsi DKI Jakarta No 670/2000/Tanggal 28 Maret 2000 Ttg Penetapan baku mutu emisi
sumber tidak bergerak di Propinsi DKI Jakarta

Keputusan Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup


No. 4 Tahun 2000
Tentang : Panduan Penyusunan AMDAL Kegiatan
Pembangunan Permukiman Terpadu

Pengembangan permukiman terpadu di Indonesia dikhawatirkan mengekploitasi lahan- lahan


agraris, dan lahan yang memiliki fungsi lindung, sehingga menyebabkan kerusakan
lingkungan secara makro, secara mikro ada peningkatan kualitas lingkungan akibat tertata
dengan baik.

Dengan dasar ciri dinamika sistem lingkungan yang bersifat "site specific”, maka jenis dan
besaran dampak yang ditimbulkan oleh pengembangan permukiman terpadu diperkirakan
akan berbeda dari satu ekosistem ke ekosistem lainnya.

Oleh karena itu, apabila dampak yang ditimbulkan tersebut tidak diantisipasi dan dikelola
secara optimal dikhawatirkan hal ini akan menjadi unsur pembangunan sosial ekonomi yang
mengabaikan kemampuan sistem alam (ekosistem).
Contoh baku mutu ambien
PP No 41 Thn 1999
No Parameter Waktu pengukuran Baku mutu

1 SO2 1 Jam 900 µg/Nm3


(Sulfur dioksida) 24 Jam 365 µg/Nm3
1 Thn 60 µg/Nm3
2 PM10 24 Jam 150 µg/Nm3
(Partikel < 10 µm)
PM2.5 24 Jam 65 µg/Nm3
(Partikel < 2.5 µm) 1 Thn 15 µg/Nm3
3 TSP 24 Jam 230 µg/Nm3
(Debu) 1 Thn 90 µg/Nm3
4 CO 1 Jam 30000 µg/Nm3
(Karbon Monoksida) 24 Jam 10000 µg/Nm3

Kajian dampak kumulatif merupakan pengembangan lebih lanjut dari metodologi kajian AMDAL. Kajian AMDAL,
secara tradisonal, lebih terfokus pada dampak langsung yang terjadi akibat adanya suatu kegiatan (AMDAL skala
proyek). Para pengambil keputusan lebih mempertimbangkan dampak yang bersifat langsung, ini karena dampak
tersebut bersifat lebih pasti dan lebih mudah dipahami. Sementara itu kajian dampak kumulatif mempunyai batasan
ruang dan waktu yang lebih luas, seperti kemungkinan terjadinya hujan asam, perubahan iklim, pemanasan global,
kelestarian keanekaragaman hayati dan dampak terhadap pembangunan yang berkelanjutan.

CEARC (1986) mengidentifikasi kelemahan AMDAL yang terlalu fokus pada kajian dampak skala proyek, adalah :
1. Mengabaikan efek penambahan (additif effects) akibat adanya pembangunan yang berulang-ulang pada satu
ekosistem yang sama;
2. Tidak mengkaji secara mendalam dampak dari suatu kegiatan yang dapat mendorong berkembangnya
kegiatan-kegiatan lain disekitarnya;
3. Mengabaikan perubahan kemampuan sistem ekologis dalam menetralisir tingkat pencemaran dan kerusakan
lingkungan yang semakin intensif;
4. Tidak memberikan dorongan untuk mencapai tujuan pengelolaan lingkungan yang lebih komprehensif yang
melindungi kepentingan masyarakat luas.
Contoh baku mutu emisi sumber tidak bergerak
PERMENLH No 07 Th 2007
No Parameter Baku mutu Catatan:
1. Nitrogen Oksida ditentukan
sebagai NO2
1 Partikulat 230 mg/m3
2 Sulfur dioksida (SO2) 750 mg/m3 2. Volume gas dalam keadaan
3 Nitrogen Oksida (N)2) 825 ng/m3 standar (25oC dan tekanan 1
4 Opasitas 20 % atm
3. Konsentrasi partikulat
dikoreksi sebesar 6 % Oksigen
4. Opasitas digunakan sbg
indikator praktis pemantauan
dan dikembangkan utk
memperoleh hub korelatif dg
pengamatan total partikel
Contoh baku mutu emisi sumber tidak bergerak
PERMENLH No 07 Th 2007
Dampak kumulatif adalah dampak-dampak terhadap lingkungan yang
disebabkan oleh penambahan dampak (incremental impact) dari suatu kegiatan
jika ditambahkan dampak yang terjadi akibat kegiatan lain dimasa lalu, saat ini
dan dampak yang diperkirakan dapat terjadi dimasa mendatang.
Dampak kumulatif dapat terjadi dari dampak-dampak yang secara individual
bersifat tidak penting namun jika terjadi pada kerangka waktu dan tempat yang
sama dapat berubah menjadi dampak penting.

Secara sederhana dampak kumulatif diartikan sebagai sebagai penjumlahan


dari dampak-dampak individual yang berasal dari kegiatan-kegiatan yang terjadi
di masa lalu, saat ini dan rencana kegiatan di masa mendatang, setelah
dilakukan penyesuaian karena adanya interaksi komplek antar dampak seperti
pada gambar 1 dan 2 Interaksi dampak dapat bersifat countervailing atau
sinergis.

Dampak bersifat countervailing jika dampak akhir lebih kecil dari penambahan
dampak secara individual, sedangkan dampak bersifat sinergis jika dampak
kumulatif lebih besar dari penjumlahan dari kontribusi dampak-dampak secara
individual.
Faktor emisi
N. Irving Sax (1974)*
Faktor emisi gas dari proses pembakaran batubara (lb/ton batubara yg dibakar)
Pencemar Pembangkit Industrial Rumah tangga
listrik dan komersial

Aldehida (HCHO) 0.005 0.005 0.005


Karbon monoksida (CO) 0.5 3 50
Hidrokarbon (HC) 0.2 1 10
Oksida nitrigen (NO2) 20 20 8
Oksida belerang (SO2) 38S 38S 38S

Catatan: S = % kandungan belerang


* N. Irving Sax (ed), Industrial Pollution, Van Nostrand Reinhold Coy, 1974
Faktor emisi
N. Irving Sax (1974)*
Catatan: S = % kandungan belerang
* N. Irving Sax (ed), Industrial Pollution, Van Nostrand Reinhold Coy, 1974
Faktor emisi (N. Irving Sax (1974)*
No Pencemar g/mil
Emisi partikel dan gas dari kendaraan
1 Total organik 3.07
roda 4 light duty
2 Partikulat 0.03
3 Karbon monoksida (CO) 46.5
4 Karbon dioksida (CO2) 640
5 Oksida nitrogen (NOx) 8.26

PERATURAN MENTERI NEGARA LINGKUNGAN HIDUP


NOMOR 05 TAHUN 2006, TENTANG
AMBANG BATAS EMISI GAS BUANG KENDARAAN BERMOTOR LAMA
KETINGGIAN ADUKAN UDARA

• Naiknya kolom udara yg menghasilkan pengadukan vertikal


yg baik menghasilkan turbulensi berskala besar di atmosfir.
Turbulensi ini berlangsung dalam arah 3 dimensi sehingga
juga menghasilkan pengadukan horizontal yg baik.
• Pencemar yg dilepaskan diatas permukaan tanah akan
teraduk hampir uniform sampai ketinggian mixing height,
tetapi tidak diatasnya. Maka mixing height merupakan batas
atas dispersi pencemar di atmosfir.
• Mixing height dapat ditentukan dengan mengukur
temperatur udara diberbagai ketinggian. Puncak awan juga
mengindikasikan tingginya mixing height. Di USA mixing
height berkisar antara 200-4000 m diatas permukaan tanah,
tergantung kepada waktu dan musim.
KETINGGIAN ADUKAN UDARA

Atmosfir dapat mengangkut berbagai zat pencemar ratusan kilometer jauhnya,


sebelum menjatuhkannya ke permukaan bumi dalam perjalanan jauh itu atmosfir
bertidak sebagai reaktor kimia yang kompleks merubah zat pencemar setelah
berinteraksi dengan substansi lain, uap air dan energi matahari.

Pada kondisi tertentu sulfur oksida (SOx) dan nitrogen oksida (NOx) hasil
pembakaran bahan bakar fosil akan bereksi dengan molekul-molekul uap air di
atmosfir menjadi asam sulfat (H2SO4) dan asam nitrat (HNO3) yang selanjutnya
turun ke permukaan bumi bersama air hujan yang dikenal hujan asam.

Hujan asam telah menimbulkan masalah besar di daratan Eropa, Amerika Serikat
dan di Negara Asia termasuk Indonesia. Dampak negatif dari hujan asam selain
rusaknya bangunan dan berkaratnya benda-benda yang terbuat dari logam, juga
terjadinya kerusakan lingkungan terutama mengasakan (acidification) danau dan
sungai. Ribuan danau airnya telah bersifat asam sehingga tidak ada lagi kehidupan
akuatik, dikenal dengan “danau mati”.

Proses terjadinya hujan asam (Sumber: http://www.chem-is-try.org/materi_kimia/kimia-


lingkungan/pencemaran_lingkungan/hujan-asam-acid-rain/)
Model KOTAK
Rau & Wooten (1980)
(Vol udara)/waktu = h x w x ū [L3/T]

(Berat penc)/waktu = P [M/T]

Konsentrasi pencemar diudara:


(Berat penc/waktu)/(Vol udara/waktu) b, ū

= (Berat penc)/(Vol udara)


h
Atau

C = P/(h x w x ū) + b [M/L3] w

h = mixing height, m
dimana w = lebar box, m
C=Konsentrasi, µg/m3 ū = kecepatan rata angin, m/dt
P=Berat penc yg diemisikan ke troposfir,
µg/dt
b=Konsentrasi latar belakang, µg/m3

Sumber:
Contoh soal model Kotak
Diketahui
h = 300 m
w = 400 m
ū = 10 km/jam
b = 0.3 µg/m3

Hitung konsentrasi ambien Karbon monoksida (CO) yg diemisikan dari2000 kendaraan


roda 4 light duty yang bergerak dalam pengamatan selama1 jam pada jam puncak
dengan kecepatan rata rata 40 km/jam, jika faktor emisi CO dari kendaraan tersebut
46.5g/mil. Temperatur udara 25oC dan tekanan udara 1 atm.

Penyelesaian
ū = 10 km/jam = 10000 m/jam = 2.78 m/dt
Faktor emisi = 46.5 g/mil = 46500000 µg/mil = 28899938 µg/km
P = Emisi CO = 40 km/jam x 28899938 µg/km = 1155997520µg/jam = 321110 µg/dt
C = Konsentrasi ambien CO = (P/(hxwxū))+b = (321110/(300x400x2.78)) + 0.3 µg/m3 =
0.96 + 0.3 µg/m3 = 1.26 µg/m3
PENETAPAN ZONA

A1
B1 A2
A3

C1
An
D1

E1

b, ū
Keterangan:
Batas kota
A1,….An Nomor grid
Isohyet SO2 dlm 24 jam

A1
B1 A2
A3

C1
An
D1
365
350
E1
300
250

Konsentrasi SO2 dlm µg/Nm3 b, ū


Isohyet
Batas kota
REAKSI PEMBENTUKAN SULFUR OKSIDE
Polusi oleh sulfur okside terutama disebabkan oleh dua komponen gas yang tidak berwarna, yaitu sulfur diokside
(SO2) dan sulfur triokside (SO3), dan keduanya disebut sebagai SOx. Sulfur diokside mempunyai karakteristik bau
yang tajam dan tidak terbakar di udara, sedangkan sulfur triokside merupakan komponen yang tidak reaktif.
Pembakaran bahan-bahan organic (sampah
organik) yang mengandung sulfur akan
menghasilkan kedua bentuk sulfur okside,
tetapi jumlah relatif masing-masing tidak
dipengaruhi oleh jumlah oksigen yang
tersedia. Meskipun udara tersedia dalam
jumlah cukup, SO2 selalu terbentuk dalam
jumlah terbesar.

Jumlah SO3 yang terbentuk dipengaruhi


oleh kondisi reaksi, terutama suhu, dan
bervariasi dari 1 sampai 10% dari total SOx.

Gas belerang oksida (SO, SO2) di udara


juga dihasilkan oleh pembakaran fosil
(minyak, batubara). Gas tersebut dapat
beraksi dengan gas nitrogen oksida dan air
hujan, yang menyebabkan air hujan menjadi
asam. Maka terjadilah hujan asam.
Source: Acid rain and its ecological consequences
The Oxford Companion to Global Change; The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclepedia
International Journal of Environmental Studies
(http://uhohacidrain.blogspot.com/2011/05/what-causes-acid-rain.html ….. 24/4/2012)
MITIGASI
1. Pembatasan pembakaran diruang terbuka, mis pada praktek pertanian, melalui peraturan perundangan.
2. Erosi debu oleh angin, yaitu dg penyiraman, stabilisasi tanah, perlindungan dari angin.
3. Pengelolaan pencemaran udara dari permukaan jalan misalnya dg perbaikan permukaan, penyiraman
atau peraturan perundangan.
4. Fugitive-dust-control utk sampah terbuka, penumpukan material, landfill, pengelolaan lahan, IPL cair
dan lain2 dilakukan dengan pembuatan konstruksi pencegah emisi, pengaturan tata ruang dan
pengaturan teknik operasinya.

CATALYTIC CONVERTER
Catalytic converters are still
(colloquially, "cat" or "catcon") most commonly used on
is an exhaust emission control device which converts toxic chemicals automobile exhaust systems,
in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine into less toxic but are also used on generator
substances. Inside a catalytic converter, a catalyst stimulates a sets, forklifts, mining
chemical reaction in which noxious byproducts of combustion are equipment, trucks, buses,
converted to less toxic substances by way of catalysed chemical locomotives, motorcycles,
airplanes and other engine
reactions.
fitted devices. They are also
used on some wood stoves to
The specific reactions vary with the type of catalyst installed. Most control emissions.
present-day vehicles that run on gasoline are fitted with a "three way"
converter, so named because it converts the three main pollutants in This is usually in response to
automobile exhaust: an oxidising reaction converts carbon monoxide government regulation, either
(CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC), and a reduction reaction through direct environmental
regulation or through health
converts oxides of nitrogen (NOx) to produce carbon dioxide (CO2),
and safety regulations.
nitrogen (N2), and water (H2O).

Sumber: diunduh dari :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalytic_converter


MITIGASI
5. Emisi dari penggunaan pestisida misalnya dg penggunaan spray-nozzle bertekanan rendah
dan pengaturan waktu penyemprotan.
6. Emisi dari kendaraan bermotor dikurangi dg substitusi bahan bakar dg yg lebih ramah
lingkungan, efisiensi sistem pembakaran, pengembangan mesin, pengaturan tata ruang dan
peraturan perundangan utk sistem transportasi yg lebih efisien.
7. Utk sumber titik, misalnya dari industri, dilakukan dg cerobong asap, merubah proses,
substitusi material dan IPL gas. Pengendalian dg IPL gas misalnya menggunakan cyclones,
scrubbers, fabric filters dan electrostatic precipitators (utk partikel) dan adsorpsi, absorpsi,
pembakaran dan kondensasi (utk gas).

Two-way Converter
A two-way (or "oxidation") catalytic converter has two simultaneous tasks:
Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide:

2CO + O2 → 2CO2

Oxidation of hydrocarbons (unburnt and partially burnt fuel) to carbon dioxide and water:

CxH2x+2 + [(3x+1)/2] O2 → xCO2 + (x+1) H2O (a combustion reaction)

This type of catalytic converter is widely used on diesel engines to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide
emissions. They were also used on gasoline engines in American- and Canadian-market automobiles until 1981.
Because of their inability to control oxides of nitrogen, they were superseded by three-way converters.

Sumber: diunduh dari :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalytic_converter


KONVERTER TIGA-JALUR
Since 1981, "three-way" (oxidation-reduction) catalytic converters have been used in vehicle emission control
systems in the United States and Canada; many other countries have also adopted stringent vehicle emission
regulations that in effect require three-way converters on gasoline-powered vehicles. The reduction and oxidation
catalysts are typically contained in a common housing, however in some instances they may be housed separately.
A three-way catalytic converter has three simultaneous tasks:

Reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and oxygen: 2NOx → xO2 + N2


Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide: 2CO + O2 → 2CO2

Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) to carbon dioxide and water:

CxH2x+2 + [(3x+1)/2]O2 → xCO2 + (x+1)H2O.

These three reactions occur most efficiently when the catalytic converter receives exhaust from an engine running
slightly above the stoichiometric point. This point is between 14.6 and 14.8 parts air to 1 part fuel, by weight, for
gasoline.
The ratio for Autogas (or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)), natural gas and ethanol fuels is each slightly different,
requiring modified fuel system settings when using those fuels. In general, engines fitted with 3-way catalytic
converters are equipped with a computerized closed-loop feedback fuel injection system using one or more
oxygen sensors, though early in the deployment of three-way converters, carburetors equipped for feedback
mixture control were used.

Three-way catalysts are effective when the engine is operated within a narrow band of air-fuel ratios near stoichiometry, such that the
exhaust gas oscillates between rich (excess fuel) and lean (excess oxygen) conditions. However, conversion efficiency falls very
rapidly when the engine is operated outside of that band of air-fuel ratios. Under lean engine operation, there is excess oxygen and
the reduction of NOx is not favored. Under rich conditions, the excess fuel consumes all of the available oxygen prior to the catalyst,
thus only stored oxygen is available for the oxidation function. Closed-loop control systems are necessary because of the conflicting
requirements for effective NOx reduction and HC oxidation. The control system must prevent the NOx reduction catalyst from
becoming fully oxidized, yet replenish the oxygen storage material to maintain its function as an oxidation catalyst.

Sumber: diunduh dari :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalytic_converter


DAMPAK KERUSAKAN LINGKUNGAN AKIBAT KEGIATAN PENAMBANGAN PASIR DI
DAERAH KAWASAN GUNUNG MERAPI
Endang Supriyatna
Fakultas Teknik Industri Mercubuana
. Pasir merupakan salah satu produk kegiatan Gunung Merapi yang merupakan andalan pemerintah Kabupaten
Magelang dalam meningkatkan Pendapatan Asli Daerah dan juga menyerap lapangan kerja. Selain
mendatangkan manfaat penambangan pasir Merapi juga menimbulkan dampak lingkungan bagi daerah di lokasi
penambangan dan juga bagi daerah di bawahnya. Tingkat kerusakan lingkungan yang terjadi di lokasi
penambangan pasir mengkaji dampak kerusakan lingkungan yang terjadi akibat penambangan pasir mengajukan
usulan pengelolaan lokasi penambangan pasir.
Tingkat erosi di lokasi penambangan pasir adalah moderat dan ringan dan menimbulkan dampak fisik lingkungan
seperti tanah longsor, berkurangnya debit air permukaan (mataair), tingginya lalu lintas kendaraan membuat
mudah rusaknya jalan, polusi udara, dan dampak sosial ekonomi. Dampak sosial ekonomi penyerapan tenaga
kerja karena sebagian masyarakat bekerja menjadi tenaga kerja di penambangan pasir, adanya pemasukan bagi
pemilik tanah yang dijual atau disewakan untuk diambil pasirnya dengan harga tinggi, banyaknya pendatang yang
ikut menambang sehingga dapat menimbulkan konflik, adanya ketakutan sebagian masyarakat karena
penambangan pasir yang berpotensi longsor.

Berdasarkan analisis SWOT maka langkah-langkah yang perlu dilakukan untuk


menghindari dampak lingkungan adalah dengan memanfaatkan teknologi
konservasi lahan dan penegakan hukum melalui peraturan perundangan yang
jelas, transparan dan akuntabel serta pelibatan peran aktif masyarakat.

Sumber: http://industri18endangsupriyatna.blog.mercubuana.ac.id/2011/11/30/dampak-kerusakan-lingkungan-akibat-kegiatan-penambangan-
pasir-di-daerah-kawasan-gunung-merapi/ ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
PELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN DALAM PEMBANGUNAN
BERKELANJUTAN

Pembangunan berwawasan lingkungan adalah usaha meningkatkan kualitas


manusia secara bertahap dengan memerhatikan faktor lingkungan.
Pembangunan berwawasan lingkungan dikenal dengan nama Pembangunan
Berkelanjutan.

Konsep pembangunan berkelanjutan merupakan kesepakatan hasil KTT Bumi di


Rio de Jeniro tahun 1992. Di dalamnya terkandung 2 gagasan penting, yaitu:
1. Gagasan kebutuhan, khususnya kebutuhan pokok manusia untuk menopang
hidup.
2. Gagasan keterbatasan, yaitu keterbatasan kemampuan lingkungan untuk
memenuhi kebutuhan baik masa sekarang maupun masa yang akan datang.

Adapun ciri-ciri Pembangunan Berwawasan Lingkungan adalah sebagai berikut:


1. Menjamin pemerataan dan keadilan.
2. Menghargai keanekaragaman hayati.
3. Menggunakan pendekatan integratif.
4. Menggunakan pandangan jangka panjang.
Sumber: http://afand.abatasa.com/post/detail/2405/lingkungan-hidup-kerusakan-lingkungan-pengertian-kerusakan-linkungan-dan-pelestarian-
.htm….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
UPAYA PELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
Pada masa reformasi sekarang ini, pembangunan nasional dilaksanakan tidak lagi berdasarkan
GBHN dan Propenas, tetapi berdasarkan UU No. 25 Tahun 2000, tentang Sistem Perencanaan
Pembangunan Nasional (SPPN).
Sistem Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional mempunyai tujuan di antaranya:
1. Menjamin tercapainya penggunaan sumber daya secara efisien, efektif, berkeadilan, dan
berkelanjutan.
2. Mengoptimalkan partisipasi masyarakat.
3. Menjamin keterkaitan dan konsistensi antara perencanaan, penganggaran, pelaksanaan, dan
pengawasan.

1. Upaya yang Dilakukan Pemerintah


2. Pemerintah sebagai penanggung jawab terhadap kesejahteraan rakyatnya memiliki tanggung
jawab besar dalam upaya memikirkan dan mewujudkan terbentuknya pelestarian lingkungan
hidup. Hal-hal yang dilakukan pemerintah antara lain:
a. Mengeluarkan UU Pokok Agraria No. 5 Tahun 1960 yang mengatur tentang Tata Guna Tanah.
b. Menerbitkan UU No. 4 Tahun 1982, tentang Ketentuan-ketentuan Pokok Pengelolaan
Lingkungan Hidup.
c. Memberlakukan Peraturan Pemerintah RI No. 24 Tahun 1986, tentang AMDAL (Analisa Mengenai
Dampak Lingkungan).
d. Pada tahun 1991, pemerintah membentuk Badan Pengendalian Lingkungan, dengan tujuan
pokoknya:
1) Menanggulangi kasus pencemaran.
2) Mengawasi bahan berbahaya dan beracun (B3).
3) Melakukan penilaian analisis mengenai dampak lingkungan (AMDAL).
e. Pemerintah mencanangkan gerakan menanam sejuta pohon.
UPAYA PELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
Beberapa upaya yang dapat dilakuklan masyarakat berkaitan dengan pelestarian
lingkungan hidup antara lain:

a. Pelestarian tanah (tanah datar, lahan miring/perbukitan)


Terjadinya bencana tanah longsor dan banjir menunjukkan peristiwa yang
berkaitan dengan masalah tanah. Banjir telah menyebabkan pengikisan lapisan
tanah oleh aliran air yang disebut erosi yang berdampak pada hilangnya
kesuburan tanah serta terkikisnya lapisan tanah dari permukaan bumi.
Tanah longsor disebabkan karena tak ada lagi unsur yang menahan lapisan tanah
pada tempatnya sehingga menimbulkan kerusakan. Jika hal tersebut dibiarkan
terus berlangsung, maka bukan mustahil jika lingkungan berubah menjadi padang
tandus.
Upaya pelestarian tanah dapat dilakukan dengan cara menggalakkan kegiatan
menanam pohon atau penghijauan kembali (reboisasi) terhadap tanah yang
semula gundul.
Untuk daerah perbukitan atau pegunungan yang posisi tanahnya miring perlu
dibangun terasering atau sengkedan, sehingga mampu menghambat laju aliran
air hujan.

Sumber: http://rovicky.wordpress.com/2007/03/03/kenali-tanda-tanda-awal-longsoran-awas/ ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


UPAYA PELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
Tips Menghadapi Longsor dan Ciri Daerah Rawan Longsor (Tim Bakornas – 2005)
Ciri Daerah Rawan Longsor
1. Daerah berbukit dengan kelerengan lebih dari 20 derajat
2. Lapisan tanah tebal di atas lereng
3. Sistem tata air dan tata guna lahan yang kurang baik
4. Lereng terbuka atau gundul
5. Terdapat retakan tapal kuda pada bagian atas tebing
6. Banyaknya mata air/rembesan air pada tebing disertai longsoran-longsoran kecil
7. Adanya aliran sungai di dasar lereng
8. Pembebanan yang berlebihan pada lereng seperti adanya bangunan rumah atau saranan lainnya.
9. Pemotongan tebing untuk pembangunan rumah atau jalan

Upaya mengurangi tanah longsor


1. Menutup retakan pada atas tebing dengan material lempung.
2. Menanami lereng dengan tanaman serta memperbaiki tata air dan guna lahan.
3. Waspada terhadap mata air/rembesan air pada lereng.
4. Waspada padsa saat curah hujan yang tinggi pada waktu yang lama

Hal-hal yang dilakukan pada saat dan setelah longsor


1. Karena longsor terjadi pada saat yang mendadak, evakuasi penduduk segera setelah diketahui
tanda-tanda tebing akan longsor.
2. Segera hubungi pihak terkait dan lakukan pemindahan korban dengan hati-hati.
3. Segera lakukan pemindahan penduduk ke tempat yang aman.

Sumber: http://rovicky.wordpress.com/2007/03/03/kenali-tanda-tanda-awal-longsoran-awas/ ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


UPAYA PELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
b. Pelestarian udara

Udara merupakan unsur vital bagi kehidupan, karena setiap organisme bernapas memerlukan
udara. Kalian mengetahui bahwa dalam udara terkandung beranekaragam gas, salah satunya
oksigen.
Udara yang kotor karena debu atau pun asap sisa pembakaran menyebabkan kadar oksigen
berkurang. Keadaan ini sangat membahayakan bagi kelangsungan hidup setiap organisme. Maka
perlu diupayakan kiat-kiat untuk menjaga kesegaran udara lingkungan agar tetap bersih, segar, dan
sehat.

Upaya yang dapat dilakukan untuk menjaga agar udara tetap bersih dan sehat antara lain:
1. Menggalakkan penanaman pohon atau pun tanaman hias di sekitar kita. Tanaman dapat menyerap gas-gas
yang membahayakan bagi manusia. Tanaman mampu memproduksi oksigen melalui proses fotosintesis.
Rusaknya hutan menyebabkan jutaan tanaman lenyap sehingga produksi oksigen bagi atmosfer jauh
berkurang, di samping itu tumbuhan juga mengeluarkan uap air, sehingga kelembapan udara akan tetap
terjaga.

2. Mengupayakan pengurangan emisi atau pembuangan gas sisa pembakaran, baik pembakaran hutan maupun
pembakaran mesin Asap yang keluar dari knalpot kendaraan dan cerobong asap merupakan penyumbang
terbesar kotornya udara di perkotaan dan kawasan industri. Salah satu upaya pengurangan emisi gas
berbahaya ke udara adalah dengan menggunakan bahan industri yang aman bagi lingkungan, serta
pemasangan filter pada cerobong asap pabrik.

3. Mengurangi atau bahkan menghindari pemakaian gas kimia yang dapat merusak lapisan ozon di atmosfer Gas
freon yang digunakan untuk pendingin pada AC maupun kulkas serta dipergunakan di berbagai produk
kosmetika, adalah gas yang dapat bersenyawa dengan gas ozon, sehingga mengakibatkan lapisan ozon
menyusut. Lapisan ozon adalah lapisan di atmosfer yang berperan sebagai filter bagi bumi, karena mampu
memantulkan kembali sinar ultraviolet ke luar angkasa yang dipancarkan oleh matahari. Sinar ultraviolet yang
UPAYA PELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
c. Pelestarian hutan
Eksploitasi hutan yang terus menerus berlangsung sejak dahulu hingga kini tanpa diimbangi
dengan penanaman kembali, menyebabkan kawasan hutan menjadi rusak. Pembalakan liar yang
dilakukan manusia merupakan salah satu penyebab utama terjadinya kerusakan hutan.
Padahal hutan merupakan penopang kelestarian kehidupan di bumi, sebab hutan bukan hanya
menyediakan bahan pangan maupun bahan produksi, melainkan juga penghasil oksigen, penahan
lapisan tanah, dan menyimpan cadangan air.

Upaya yang dapat dilakukan untuk melestarikan hutan:


1. Reboisasi atau penanaman kembali hutan yang gundul.
2. Melarang pembabatan hutan secara sewenang-
wenang.
3. Menerapkan sistem tebang pilih dalam menebang
pohon.
4. Menerapkan sistem tebang–tanam dalam kegiatan
penebangan hutan.
5. Menerapkan sanksi yang berat bagi mereka yang
melanggar ketentuan mengenai pengelolaan hutan.

Sumber: ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


UPAYA PELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP DALAM PEMBANGUNAN BERKELANJUTAN
d. Pelestarian laut dan pantai Schematic diagram of the six components of the tropical
coastal shelf ecosystem (modified from Crewz and Lewis
(1991))
Seperti halnya hutan, laut juga sebagai sumber
daya alam potensial. Kerusakan biota laut dan
pantai banyak disebabkan karena ulah manusia.
Pengambilan pasir pantai, karang di laut,
pengrusakan hutan bakau, merupakan kegatan-
kegiatan manusia yang mengancam kelestarian
laut dan pantai. Terjadinya abrasi yang
mengancam kelestarian pantai disebabkan telah
hilangnya hutan bakau di sekitar pantai yang
merupakan pelindung alami terhadap gempuran
ombak.

Upaya untuk melestarikan laut dan pantai dapat


dilakukan dengan cara:
1. Melakukan reklamasi pantai dengan
menanam kembali tanaman bakau di areal
sekitar pantai.
2. Melarang pengambilan batu karang yang
ada di sekitar pantai maupun di dasar laut,
karena karang merupakan habitat ikan dan
tanaman laut.
3. Melarang pemakaian bahan peledak dan
bahan kimia lainnya dalam mencari ikan.
4. Melarang pemakaian pukat harimau untuk
mencari ikan.

Sumber: http://www.reefball.com/reefballcoalition/mangrovestuff/mangroverestoration.pdf ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


UPAYA PELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

e. Pelestarian flora dan fauna


Kehidupan di bumi merupakan sistem ketergantungan antara manusia,
hewan, tumbuhan, dan alam sekitarnya. Terputusnya salah satu mata
rantai dari sistem tersebut akan mengakibatkan gangguan dalam
kehidupan.

Oleh karena itu, kelestarian flora dan fauna merupakan hal yang mutlak
diperhatikan demi kelangsungan hidup manusia.

Upaya yang dapat dilakukan untuk menjaga kelestarian flora


dan fauna di antaranya adalah:
1.Mendirikan cagar alam dan suaka margasatwa.
2.Melarang kegiatan perburuan liar.
3.Menggalakkan kegiatan penghijauan.

Sumber: http://www.reefball.com/reefballcoalition/mangrovestuff/mangroverestoration.pdf ….. Diunduh 26/4/2012


UPAYA PELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
The five critical steps are necessary to achieve successful mangrove
restoration:
1. Understand the autecology (individual species ecology) of the mangrove
species at the site; in particular the patterns of reproduction, propagule
distribution, and successful seedling establishment.

2. Understand the normal hydrologic patterns that control the distribution


and successful establishment and growth of targeted mangrove species.
3. Assess modifications of the original mangrove environment that
currently prevent natural secondary succession.
4. Design the restoration program to restore appropriate hydrology and, if
possible, utilize natural volunteer mangrove propagule recruitment for
plant establishment.

5. Only utilize actual planting of propagules, collected seedlings, or


cultivated seedlings after determining (through steps a-d) that natural
recruitment will not provide the quantity of successfully established
seedlings, rate of stabilization, or rate of growth of saplings established
as objectives for the restoration project (Lewis and Marshall 1997).

Sumber: http://www.reefball.com/reefballcoalition/mangrovestuff/mangroverestoration.pdf ….. Diunduh 26/4/2012


DAMPAK KERUSAKAN HUTAN

DAMPAK KERUSAKAN HUTAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN HIDUP


(Oleh : MOHAMMAD AQSA, S.Hut.)

Hutan menurut undang-undang nomor 41 tahun 1999 adalah suatu kawasan


ekosistem berupa hamparan lahan berisi sumber daya alam hayati yang
didominasi pepohonan dalam persekutuan alam lingkungan, yang satu dengan
lainnya tidak dapat dipisahkan.

Hutan sebagai sekumpulan ekosistem dimana saling berhubungan erat antara


hutan dan lingkungan baik itu berupa pepohonan, benda-benda hayati dan non
hayati, lingkungan pendukung (jasa) dimana semua yang ada diatas selalu
saling berhubungan dan saling mempengaruhi.
Hutan secara keseluruhan merupakan kumpulan hidup alam hayati beserta alam
lingkungannya.
Keanekaragaman hayati dalam suatu kawasan hutan alam terdapat beragam
jenis pepohonan, umur yang beragam dan tingkat kerapatan yang tidak teratur
dan pertumbuhan (riap yang berbeda)

Sumber: http://mimpi22.wordpress.com/2010/04/22/dampak-kerusakan-hutan-terhadap-lingkungan-hidup/….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


DAMPAK KERUSAKAN HUTAN
DAMPAK KERUSAKAN HUTAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
(Oleh : MOHAMMAD AQSA, S.Hut.)

Faktor-faktor penyebab kerusakan hutan :

A. Segi biofisik
1. Illegal logging (Penebangan liar)
Terjadinya penebangan liar dalam suatu kawasan hutan semakin memicu
terjadinya kereusakan hutan dan menurunnya/berubah fungsi hutan,
walaupun penebangan liar telah dilarang selama bertahun-tahun oleh
pemerintah setempat dan pihak militer, namun sekarang ini terdapat bahaya
besar yang mengancam dengan merajalelanya pandangan “bebas bagi siapa
saja” termasuk penduduk untuk menebang kayu sebanyak-banyaknya.

2. Kebakaran hutan
Kebakaran hutan yang terjadi di Indonesia ini, karena keteledoran dari
masyarakat itu sendiri yang tidak memperhatikan/tidak memperdulikan
seperti membuang puntung rokok ke hutan dan lain-lain.

Sumber: http://mimpi22.wordpress.com/2010/04/22/dampak-kerusakan-hutan-terhadap-lingkungan-hidup/….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


DAMPAK KERUSAKAN HUTAN
DAMPAK KERUSAKAN HUTAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
(Oleh : MOHAMMAD AQSA, S.Hut.)

Faktor-faktor penyebab kerusakan hutan :


3. Perambahan hutan
Petani yang menanam tanaman tahunan perkebunan dapat mengakibatkan ancaman
utama berupa kerusakan hutan yang diciptakan oleh petani kaya, imigran dan pengusaha
dari kota yang mengubah hutan menjadi lahan penanaman tanaman keras yang
menguntungkan.

4. Program pembangunan
Program pembangunan yang mendayagunakan lahan hutan seperti sawah,
transmigrasi (pemukiman), perkebunan, dan lain-lain sehingga hutan menjadi
berubah fungsi dan akan berakibat buruk bagi lingkungan.

5. Serangan hama dan penyakit


Timbulnya ledakan hama secara besar-besaran akibat dari penggunaan pestisida
yang berlebihan sehingga membuat hama dan penyakit ada yang menjadi kebal
terhadap pestisida dan menyerang semua tumbuhan atau pepohonan yang ada dalam
suatu kawasan hutan.

Sumber: http://mimpi22.wordpress.com/2010/04/22/dampak-kerusakan-hutan-terhadap-lingkungan-hidup/….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


DAMPAK KERUSAKAN HUTAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
(Oleh : MOHAMMAD AQSA, S.Hut.)

B. Segi Manajemen

1. Kebijakan pemerintah yang tidak memihak kepada lingkungan misalnya, dalam penyusunan tata
ruang, yang seharusnya suatu lahan itu adalah kawasan hutan, menjadi kawasan pertanian,
pemukimam dan lain-lain.
2. Perencanaan pembangunan yang kurang memperhatikan kelestarian hutan seperti
pembangunan rumah dari batu merah, dimana pabrik batu merah berdiri di sekitar kawasan
hutan, dimana pabrik itu menggunakan bahan bakar kayu yang diambil dari hutan sehingga
masyarakat beramai-ramai menggunduli hutan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pasokan kayu bakar
dari pabrik batu merah.
3. Persepsi dan pemahaman masyarakat yang tidak tepat terhadap sumber daya hutan, dimana
masyarakat lebih dominan menanam tanaman pertanian dari pada tanaman kehutanan karena
waktu yang dibutuh kan oleh tanaman pertanian lebih cepat menghasilkan daripada tanaman
kehutanan.
4. Ekosistem adalah suatu sistem dimana terdapat hubungan timbal balik antara organisme dan
lingkungannya (biotik dan abiotik) serta terdapat pula pertukaran/arus energi dan materi diantara
organisme dengan lingkungan tersebut. Ekosistem terbagi dua yaitu : ekosistem alami yaitu
hutan alam dan sungai, sedangkan ekosistem buatan antara lain waduk, lahan pertanian,
pemukiman dan lain-lain. Ekosistem alami mempunyai kemantapan yang tinggi dibanding
ekosistem buatan. Ciri-ciri dari ekosistem yaitu terjadinya hubungan ekologi dan sistem yang
ada atau hubungan timbal balik antara manusia dengan lingkungan dan membentuk suatu
kesatuan.

Sumber: http://mimpi22.wordpress.com/2010/04/22/dampak-kerusakan-hutan-terhadap-lingkungan-hidup/….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


DAMPAK KERUSAKAN HUTAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
(Oleh : MOHAMMAD AQSA, S.Hut.)
Peran hutan dalam suatu sistem lingkungan
1. Fungsi lindung
Dalam suatu kawasan hutan mempunyai fungsi pokok sebagai perlindungan sistem penyangga kehidupan untuk
mengatur tata air, mencegah banjir, mengembalikan erosi, mencegah intrusi air laut dan memelihara kesuburan
tanah.
2. Fungsi produksi
Dalam suatu kawasan hutan mempunyai fungsi pokok memproduksi hasil hutan untuk kepentingan peningkatan
devisa dan kesejahteraan masyarakat.
3. Fungsi konservasi (perlindungan)
Dapat dikatakan sebagai fungsi pemeliharaan dan pengawetan keanekaragaman hayati dan ekosistem yaitu
hutan menjadi suatu kawasan konservasi yaitu kawasan dengan lingkungan yang baik, udara yang segar dan
pemandangan yang indah seperti kawasan pelestarian alam (KPA) yang terdiri dari taman nasional, taman hutan
raya dan taman wisata. Kawasan suaka alam (KSA) terdiri dari cagar alam (CA), suaka marga satwa (SM), dan
cagar biosfer (CB).

Pengaruh global di hutan tehadap sistem kehidupan:


1. Pengaruh terhadap iklim
Hutam merupakan produsen terbesar dari oksigen dan Indonesia memiliki banyak hutan tropika basah
sebagai penghasil terbesar oksigen.
2. Pengaruh terhadap curah hujan
Pengaruh hutan terhadap curah hujan sangat besar. Di negara-negara kepulauan, pengaruh curah hujan
mencapai 60% dan di lautan 40%. Salah satu cara memperbaiki iklim kita adalah dengan memperbaiki hutan
kita agar perubahan-perubahan iklim tidak terlalu variatif seperti mencairnya es di kutub, pemanasan global.

Hal-hal pokok yang perlu diperhatikan:


1. Komponen-komponen pendukung yang mendukung fungsi tersebut seperti fungsi dari suaka alam misalnya
eboni.
2. Tanaman-tanaman lainnya yang merupakan asosiasi dari eboni tadi
3. Fauna / satwa yang ada di sekitar itu
DAMPAK KERUSAKAN HUTAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
(Oleh : MOHAMMAD AQSA, S.Hut.)
Unsur-unsur terbesar dari kerusakan lingkungan yaitu :

1. Hutan
Perkiraan tidak resmi dari bank dunia menyatakan bahwa setiap tahunnya Indonesia kehilangan 1,5
juta Ha hutan selama 12 tahun terakhir dan apabila ini dibiarkan maka akan terjadi
ketidakstabilan/ketidakseimbangan lingkungan yang akan berdampak buruk bagi kehidupan manusia.
2. Pencemaran
Pencemaran sekarang menjadi marak di Indonesia, dimana limbah-limbah pabrik dibuang begitu saja
tanpa memperhatikan dampak yang terjadi pada lingkungan.
3. Kemiskinan
Hal ini akan memicu kerusakan lingkungan semakin besar karena setiap orang akan berbuat apa saja
demi sesuap nasi walaupun yang dilakukan ini adalah merusak lingkungan.

Forest degradation means any negative changes in a forest that damage its productivity; any time a forest is made
worse by:
1. overexploitation (any time it is used too much by farmers or tourists),
2. logging (deforestation),
3. logging camps and
4. logging roads built through the forest.
5. air pollution,
6. fires,
7. insects and
8. vegetation diseases.
9. firewood scavenging
10.animal foraging
11.pasturing
12.industrialisation (factories)
13.urbanisation
Sumber:(buildings)
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_forest_degradation ….. Diunduh 26/4/2012
Sometimes the term Forest Degradation does NOT include cutting down trees, which is then referred to as
DAMPAK PENCEMARAN AIR
1. Apa itu pencemaran air?

Pencemaran air adalah suatu perubahan keadaan di suatu tempat penampungan air seperti danau, sungai,
lautan dan air tanah akibat aktivitas manusia.Danau, sungai, lautan dan air tanah adalah bagian penting dalam
siklus kehidupan manusia dan merupakan salah satu bagian dari siklus hidrologi. Selain mengalirkan air juga
mengalirkan sedimen dan polutan. Berbagai macam fungsinya sangat membantu kehidupan manusia.
Kemanfaatan terbesar danau, sungi, lautan dan air tanah adalah untuk irigasi pertanian, bahan baku air minum,
sebagai saluran pembuangan air hujan dan air limbah, bahkan sebenarnya berpotensi sebagai objek wisata.

Dalam PP No 20/1990 tentang Pengendalian Pencemaran Air, pencemaran air di definisikan sebagai :
“Pencemaran air adalah masuknya atau dimasukkannya makhluk hidup, zat, energi, dan atau komponen lain ke
dalam air oleh kegiatan manusia sehingga kualitas dari air tersebut turun hingga batas tertentu yang
menyebabkan air tidak berguna lagi sesuai dengan peruntukannya.(Pasal 1, angka 2).

Pencemaran air terjadi pada sumber-sumber air seperti danau, sungai, laut dan air tanah yang disebabkan oleh
aktivitas manusia. Air dikatakan tercemar jika tidak dapat digunakan sesuai dengan fungsinya. Walaupun
fenomena alam, seperti gunung meletus, pertumbuhan ganggang, gulma yang sangat cepat, badai dan gempa
bumi merupakan penyebab utama perubahan kualitas air, namun fenomena tersebut tidak dapat disalahkan
sebagai penyebab pencemaran air.

Pencemaran ini dapat disebabkan oleh limbah industri, perumahan, pertanian, rumah tangga, industri, dan
penangkapan ikan dengan menggunakan racun. Polutan industri antara lain polutan organik (limbah cair), polutan
anorganik (padatan, logam berat), sisa bahan bakar, tumpaham minyak tanah dan oli merupakan sumber utama
pencemaran air, terutama air tanah. Disamping itu penggundulan hutan, baik untuk pembukaan lahan pertanian,
perumahan dan konstruksi bangunan lainnya mengakibatkan pencemaran air tanah.

Sumber: http://uwityangyoyo.wordpress.com/2012/02/01/menurunnya-kualitas-air-akibat-kerusakan-lingkungan/ ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


DAMPAK PENCEMARAN AIR
1. Apa itu pencemaran air?

Limbah rumah tangga seperti sampah organik (sisa-sisa makanan), sampah anorganik (plastik, gelas, kaleng)
serta bahan kimia (detergen, batu batere) juga berperan besar dalam pencemaran air, baik air di permukaan
maupun air tanah. Polutan dalam air mencakup unsur-unsur kimia, pathogen/bakteri dan perubahan sifat Fisika
dan kimia dari air. Banyak unsur-unsur kimia merupakan racun yang mencemari air. Patogen/bakteri
mengakibatkan pencemaran air sehingga menimbulkan penyakit pada manusia dan binatang. Adapuan sifat fisika
dan kimia air meliputi derajat keasaman, konduktivitas listrik, suhu dan pertilisasi permukaan air. Di negara-
negara berkembang, seperti Indonesia, pencemaran air (air permukaan dan air tanah) merupakan penyebab
utama gangguan kesehatan manusia/penyakit.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di seluruh dunia, lebih dari 14.000 orang meninggal dunia setiap hari akibat
penyakit yang ditimbulkan oleh pencemaran air. Secara umum, sumber-sumber pencemaran air adalah sebagai
berikut :
1. Limbah industri (bahan kimia baik cair ataupun padatan, sisa-sisa bahan bakar, tumpahan minyak dan oli,
kebocoran pipa-pipa minyak tanah yang ditimbun dalam tanah)
2. Pengungangan lahan hijau/hutan akibat perumahan, bangunan
3. Limbah pertanian (pembakaran lahan, pestisida)
4. Limbah pengolahan kayu
5. Penggunakan bom oleh nelayan dalam mencari ikan di laut
6. Rumah tangga (limbah cair, seperti sisa mandi, MCK, sampah padatan seperti plastik, gelas, kaleng, batu
batere, sampah cair seperti detergen dan sampah organik, seperti sisa-sisa makanan dan sayuran).

Sumber: http://uwityangyoyo.wordpress.com/2012/02/01/menurunnya-kualitas-air-akibat-kerusakan-lingkungan/ ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


DAMPAK PENCEMARAN AIR
Penyebab pencemaran air

Berdasarkan defisini dari pencemaran air, dapat diketahui bahwa penyebab pencemaran air dapat berupa
masuknya makhluk hidup, zat, energi ataupun komponen lain sehingga kualias air menurun dan air pun tercemar.
Banyak penyebab pencemaran air, tetapi secara umum dapat dikategorikan menjadi 2 (dua) yaitu sumber
kontaminan langsung dan dan tidak langsung.Sumber langsung meliputi efluen yang keluar industri, TPA sampah,
rumah tangga dan sebagainya.Sumber tak langsung adalah kontaminan yang memasuki badan air dari tanah, air
tanah atau atmosfir berupa hujan.Pada dasarnya sumber pencemaran air berasal dari industri, rumah tangga
(pemukiman) dan pertanian.Tanah dan air mengandung sisa dari aktifitas pertanian seperti pupuk dan
pestisida.Kontaminan dari atmosfir juga berasal dari aktifitas manusia yaitu pencemaran udara yang
menghasilkan hujan asam.
Selain itu pencemaran air dapat disebabkan oleh berbagai hal dan memiliki karakteristik yang berbeda-beda,
seperti :
Meningkatnya kandungan nutrien dapat mengarah pada eutrofikasi.
Sampah organik seperti air comberan (sewage) menyebabkan peningkatan kebutuhan oksigen pada air yang
menerimanya yang mengarah pada berkurangnya oksigen yang dapat berdampak parah terhadap seluruh
ekosistem.

Aktivitas industri membuang berbagai macam polutan ke dalam air limbahnya seperti logam
berat, toksin organik, minyak, nutrien dan padatan.

Air limbah tersebut memiliki efek thermal, terutama yang dikeluarkan oleh pembangkit listrik,
yang dapat juga mengurangi oksigen dalam air.

Seperti limbah pabrik yg mengalir ke sungai seperti di Sungai Citarum, Sungai Brantas,
Bengawan Solo, dan lainnya.
DAMPAK PENCEMARAN AIR
Komponen pencemaran air
Zaman sekarang ini manusia telah mengenal banyak sekali jenis-jenis zat kimia.Dan hampir 100.000 zat kimia
digunakan secara komersil.Sebagian besar sisa zat kimia tersebut dibuang ke badan air atau air tanah.Seperti
pestisida yang digunakan di pertanian, industri atau rumah tangga, deterjen yang digunakan di rumah tangga,
atau PCBs yang biasa digunakan dalam alat-alat elektronik.

1. Limbah Padat
Bahan buangan padat adalah bahan buangan yang berbentuk padat, baik yang kasar maupun yang halus,
misalnya sampah. Buangan tersebut bila dibuang ke air menjadi pencemaran dan akan menimbulkan pelarutan,
pengendapan ataupun pembentukan koloidal.

2. Limbah organik dan olahan bahan makanan


Bahan buangan organic umumnya berupa limbah yang dapat membusuk atau terdegradasi oleh mikroorganisme,
sehingga bila dibuang ke perairan akan menaikkan populasi mikroorganisme.

3. Limbah Anorganik

Bahan buangan anorganik sukar didegradasi oleh mikroorganisme,


umumnya adalah logam.
Apabila masuk ke perairan, maka akan terjadi peningkatan jumlah ion
logam dalam air.
Bahan buangan anorganik ini biasanya berasal dari limbah industri
yang melimbatkan unsur-unsur logam seperti timbal (Pb), Arsen (As),
Magnesium (Mg), dll.
DAMPAK PENCEMARAN AIR
4. Limbah cairan berminyak
Bahan buangan berminyak yang dibuang ke air lingkungan akan mengapung menutupi permukaan air.
Jika bahan buangan minyak mengandung senyawa yang volatile, maka akan terjadi penguapan dan luas
permukaan minyak yang menutupi permukaan air akan menyusut. Penyusutan minyak ini tergantung
jenis minyak dan waktu.Lapisan minyak pada permukaan air dapat terdegradasi oleh mikroorganisme
tertentu, tetapi membutuhkan waktu yang lama.

5. Limbah berupa panas


Perubahan kecil pada temperatur air lingkungan bukan saja dapat menghalau ikan atau spesies lainnya,
namun juga akan mempercepat proses biologis pada tumbuhan dan hewan bahkan akan menurunkan
tingkat oksigen dalam air. Akibatnya akan terjadi kematian pada ikan atau akan terjadi kerusakan
ekosistem.

6. Limbah zat kimia


Bahan buangan zat kimia banyak ragamnya, tetapi dalam
bahan pencemaran air ini akan dikelompokkan menjadi :

a. Sabun (deterjen, sampo dan bahan pembersih lainnya),


b. Bahan pemberantas hama (insektisida),
Zat warna kimia, Zat radioaktif.
DAMPAK PENCEMARAN AIR

BAHAYA PENCEMARAN AIR


Bibit- bibit penyakit berbagai zat yang bersifat racun dan bahan radioaktif dapat
merugikan manusia.Berbagai polutan memerlukan O2 untuk penguraiannya.Jika O2
kurang, penguraiannya tidak sempurna dan menyebabkan air berubah warnanya dan
berbau busuk. Bahan atau logam yang berbahaya seperti arsenat, uradium, krom, timah,
air raksa, benzon, tetraklorida, karbon dan lain- lain dapat merusak organ tubuh manusia
atau dapatmenyebabkan kanker. Sejumlah besar limbah dari sungai akan masuk ke laut.

Banyak akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh polusi air, diantaranya:


Terganggunya kehidupan organisme air karena berkurangnya kandungan oksigen
Terjadinya ledakan ganggang dan tumbuhan air
Pendangkalan dasar perairan
Tersumbatnya penyaring reservoir, dan menyebabkan perubahan ekologi
Dalam jangka panjang mengakibatkan kanker dan kelahiran cacat
Akibat penggunaan pestisida yang berlebihan selain membunuh hama dan penyakit, juga
membunuh serangga dan makhluk yang berguna terutama predator
Kematian biota kuno, seperti plankton, ikan bahkan burung
Dapat mengakibatkan mutasi sel kanker dan leukemia

Sumber: ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


DAMPAK PENCEMARAN AIR
BAHAYA PENCEMARAN AIR
Beberapa contoh polutannya adalah sebagai berikut :

1. Fosfat. Fosfat berasal dari penggunaan pupuk buatan yang berlebihan dan deterjen.

2. Nitrat dan Nitrit. Kedua senyawa ini berasal dari penggunaan pupuk buatan yang berlebihan dan proses
pembusukan materi organic.

3. Poliklorin Bifenil (PCB). Senyawa ini berasal dari pemanfaatan bahan-bahan pelumas, plastik dan alat listrik.

4. Residu Pestisida Organiklorin. Residu ini berasal dari penyemprotan pestisida pada tanaman untuk
membunuh serangga.

5. Minyak dan Hidrokarbon. Minyak dan hidrokarbon dapat berasal dari kebocoran pada roda dan kapal
pengangkut minyak.

6. Radio Nuklida. Radio nuklida atau unsur radioaktif berasal dari kebocoran tangki penyimpanan limbah
radioaktif.

7. Logam-logam Berat. Logam berat berasal dari industri bahan kimia, penambangan dan bensin.

8. Limbah Pertanian. Limbah pertanian berasal dari kotoran hewan dan tempat penyimpanan makanan ternak.

9. Kotoran manusia. Kotoran manusia berasal dari saluran pembuangan tinja manusia.

Sumber: ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


DAMPAK PENCEMARAN AIR
Dampak pencemaran air di lingkungan sekitar
Pencemaran air berdampak luas, misalnya dapat meracuni sumber air minum, meracuni makanan hewan,
ketidakseimbangan ekosistem sungai dan danau, pengrusakan hutan akibat hujan asam, dan sebagainya. Di badan
air, sungai dan danau, nitrogen dan fosfat (dari kegiatan pertanian) telah menyebabkan pertumbuhan tanaman air
yang di luar kendali (eutrofikasi berlebihan). Ledakan pertumbuhan ini menyebabkan oksigen, yang seharusnya
digunakan bersama oleh seluruh hewan/tumbuhan air, menjadi berkurang.Ketika tanaman air tersebut mati,
dekomposisi mereka menyedot lebih banyak oksigen. Sebagai akibatnya, ikan akan mati, dan aktivitas bakteri
menurun.
Dampak pencemaran air pada umumnya dibagi atas 4 kelompok, yaitu :
1. Dampak terhadap kehidupan biota air
2. Dampak terhadap kualitas air tanah
3. Dampak terhadap kesehatan
4. Dampak terhadap estetika lingkungan.

1. Dampak terhadap kehidupan biota air


Banyaknya zat pencemaran pada air limbah akan menyebabkan menurunnya kadar oksigen terlarut dalam air
tersebut. Sehingga mengakibatkan kehidupan air membutuhkan oksigen terganggu serta mengurangi
perkembangannya.
Akibat matinya bakteri-bakteri, maka proses penjernihan air secara alamiah yang seharusnya terjadi pada air
limbah juga terhambat. Dengan air limbah yang sulit terurai. Panas dari industri juga akan membawa dampak bagi
kematian organisme, apabila air limbah tidak didinginkan terlebih dahulu.

2. Dampak terhadap kualitas air tanah


Pencemaran air tanah oleh tinja yang biasa diukur dengan faecal coliform telah terjadi dalam skala yang luas, hal
ini dibuktikan oleh suatu survey sumur dangkal di Jakarta. Banyak penelitian yang mengindikasikan terjadinya
pencemaran tersebut.

Sumber: http://uwityangyoyo.wordpress.com/2012/02/01/menurunnya-kualitas-air-akibat-kerusakan-lingkungan/….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


DAMPAK PENCEMARAN AIR

Dampak pencemaran air di lingkungan sekitar.

3. Dampak terhadap kesehatan


Peran air sebagai pembawa penyakit menular bermacam-macam antara lain :
1. Air sebagai media untuk hidup mikroba pathogen,
2. Air sebagai sarang insekta penyebar penyakit,
3. Jumlah air yang tersedia tidak cukup, sehingga manusia bersangkutan tak
dapat membersihkan diri,
4. Air sebaga media untuk hidup vector penyakit.

4. Dampak terhadap estetika lingkungan

Dengan semakin banyaknya zat organik yang dibuang ke lingkungan perairan, maka
perairan tersebut akan semakin tercemar yang biasanya ditandai dengan bau yang
menyengat disamping tumpukan yang dapat mengurangi estetika lingkungan.
Masalah limbah minyak atau lemak juga dapat mengurangi estetika lingkungan.

(diunduh dari: : http://uwityangyoyo.wordpress.com/2012/02/01/menurunnya-


kualitas-air-akibat-kerusakan-lingkungan/)

Sumber…http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/pollution/culturaleutroph.jpg.. Diunduh 27/4/2012


DAMPAK PENCEMARAN AIR

Sumber…http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/pollution/culturaleutroph.jpg.. Diunduh 27/4/2012


PENANGGULANGAN TERJADINYA PENCEMARAN AIR
Pengolahan limbah industri sebelum dibuang ke tempat pembuangan, dialirkan ke sungai atau selokan
hendaknya dikumpulkan di suatu tempat yang disediakan, kemudian diolah, agar bila terpaksa harus dibuang ke
sungai tidak menyebabkan terjadinya pencemaran air. Bahkan kalau dapat setelah diolah tidak dibuang ke sungai
melainkan dapat digunakan lagi untuk keperluan industri sendiri. Sampah padat dari rumah tangga berupa plastik
atau serat sintetis yang tidak dapat diuraikan oleh mikroorganisme dipisahkan, kemudian diolah menjadi bahan
lain yang berguna, misalnya dapat diolah menjadi keset. Sampah organik yang dapat diuraikan oleh
mikroorganisme dikubur dalam lubang tanah, kemudian kalau sudah membusuk dapat digunakan sebagai pupuk.

Untuk mencegah agar tidak terjadi pencemaran air, dalam aktivitas kita dalam memenuhi kebutuhan hidup
hendaknya tidak menambah terjadinya bahan pencemar antara lain tidak membuang sampah rumah tangga,
sampah rumah sakit, sampah/limbah industri secara sembarangan, tidak membuang ke dalam air sungai, danau
ataupun ke dalam selokan. Tidak menggunakan pupuk dan pestisida secara berlebihan, karena sisa pupuk dan
pestisida akan mencemari air di lingkungan tanah pertanian. Tidak menggunakan deterjen fosfat, karena senyawa
fosfat merupakan makanan bagi tanaman air seperti enceng gondok yang dapat menyebabkan terjadinya
pencemaran air.

Pencemaran air yang terjadi secara alami adalah adanya jumlah logam-logam berat yang masuk dan
menumpuk dalam tubuh manusia, logam berat ini dapat meracuni organ tubuh melalui pencernaan
karena tubuh memakan tumbuh-tumbuhan yang mengandung logam berat meskipun diperlukan
dalam jumlah kecil.
Penumpukan logam-logam berat ini terjadi dalam tumbuh-tumbuhan karena terkontaminasi oleh
limbah industri.

Untuk menanggulangi agar tidak terjadi penumpukan logam-logam berat, maka limbah industri
hendaknya dilakukan pengolahan sebelum dibuang ke lingkungan.
PENANGGULANGAN TERJADINYA PENCEMARAN AIR
Proses pencegahan terjadinya pencemaran lebih baik daripada proses penanggulangan terhadap pencemaran
yang telah terjadi.

Usaha-usaha tersebut dapat dilakukan, diantaranya melalui menjaga air tanah agar tetap bersih misalnya:
1. Menempatkan daerah industri atau pabrik jauh dari daerah perumahan atau pemukiman
2. Pembuangan limbah industri diatur sehingga tidak mencermari lingkungan atau ekosistem
3. Pengawasan terhadap penggunaan jenis–jenis pestisida dan zat–zat kimia lain yang dapat
menimbulkan pencemaran
4. Memperluas gerakan penghijauan
5. Tindakan tegas terhadap perilaku pencemaran lingkungan
6. Memberikan kesadaran terhadap masyaratkat tentang arti lingkungan hidup sehingga manusia lebih
lebih mencintai lingkungan hidupnya
7. Melakukan intensifikasi pertanian

Sumber: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/water/waterqual.htm ….. Diunduh 27/4/2012


PENANGGULANGAN TERJADINYA PENCEMARAN AIR
Adapun cara lain untuk mengatasi polusi air atau yang dikenai dengan sebutan banjir pun ada dua macam :
1. Banjir Bandang dapat diatasi secara meluas dengan didukung berbagai disiplin ilmu.
2. Banjir genangan dapat diatasi dengan membersihkan air dari penyumbatan yang mengakibatkan air
meluap.

Banyak orang mengatakan ” lebih baik mecegah dari pada mengatasi”, hal ini berlaku pula pada banjir genangan
di bawah ini ada sejumlah langkah yang dapat kita lakukan untuk mencegah banjir genangan :
1. Dalam merencanakan jalan – jalan lingkungan baik itu program pemerintah maupun swadaya masyarakat
sebaiknya memilih material jalan yang menyerap air misalnya, penggunaan bahan dari paving blok (blok –
blok adukan beton yang disusun dengan rongga – rongga resapan air disela–selanya. Hal yang tidak kalah
pentingnya adalah penataan saluran / drainase lingkungan pembuatannyapun harus bersamaan dengan
pembuatan jalan tersebut.
2. Apabila di halaman pekarangan rumah kita masih terdapat ruang – ruang terbuka, buatlah sumur–sumur
resapan air hujan sebanyak–banyaknya.

Fungsi sumur resapan air ini untuk mempercepat air meresap kedalam tanah. Dengan membuat sumur resapan air hujan tersebut,
sebenarnya kita dapat memperoleh manfaat Persediaan air bersih dalam tanah disekitar rumah kita yang cukup baik dan banyak
serta tanah bekas galian sumur dapat dipergunakan untuk menimbun lahan–lahan yang rendah atau meninggikan lantai rumah.
Apabila air hujan tidak tertampung dalam sebuah selokan – selokan rumah/talang – talang rumah, air dapat dialirkan kesumur –
sumur resapan. Janganlah membuang sampah atau mengeluarkan air limbah rumah tangga (air bekas mandi, cucian dan
sebagainya) kedalam sumur resapan air hujan karena bisa mencemarkan kandungan air tanah.

Kendala dalam mengatasi pencemaran air :


1. Kurangnya kesadaran diri dari orang – orang untuk membuang sampah pada tempatnya
2. Kurangnya sistem drainase di jalan – jalan
3. Limbah – limbah yang tidak diolah oleh manajemen pabrik dengan baik, sehingga mencemari lingkungan
sekitar
4. Kurangnya perhatian dari pemerintah mengenai pencemaran lingkungan.

Sumber: ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


PENGEMBANGAN MODEL MULTI-OBJEKTIF PROGRAMMING UNTUK MINIMALISASI DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN
PENGEMBANGAN KAPASITAS PEMBANGKIT TENAGA LISTRIK-SISTEM JAWA BALI
Udisubakti C.

. Sedikit sekali penelitian yang mengungkapkan hubungan pengembangan kapasitas pembangkit dengan
persoalan lingkungan hidup terutama yang menyangkut buangan emisi gas pencemar yang menyebabkan
pemanasan global dan hujan asam.

Studi ini berkaitan dengan pendekatan alternatif untuk menetapkan kombinasi optimal jenis pembangkit untuk
rencana pengembangan pembangkit listrik sistem Jawa Bali dalam kerangka analisis keputusan multikriteria.
Secara konvensional proses optimalisai "energy mix problem" hanya dikaji sebagai problem keputusan berobjektif
tunggal yaitu sebagai "least cost optimisation".

Dalam studi ini, model optimasi dikembangkan dengan memperhatikan objektif majemuk yaitu aspek lingkungan
dan ekonomis. Bentuk model keputusan berupa pendekatan multiobjektif yang diselesaikan dengan methoda
deviasi. Dua fungsi objektif yang dipertimbangkan dalam pengembangan model yaitu optimasi efisiensi finansial
yang diukur dari minimalisasi biaya total dan minimalisasi emisi gas polutant akibat pembakaran dan
pemanfaatan energi untuk produksi tenaga listrik.

Hasil Studi memaparkan keseluruhan solusi yang memberikan kombinasi "optimal"


untuk perencanaan kapasitas pembangkit listrik sistem Jawa Bali melalui suatu
proses analisis "trade off" antara pencapaian biaya minimumnya dan produksi
emisi gas pollutant yang diproduksinya.

Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Research-3100005066010/1683 ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


PENERAPAN MODEL STREET CANYON SEBAGAI METODE PREDIKSI KUALITAS UDARA PADA JALUR
TRANSPORTASI DI KAWASAN PERDAGANGAN (STUDI KASUS : JALAN TUNJUNGAN SURABAYA)

RAHARDJO, ANGGOWO BASUKI

Model street canyon Johnson et al dan Hassan dan Crowther telah diaplikasikan untuk memprediksi
kadar karbon monoksida (CO) yang berasal dari emisi gas buang kendaraan bermotor di jalan
Tunjungan Surabaya.

Estimasi parameter dan validasi model dilakukan dengan menyesuai-kan model terhadap data pengukuran CO di
lapangan, kondisi meteorologi (kecepatan dan arah angin dominan) dan emisi sumber garis yang dihitung dari
volume lalu-lintas (komposisi dan kecepatan rata-rata kendaraan bermotor). Kedua model tidak dapat diterapkan
secara langsung kecuali dengan memasukkan faktor stabilitas atmosfir sehingga memberikan prediksi kada-r CO
yang lebih mendekati pengukuran lapangan.

Estimasi parameter dan validasi model Johnson et al dengan k=0,02 menghasilkan prediksi CO yang lebih
mendekati pengukuran lapangan pada hari Rabu 03/10/2001(E=66,50%, r=0,63, Sb=8,02 pada leeward side,
E=51,79%; r=0,75 dan Sb=5,10 pada windward side).

Model Hassan dan Crowther dengan kl=0,003, k2=0,3 dan k3=110 menghasilkan prediksi CO yang lebih
mendekati pengukuran lapangan pada hari Rabu 10/10/2001 (E=33,68%; r=0,64 dan Sb=2,08)

Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Master-3100002015243/1421 ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


PENGELOLAAN RESIKO PENCEMARAN UDARA DARI KENDARAAN BERMOTOR DI JLN. MH. THAMRIN DKI
JAKARTA
Rimantho, Dino

Pencemaran udara oleh kendaraan bermotor di DKI Jakarta telah melampaui batas standar dalam SK Gub.
1041/2000.
Penelitian dilakukan di Jalan MH. Thamrin DKI Jakarta dengan mengambil 3 (tiga) lokasi yang dianggap dapat
mewakili populasi. Pengambilan data primer meliputi jumlah dan jenis kendaraan, konsentrasi polutan serta
penyebaran kuesioner pada masyarakat. Metode statistic chi square, t-test dam anova digunakan untuk
mengolah dan menganalisis data.

Hasil penelitian ternyata tidak ada perbedaan jumlah dan jenis kendaraan secara proporsional
pada ketiga lokasi.

Korelasi yang signifikan terjadi antara variabel polutan (PM10, CO, SO2, dan NO), jumlah
kendaraan dan jenis penyakit yang dominan yang pernah diderita oleh masyarakat.

Variabel polutan yang dominan adalah PM10 (t-Test 58.60 dan P-Value 0.000), variabel jenis
penyakit yang dominan yang pernah diderita oleh masyarakat adalah sesak nafas (t-Test 51.50
dan P-Value 0.000) dan variabel jenis kendaraan yang dominan adalah minibus (t-Test 59,37 dan
P-Value 0.000).

Tingkat bahaya resiko di jalan MH. Thamrin DKI Jakarta dapat dikategorikan sebagai High Risk
(nilai dari analisa semi kuantitatif 496 dan aspek lingkungan signifikan 386.557)

Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Master-3100007030076/1923 ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


ANALISA KEMAMPUAN TANAMAN LIDAH MERTUA (SANSEVIERIA SP.) DAN KEMBANG SEPATU (HIBISCUS ROSA-
SINENSIS) DALAM PENURUNAN KONSENTRASI GAS CO
Widhowati, Putri

Pencemaran udara merupakan keberadaan zat-zat yang mestinya bukan bagian dari komposisi atmosfer. Salah
satu faktor penyebab meningkatnya pencemaran udara adalah semakin meningkatnya populasi penduduk di
suatu tempat, terutama di kota-kota besar.

Berdasarkan estimasi, jumlah CO dari sumber buatan diperkirakan mendekati 60 juta ton per tahun. Separuh dari
jumlah ini berasal dari kendaraan bermotor yang menggunakan bahan bakar bensin dan sepertiganya berasal
dari sumber tidak bergerak seperti pembakaran batubara dan minyak dari industri dan pembakaran sampah
domestik. Didalam laporan WHO (1992) dinyatakan paling tidak 90% dari CO di udara perkotaan berasal dari
emisi kendaraan bermotor.

Pada penelitian ini penurunan gas pencemar CO dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan tanaman. Penelitian dilakukan
pada variasi jenis tanaman Lidah Mertua (Sansevieria sp.) dan Kembang Sepatu (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis).
Sedangkan variasi tinggi tanaman yang dilakukan adalah 50 cm dan 100 cm. Gas pencemar yang dipaparkan
terhadap tanaman uji merupakan pencemar buatan yang diperoleh melalui pemanasan Natrium Format ditambah
dengan Asam Sulfat pekat. Pengukuran kandungan gas CO dalam reaktor menggunakan tabung impinger
dengan metode spektrofotometri. Tanaman yang dipilih adalah jenis tanaman yang memiliki persentase
penyisihan terbesar dalam penurunan konsentrasi gas CO.

Hasil penelitian didapatkan tanaman lidah mertua dengan tinggi 100 cm


memiliki kemampuan terbesar dalam penurunan konsentrasi gas CO
dibandingkan tanaman kembang sepatu yaitu sebesar 84.18%.

Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Undergraduate-3100008032238/2137 ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


KAJIAN EMISI CO2 DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PERSAMAAN LONGRANGE ENERGY ALTERNATIVES PLANNING
(LEAP) DARI SEKTOR PERMUKIMAN DI KOTA SURABAYA
Pradiptya, Vega

Pada penelitian ini diperoleh data primer dan sekunder, dimana data primer diperoleh dari survey. Data sekunder
berupa jumlah rumah tangga yang ada di rusun, apartemen, ruko, R1, R2 dan R3 di Surabaya sesuai dengan
data dari dinas terkait. Faktor emisi CO2 yang diperoleh dari IPCC (2006), dan dari penelitian sebelumnya.
Perhitungan seluruh energi yang dikonsumsi dan menghasilkan emisi CO2 Perhitungan emisi CO disebut carbon
footprint menggunakan persamaan LEAP.

Hasil analisa diperoleh emisi CO yang dihasilkan dari bahan bakar rumah tangga dan
penggunaan listrik di tingkat permukiman primer yang dihasilkan dari kegiatan
permukiman di Surabaya tahun 2010 adalah 1.938.617 tonCO2/tahun, sedangkan emisi
CO2 sekunder yang dihasilkan adalah 10.379.926,60 tonCO2/tahun, dan untuk total
emisi CO2 adalah 12.318.543,6 tonCO2/tahun.

Emisi CO2 primer yang dihasilkan dari kegiatan permukiman di Surabaya berdasarkan
jenis perumahan tahun 2011 adalah 272.287,7 tonCO2/tahun, sedangkan emisi CO2
sekunder yang dihasilkan adalah 2.106.577 tonCO2/tahun, dan untuk total emisi CO2
adalah 2.378.865,16 tonCO2/tahun.

Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Undergraduate-3100011043974/16435 ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


PENETAPAN PRIORITAS PROGRAM KEGIATAN PENGENDALIAN KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN UDARA DI KOTA
SURABAYA DENGAN PENDEKATAN ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP)
Soetjahjo

Dalam mewujudkan tujuan Pembangunan Lingkungan Hidup khususnya kualitas lingkungan udara
di kota Surabaya .
Pemerintah kota Surabaya dalam hal ini Dinas Lingkungan Hidup kota Surabaya mempunyai
peranan yang sangat penting disamping peranan swasta dan masyarakat.

Dengan menggunakan metode AHP ( Analytical Hierarchy Process ) maka dapat di tentukan
prioritas program kegiatan untuk menanggulangi pencemaran udara di kota Surabaya.

Penelitian menghasilkan prioritas kriteria pada pencemaran


udara yaitu sektor tmsportasi dengan bobot 0,692

sedangkan hasil perhitungan pada kriteria kegiatan yaitu


peningkatan peranan masyarakat dengan bobot 0,484 serta pada
alternative kegiatan sosialisasi pencemaran udara dengan bobot
0,409 .

Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Master-31000002016737/1220 ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


PENERAPAN MODEL CALINE4 DALAM MEMPREDIKSI POLUTAN CO YANG BERSUMBER DARI KEGIATAN
TRANSPORTASI SEBAGAI PERTIMBANGAN PENENTUAN KONSEP PENANGANAN KAWASAN
Setiyawardana, R.D. Dimas

Surabaya sebagai kota metropolitan, memiliki tingkat pergerakan internal dan eksternal penduduk yang tinggi
dengan transportasi umum massal yang kurang memadai, menyebabkan terjadinya penggunaan moda
transportasi pribadi yang tinggi dan berpotensi menimbulkan dampak terhadap masyarakat. Koridor Jalan Ahmad
Yani dan Wonokromo adalah jalan arteri yang menjadi salah satu jalan terpadat di Surabaya.
Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji prediksi pola penyebaran CO yang berasal dari kegiatan transportasi
dengan melihat perbedaan tren penyebaran CO pada tahun 2009 dan 2010, dalam dua musim yaitu musim hujan
dan musim kemarau. Penyebaran CO disimulasikan dengan menggunakan model Caline4 sebagai model yang
sesuai dalam memprediksi penyebaran CO yang bersifat line source. Pada penelitian ini, model Caline4
digunakan untuk menetapkan konsentrasi CO pada masing-masing titip reseptor. Nilai dari titik reseptor
disimulasikan untuk mendapatkan isopleth yang mampu menggambarkan pola konsentrasi penyebaran CO.
Setelah diketahui isopleth penyebaran CO, kemudian dilakukan kajian secara spasial dengan melihat tingkat
kepadatan penduduk, pola penggunaan lahan, dan tingkat konsentrasi penyebaran CO. Kajian secara spasial
menggunakan batas administatif kecamatan yang terdiri dari Kecamatan Gayungan, Kecamatan Wonocolo, dan
Kecamatan Wonokromo sebagai batasan sistem pemerintahan terkecil.

Hasil penelitian adalah prediksi penyebaran CO kawasan terdampak pada koridor Jalan Ahmad Yani
dan Wonokromo yang memiliki tingkat konsentrasi CO dalam skala tinggi, sedang, dan rendah.
Semakin tinggi tingkat konsentrasi CO menunjukkan bahwa kawasan tersebut merupakan kawasan
dengan prioritas penanganan utama. Dari penyebaran CO secara spasial, kemudian ditentukan konsep
penanganan pada sumber dampak dan kawasan terdampak.

Konsep penanganan yang direkomendasikan pada sumber dampak berupa penyediaan Sistem
Angkutan Umum Massal dan pada kawasan terdampak berupa konsep yang memperhatikan penataan
fisik bangunan dan ketersediaan RTH di wilayah studi.

Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Master-3100012045264-/17196 ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


KAJIAN SISTEM PENEMPATAN POLISI LALU-LINTAS POLWILTABES SURABAYA DITINJAU DARI KADAR PB DALAM
DARAH
Setiyawan, Arif Andi
Kebijakan penempatan polantas dalam porsi tugas TURJAWALI selama ini tidak memandang segi keamanan internal pada setiap
polantas terhadap dampak paparan pencemar udara (khususnya Pb) tetapi lebih dititikberatkan pada segi keamanan masyarakat di jalan.
Dampak akumulasi paparan Pb ambien akan menimbulkan bentuk gejala keracunan kronis yang seiring waktu tanpa disadari akan
berakibat fatal bagi kelompok masyarakat (Polantas) yang karena tugas dan kewajibannya beresiko besar terpapar pencemar udara Pb
setiap hari.
Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menganalisis dan mengevaluasi kualitas udara dan seberapa besar kadar Pb dalam darah polantas akibat
paparan pencemar udara Pb.
Pengukuran kadar Pb dalam darah pada polantas berdasarkan lokasi bekerja dan masa kerja. Selain itu akan dilakukan tinjauan secara
kelembagaan tentang proses penempatan Polantas di lapangan (Pos Tetap dan Pos Pantau). Sehingga dari hasil penelitian ini dapat
memberikan masukan terhadap sistem penempatan yang memiliki nilai "aman" bagi polantas terhadap resiko paparan pencemar udara
(terutama Pb). Variabel yang diukur dalam penelitian ini adalah kadar timah hitam (Pb) dalam darah Polantas melalui pengukuran
laboratorium, hasil jawaban responden atas kuisioner penelitian, aspek teknis karakteristik responden dan aspek pengelolaan
kelembagaan dan regulasi. Sedangkan lokasi penelitian adalah Satuan Lalu Lintas Polwiltabes Surabaya khususnya pada Rayon 1 dan
Rayon 2. Untuk menjawab permasalahan yang terjadi dalam penelitian ini dipergunakan metode Chi-Square, metode uji t (t student test),
uji Anova, metode Causation Factor dan analisis SWOT.

Hasil penelitian adalah :


1. Peningkatan pemakaian bahan bakar premium dan jumlah kendaraan bermotor (2001-2004) dapat dianalogikan juga terjadinya
peningkatan kadar Pb ambien,
2. Hasil pemeriksaan laboratorium menunjukkan sebagian besar responden polantas (70%) memiliki kadar Pb darah dalam kategori
toleransi, 13,33% dalam kategori berlebih dan 16,67 % dalam kategori normal dan kurva regresi menunjukkan Pos Tetap memiliki
resiko terpapar cukup tinggi diikuti Pos Pantau dan resiko terendah adalah bagian administrasi,
3. Hasil pengujian causation factor menunjukkan terdapat hubungan antara kadar udara Pb ambien dan kadar Pb dalam darah polantas,
4. Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan diantara 9 faktor karakteristik Polantas maka ada 5 faktor (lokasi bekerja, lama bertugas di
Iapangan, kebiasaan memakai alat pelindung, kebiasaan merokok dan jumlah rokok yang dihisap polantas) berhubungan dengan
kadar Pb dalam darah polantas,
5. Analisis kuosioner juga menunjukkan diantara 9 faktor karakteristik didapatkan adanya perbedaan pada 6 faktor karakteristik (tingkat
pendidikan, resiko terpapar, lama bertugas di Iapangan, kebiasaan memakai alat pelindung, kebiasaan responden merokok dan
jumlah rokok yang dihisap dalam sehari) antara kelompok studi (polantas di Pos Tetap dan Pos Pantau) dengan kelompok kontrol
(polantas bagian administrasi),
6. Belum ada regulasi tetap yang mengatur penempatan polantas di Polwiltabes Surabaya. Strategi utama yang diambil adalah
pembuatan Manual Program Penempatan Polantas di Iapangan.
Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Master-3100005022930/725 ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
KAJIAN PERILAKU MASYARAKAT TERHADAP UPAYA MITIGASI PENCEMARAN UDARA DI KOTA SURABAYA
Irsyada, Widya Sagita

Program-program mitigasi pencemaran udara di Kota Surabaya belum diketahui efektivitas pelaksanaannya
dalam menurunkan kadar CO2 karena belum ada penelitian tentang pengaruh perilaku masyarakat terhadap
program mitigasi pencemaran udara.
Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan penelitian ini yang bertujuan untuk menentukan pengaruh perilaku masyarakat
terhadap program mitigasi pencemaran udara, menghitung efektifitas program mitigasi terhadap kadar CO2
secara total serta mengkaji upaya mitigasi yang paling banyak dan efektif dilakukan oleh masyarakat.
Penelitian ini dilakukan berdasarkan survey kuesioner pada 100 responden yang terbagi atas 31 kecamatan di
Surabaya. Program-program mitigasi yang diteliti adalah: konversi LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas), konversi biosolar,
car free day, Pengujian emisi dan Perawatan kendaaraan bermotor secara berkala (sistem P dan P), komposting
serta pengurangan pemakaian plastik. Analisa yang dilakukan menggunakan metode analisis korelasi.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa

Penggunaan LPG merupakan perilaku masyarakat yang paling


berpengaruh karena paling banyak dilakukan oleh responden yaitu
sebesar 92%.
Emisi CO2 berkurang hingga 66,38% dengan dilakukannya upaya-
upaya mitigasi pencemaran udara.
Sedangkan program mitigasi paling efektif adalah Sistem P dan P.

Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Undergraduate-3100011042111/14968 ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


PEMETAAN KONSENTRASI PARTIKULAT DI KAWASAN RSU DR. SOETOMO SURABAYA
Putri, Rr. Windarizti Yuniastried

Salah satu sumber dari pencemaran udara adalah partikulat. Partikulat ini berdiameter kurang dari sepuluh mikron (PM10). Kawasan
di Surabaya yang potensial konsentrasi partikulatnya tinggi (PM10) adalah di sekitar RSU Dr. Soetomo. Hal ini karena RSU Dr.
Soetomo memiliki insinerator yang tidak dilengkapi dengan alat pengendali udara dan kawasan RSU Dr. Soetomo merupakan
kawasan dengan aktivitas transportasi yang tinggi. Pencemaran partikulat yang melebihi standar baku mutu udara ambien dapat
membahayakan kesehatan.
Tujuan penelitian ini memetakan konsentrasi partikulat di kawasan RSU Dr. Soetomo dan menganalisis pengaruh dari aktivitas
transportasi dan aktivitas insinerator.
Penelitian dilakukan dengan melakukan sampling udara ambien serta pengambilan beberapa data primer pada 30 titik sampling di
kawasan RSU Dr. Soetomo Surabaya. Alat yang digunakan yaitu HVS (High Volume Sampler) dan Haz Dust. Penelitian ini dilakukan
di dalam kawasan RSU Dr. Soetomo dan di luar kawasan RSU Dr. Soetomo dengan pengambilan sampel pada waktu pagi, sore dan
malam hari. Parameter yang diukur adalah PM10 dan hasil analisis akan dipetakan menggunakan Surfer 8. Padatnya aktivitas
kendaraan bermotor di kawasan RSU Dr. Soetomo menyebabkan tingginya konsentrasi PM10 pada beberapa titik sampling
sehingga melebihi baku mutu udara. Konsentrasi PM10 tertinggi pada pagi hari di Jalan Airlangga dimana tingkat konsentrasi PM10
mencapai angka 211,363 μg/m3 dengan total jumlah kendaraan mencapai 4929 kendaraan. Pada sore hari konsentrasi PM10
tertinggi terdapat di Jalan Karang Menjangan dimana tingkat konsentrasi partikulat mencapai angka 325,458 μg/m3 dengan total
jumlah kendaraan mencapai 1177 kendaraan.

Hasil penelitian di dalam kawasan RSU Dr. Soetomo menunjukkan kondisi udara ambien yang bersih. Hal ini
ditunjukkan dengan konsentrasi partikulat yang kecil yaitu di bawah standar baku mutu udara ambien. Selain
berdasarkan hasil pengukuran di wilayah studi juga dilakukan perhitungan menurut Hukum Gauss dari cerobong
insinerator RSU Dr. Soetomo.

Berdasarkan Hukum Gauss di beberapa lokasi sampling ada yang melebihi standar baku mutu udara ambien dan
berbeda dengan hasil pengukuran langsung.

Hal ini terjadi karena di kawasan RSU Dr. Soetomo terdapat barier yaitu pohon-pohon angsana dan taman yang
dapat menyerap PM10 serta adanya bangunan yang dapat membelokkan arah angin. Kondisi ini mempengaruhi
penyebaran partikulat di dalam kawasan RSU Dr. Soetomo Surabaya.

Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Undergraduate-3100010038650/9453 ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


ESTIMASI BEBAN EMISI DAN KONSENTRASI SO2 MODEL DFLS DARI SEKTOR TRANSPORTASI DENGAN STUDI
KASUS SURABAYA SELATAN (JL.GAYUNGSARI BARAT)
HIDAYATULLAH, EBEN RAMADYAN

Transportasi merupakan salah satu penyumbang terbesar dalam penghasil emisi pencemar. Salah satunya
adalah SO2. SO2 ini dihasilkan oleh kendaraan bermotor dari campuran bahan bakar yang dapat menyebabkan
penyakit jika terendap dalam tubuh manusia. Penelitian dilakukan di Jl. Gayungsari Barat yaitu di kawasan
Surabaya Selatan dengan jumlah kendaraan bermotor cukup tinggi.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat apakah model DFLS ini bisa diaplikasikan dalam penghitungan emisi
khususnya SO2. Tahap pertama yaitu melakukan counting kendaraan bermotor di jalan tersebut. Lalu dihitung
beban emisi dengan mengalikan jumlah kendaraan tersebut dengan faktor emisi dari Suhadi. Selanjutnya dapat
dihitung konsentrasi pencemar SO2 dengan memperhatikan arah angin, kecepatan angin, dan juga intensitas
matahari. Hal ini diperoleh dari BLH sehingga didapat nilai parameter dari Pasquil. Sehingga dapat dihitung
konsentrasi SO2 dan memproyeksikan 10 tahun ke depan.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan konsentrasi SO2 pada hari Senin, 2


Mei 2011 yaitu sebesar 6,831 μg/m3 dan nilai perbandingan BLH
sebesar 238,790 μg/m3.

Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Undergraduate-3100011044929/17381 ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


STRATEGI PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN KARBON MONOKSIDA (CO) DL TEMPAT
PARKIR GEDUNG PLASA XYZ
Suprihatin, Hasti
Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi zat pencemar CO di udara ambient tempat parkir
mobil dalam gedung plasa XYZ, mengetahui dan menganalisa konsentrasi CO terhadap waktu-pengamatan dan
ketinggian lantai tempat parkir mobil dalam gedung plasa XYZ dan menentukan strategi pengendalian di tempat
parkir mobil dalam gedung plasa XYZ di tinjau dari konsentrasi gas CO.
Lokasi penelitian dipilih di tempat parkir dalam gedung plasa XYZ Surabaya, yang memiliki delapan lantai, lima
lantai dari dasar merupakan tempat parkir dengan ruangan tertutup sedangkan tiga lantai diatasnya merupakan
tempat parkir dengan ruangan semi terbuka. Data primer (studi awal) diperoleh dari penghitungan jumlah mobil
selama satu minggu, dan analisis hasil pengambilan contoh. Pengambilan contoh dilakukan yaitu secara grab dan
komposit. Analisis pengambilan contoh dengan Non Dispers Infra Red. Jumlah contoh udara adalah 96 buah.
Pengambilan contoh dilakukan pada semua titik yang ada di tiap lantai. Parameter kualitas udara yang diukur
adalah konsentrasi karbon monoksida pada lantai yang berbeda, perbedaan hari pengamatan dan perbedaan jam
pengamatan.

Hasil analisis studi awal menunjukkan bahwa hari Rabu, Jum'at, Sabtu dan Minggu adalah hari yang signifikan
dalam menunjukkan tingginya konsentrasi CO. Jam yang signifikan dalam menunjukkan tinggi rendahnya
konsentrasi CO adalah jam 10.00-11.00, 15.00-16.00 dan 19.00-20.00.
Hasil pemeriksaan contoh udara : konsentrasi CO pada hari Rabu dan Jum'at, pada jam 10.00-11.00 minimal 0
ppm, maksimal 16,9 ppm ; jam 15.00 -16.00 minimal 16,9 ppm, maksimal 38,49 ppm dan pada jam 19.00-20.00
minimal 3,82 ppm, maksimal 44,41 ppm . Untuk hari Sabtu dan Minggu konsentrasi CO pada jam 10.00 - J 1.00
minimal 1,22 ppm, maksimal 43,55 ppm, pada jam 15.00 -16.00 minimal 4,32 ppm maksimal 102,5 ppm.

Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan bahwa tingginya konsentrasi CO dipengaruhi oleh jam pengamatan dan
ketinggian lantai yang berbeda. Strategi pengendaliannya adalah perlu pemasangan local exhaust, perlu
penambahan udara bersih, perlu pengaturan lalu lintas di tempat parkir dan mengefektifkan serta memperhatikan
program kerja yang ada di Fire Safety Office.

Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Master-3100005021734/1565 ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


STUDI PEMODELAN KUALITAS AIR DI PESISIR TIMUR SIDOARJO AKIBAT MASUKNYA AIR LUMPUR PORONG
MELALUI PERPIPAAN KE LAUT
Ridasmika
Lumpur Porong tidak langsung dibuang karena mengandung banyak polutan. Maka, lumpur ini ditreatment dan air
lumpur hasil tretment yang dibuang. Pada awalnya air lumpur akan dibuang langsung ke laut melalui perpipaan.
Namun, hal ini tidak jadi dilaksanakan karena kekhawatiran mencemari laut secara langsung dan belum ada studi
yang membahas tentang kualitas air di daerah pesisir Timur Sidoarjo jika air lumpur dibuang ke laut melalui
perpipaan ke laut. Maka akan diadakan studi pemodelan kualitas air di Pesisir Timur Sidoarjo akibat masuknya air
lumpur Porong melalui perpipaan ke laut.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pola penyebaran polutan konservatif dan kualitas air air di pesisir Timur
Sidoarjo jika air lumpur dialirkan melalui saluran pembuangan (pipa) ke laut.

Pemodelan ini menggunakan software SMS (Surface Water Modelling System) dengan modul RMA 2 untuk
memodelkan arus dan modul RMA 4 untuk memodelkan polutan. Pemodelan polutan dibuat 3 model dengan
posisi pembuangan air lumpur (pipa) yang berbeda. Parameter polutan yang dipakai yaitu polutan konservatif
dengan mengambil logam Pb dan Hg. Polutan lainnya yang dimodelkan yaitu minyak. Untuk mengetahui tingkat
pencemaran hasil pemodelan polutan tersebut akan dibandingkan dengan baku mutu air laut menurut Kepmen
LH No.51 Tahun 2004. Berdasarkan hasil pemodelan, pola penyebaran polutan menunjukkan kenaikan
konsentrasi secara logaritmik dengan model 3 (posisi pipa di tengah perairan) sebagai model dengan penyebaran
konsentrasi terkecil pada setiap jam.

Hasil analisa kualitas air di Pesisir Timur Sidoarjo ternyata berada di luar ambang batas untuk parameter logam
Pb (tercemar logam Pb) minimum di jam ke 30 pada model 2 (posisi pipa di 3 titik pada muara Sungai Porong)
dan maksimum di jam ke 57 pada model 3 (posisi pipa di tengah perairan), dan di luar ambang batas untuk
parameter logam Hg (tercemar logam Hg) minimum di jam ke 240 pada model 2 dan maksimum di jam ke 1968
pada model 3 jika pembuangan air lumpur dilakukan secara kontinu dengan debit 10 m3/s.

Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Undergraduate-3100007029080/6732….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


IDENTIFIKASI PENYEBARAN POLUTAN DI KALI SURABAYA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN MODEL HP2S
Anwar, Muhammad Chairul

Badan sungai yang telah dimasuki oleh polutan cair akan membentuk suatu pola penyebaran.

Pola penyebaran tersebut dapat diketahui dengan menggunakan Model Hidrodinamika Penyebaran Polutan di
Sungai (HP2S). Model HP2S diperoleh dengan mengembangkan suatu persamaan yang diperoleh dari
persamaan kontinuitas dan persamaan momentum. Kemudian persamaan yang diperoleh diselesaikan dengan
menggunakan metode numerik, yaitu metode Leap Frog, karena metode ini mudah dan perumusannya exsplisit.
Oleh karena exsplisit ini maka perlu dicari stabilitas, konsistensi & konvergensi dari metode ini.

Metode ini dikatakan stabil jika bilangan courant-nya kurang dari satu, yaitu dapat dipenuhi apabila perbandingan
antara piasan waktu dan jarak adalah kurang dari satu perkecepatan. Demikian juga dengan konsistensi dan
konvergensinya bahwa model tersebut terbukti konsisten dan memiliki penyelesaian yang selalu konvergen.
Kemudian penyelesaian dan persamaan diatas diselesaikan dengan perhitungan menggunakan Matlab.

Hasil yang diperoleh bahwa terjadi perubahan penyebaran


polutan pada nilai kecepatan dan konsentrasi karena adanya
perbedaan lokasi.
Kecepatan dan konsentrasi polutan akan semakin kecil nilainya
ketika titik(lokasi) menjauhi sumber polutan (point source), begitu
pula sebaliknya.

Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Undergraduate-3100006027472/5899….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


DAYA DUKUNG LINGKUNGAN PANTAI KENJERAN DALAM MENERIMA BEBAN
PENCEMARAN DARI DARAT
Sudiati, Kartika
Pantai Kenjeran sebagai salah satu tempat wisata di Surabaya, mempunyai potensi untuk dikembangkan. Salah
satunya sebagai kawasan ekowista. Pada kenyataannya Pantai Kenjeran menerima beban pencemaran dari
beberapa sumber. Salah satunya adalah dari darat. Dari hasil identifikasi lokasi studi, ditemui 4 sungai, yaitu
Sungai Sukolilo Lor, Sungai Kejawen, Sungai Kenjeran dan Sungai Nambangan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk
mengidentifikasi tingkat pencemaran di Pantai Kenjeran, mengetahui daya dukung Pantai Kenjeran dalam
menerima beban pencemaran dari darat, dan merencanakan alternatif pengendalian pencemaran. Sampel
diambil di sungai, muara sungai dan perairan pantai. Parameter yang diukur adalah BOD, logam berat Cu dan Pb.
Dari hasil analisa persebaran polutan dengan menggunakan perhitungan analitis, diketahui bahwa input BOD dari
sungai akan habis terurai pada saat mencapai muara. Sedangkan logam berat Cu, sebagai polutan konservatif,
akan mempunyai bentuk yang tetap hingga mencapai laut. Kemudian analisa dilanjutkan dengan melakukan
analisa numerik persebaran dengan menggunakan software SMS. Analisa persebaran polutan ini dilakukan
dengan berbagai variasi beban pencemaran dari darat.

Hasil analisa laboratorium menunjukkan keempat sungai tersebut mengalami pencemaran bahan organik BOD
dan logam berat Cu (PP Kota Surabaya No. 3 tahun 2004). Di perairan pantai terjadi pencemaran logam berat
Cu. Konsentrasi BOD di perairan pantai masih di bawah baku mutu KepMen LH No. 51 tahun 2004. Sedangkan
logam berat Pb tidak ditemui di sungai maupun di perairan pantai.
Daya dukung lingkungan Pantai Kenjeran dianalisa dengan menggunakan software SMS. Hasil running
menunjukkan bahwa untuk polutan BOD masih belum dapat digunakan sebagai acuan dalam penentuan daya
dukung. Untuk polutan Cu dengan variasi beban pencemaran yang paling rendah, menunjukkan di atas baku
mutu air laut. Sedangkan untuk polutan Pb dengan variasi beban pencemaran yang paling rendah, menunjukkan
di bawah baku mutu air laut.
Alternatif pengendalian pencemaran pantai dan laut dapat dilakukan melalui instrumen ekologi, teknologi,
ekonomi, sosial-budaya dan pendidikan, dan hukum dan ditindak lanjuti dengan monitoring.

Sumber: http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Master-3100007029354/5652….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


EKOLOGI KUANTITATIF

Quantitative ecology is the application of advanced mathematical and statistical tools to any number of problems
in the field of ecology. It is a small but growing subfield in ecology, reflecting the demand among practicing
ecologists to interpret ever larger and more complex data sets using quantitative reasoning.

Quantitative ecologists might apply some combination of deterministic or stochastic mathematical models to
theoretical questions or they might use sophisticated methods in applied statistics for experimental design and
hypothesis testing.

Typical problems in quantitative ecology include estimating the dynamics and status of wild populations, modeling
the impacts of anthropogenic or climatic change on ecological communities, and predicting the spread of invasive
species or disease outbreaks.

Quantitative ecology, which mainly focuses on statistical and computational


methods for addressing applied problems, is distinct from theoretical ecology
which tends to explore focus on understanding the dynamics of simple
mechanistic models and their implications for a general set of biological
systems using mathematical arguments.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantitative_ecology….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


MATHEMATICAL MODEL

A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language. The process of
developing a mathematical model is termed mathematical modelling.

Mathematical models are used not only in the natural sciences (such as physics, biology, earth science,
meteorology) and engineering disciplines (e.g. computer science, artificial intelligence), but also in the social
sciences (such as economics, psychology, sociology and political science); physicists, engineers, statisticians,
operations research analysts and economists use mathematical models most extensively. A model may help to
explain a system and to study the effects of different components, and to make predictions about behaviour.

Mathematical models can take many forms, including but not limited to dynamical systems, statistical models,
differential equations, or game theoretic models.

These and other types of models can overlap, with a given model involving a variety of abstract structures. In
general, mathematical models may include logical models, as far as logic is taken as a part of mathematics.

In many cases, the quality of a scientific field depends on how well the
mathematical models developed on the theoretical side agree with results
of repeatable experiments.
Lack of agreement between theoretical mathematical models and
experimental measurements often leads to important advances as better
theories are developed.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematical_models….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


CONTOH MODEL MATEMATIKA

Many everyday activities carried out without a thought are uses of mathematical models. A geographical map
projection of a region of the earth onto a small, plane surface is a model which can be used for many purposes
such as planning travel.
Another simple activity is predicting the position of a vehicle from its initial position, direction and speed of travel,
using the equation that distance travelled is the product of time and speed.
This is known as dead reckoning when used more formally. Mathematical modelling in this way does not
necessarily require formal mathematics; animals have been shown to use dead reckoning.

Model of a particle in a potential-field. In this model we consider a particle as being a point of mass
which describes a trajectory in space which is modeled by a function giving its coordinates in space
as a function of time.

The potential field is given by a function V : R3 → R and the trajectory is a solution of the differential
equation.

Note this model assumes the particle is a point mass, which is certainly known to be false in many
cases in which we use this model; for example, as a model of planetary motion.

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MODEL PERILAKU KONSUMEN YANG RASIONAL

In this model we assume a consumer faces a choice of n commodities labeled 1,2,...,n each with a market price
p1, p2,..., pn.

The consumer is assumed to have a cardinal utility function U (cardinal in the sense that it assigns numerical
values to utilities), depending on the amounts of commodities x1, x2,..., xn consumed. The model further assumes
that the consumer has a budget M which is used to purchase a vector x1, x2,..., xn in such a way as to maximize
U(x1, x2,..., xn). The problem of rational behavior in this model then becomes an optimization problem, that is:

subject to:

This model has been used in general equilibrium theory, particularly to show existence and Pareto efficiency of
economic equilibria. However, the fact that this particular formulation assigns numerical values to levels of
satisfaction is the source of criticism (and even ridicule). However, it is not an essential ingredient of the theory
and again this is an idealization.

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PERTUMBUHAN POPULASI
A simple (though approximate) model of population growth is the Malthusian growth model. A slightly more realistic and
largely used population growth model is the logistic function, and its extensions.

A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same
geographical area. In ecology the population of a certain species in a certain area is estimated using the Lincoln
Index. The area that is used to define a sexual population is such that inter-breeding is possible between any pair
within the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. Normally breeding is
substantially more common within the area than across the border.
In sociology, population refers to a collection of human beings. Demography is a social science which entails the
statistical study of human populations. This article refers mainly to human population.

Population growth is the change in a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of
individuals of any species in a population using "per unit time" for measurement. In biology, the term population
growth is likely to refer to any known organism, but this article deals mostly with the application of the term to
human populations in demography.
In demography, population growth is used informally for the more specific term population growth rate (see
below), and is often used to refer specifically to the growth of the human population of the world.

Determinants of population growth


Population growth is determined by four factors, births(B), deaths(D), immigrants(I), and emigrants(E). Using a
formula expressed as
∆P≡(B-D)+(I-E)
In other words, the population growth of a period can be calculated in two parts, natural growth of population (B-D)
and mechanical growth of population (I-E),in which Mechanical growth of population is mainly affected by social
factors, e.g. the advanced economies are growing faster while the backward economies are growing slowly even
with negative growth.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_growth….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


LAJU PERTUMBUHAN POPULASI
In demographics and ecology, population growth rate (PGR) is the rate at which the number of individuals
in a population increases in a given time period as a fraction of the initial population. Specifically, PGR
ordinarily refers to the change in population over a unit time period, often expressed as a percentage of the
number of individuals in the population at the beginning of that period. This can be written as the formula:

The most common way to express population growth is as a percentage, not as a rate. The change
in population over a unit time period is expressed as a percentage of the population at the
beginning of the time period. That is:

For small time periods and growth rates, the added population is the growth rate multiplied by the time period.
A positive growth ratio (or rate) indicates that the population is increasing, while a negative growth ratio indicates the
population is decreasing. A growth ratio of zero indicates that there were the same number of people at the two times
-- net difference between births, deaths a growth rate may be zero even when there are significant changes in the
birth rates, death rates, immigration rates, and age distribution between the two times. Equivalently, percent death
rate = the average number of deaths in a year for every 100 people in the total population.
If the length of the time is taken smaller and smaller, the PGR approaches the logarithmic derivative of the population
function P. If the population as a function of time is exponential, say P(t) = Ceat, the logarithmic derivative is a. Thus,
the PGR approximates the exponent a for populations with exponential growth.
A related measure is the net reproduction rate. In the absence of migration, a net reproduction rate of more than one
indicates that the population of women is increasing, while a net reproduction rate less than one (sub-replacement
fertility) indicates that the population of women is decreasing.
PERTUMBUHAN EKSPONENSIAL

Exponential growth (including exponential decay when the growth rate is negative)
occurs when the growth rate of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to
the function's current value. In the case of a discrete domain of definition with equal
intervals it is also called geometric growth or geometric decay (the function values
form a geometric progression).
The formula for exponential growth of a variable x at the (positive or negative) growth
rate r, as time t goes on in discrete intervals (that is, at integer times 0, 1, 2, 3, ...), is:

Xt = X0 (1+r)t

where is the value of x at time 0. For example, with a growth rate of r = 5% = 0.05, going
from any integer value of time to the next integer causes x at the second time to be 1.05
times (i.e., 5% larger than) what it was at the previous time.

The exponential growth model is also known as the Malthusian growth model.

Human population, if the number of births and deaths per person per year were to remain at current
levels (but also see logistic growth). For example, according to the United States Census Bureau,
over the last 100 years (1910 to 2010), the population of the United States of America is
exponentially increasing at an average rate of one and a half percent a year (1.5%). This means
that the doubling time
Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_growth….. Diunduh 19/4/2012
FUNGSI LOGISTIK
A logistic function or logistic curve is a common sigmoid curve, given its name in 1844 or 1845 by Pierre François
Verhulst who studied it in relation to population growth. A Generalized logistic curve can model the "S-shaped" behaviour
(abbreviated S-curve) of growth of some population P. The initial stage of growth is approximately exponential; then, as
saturation begins, the growth slows, and at maturity, growth stops.

Fungsi Sigmoid Logistik yang Baku


Fungsi logistik sederhana dapat didefinisikan dengan formula:

P(t) = 1 / (1 + e-t)
where the variable P might be considered to denote a population, where e is Euler's number and the variable t
might be thought of as time. For values of t in the range of real numbers from −∞ to +∞, the S-curve shown is
obtained. In practice, due to the nature of the exponential function e−t, it is sufficient to compute t over a small
range of real numbers such as [−6, +6].

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FUNGSI LOGISTIK
Fungsi logistik digunakan pada beragam bidang kajian, termasuk jaringan syaraf buatan, biology,
biomathematics, demography, economics, chemistry, mathematical psychology, probability, sociology, political
science dan statistics. Model ini mempunyai derivasi yang mudah dihitung:

It also has the property that

Thus, the function is odd.


MODEL REGRESI LOGISTIK
Regresi logistik (kadang disebut model logistik atau model logit), dalam statistika digunakan
untuk prediksi probabilitas kejadian suatu peristiwa dengan mencocokkan data pada fungsi logit
kurva logistik.
Metode ini merupakan model linier umum yang digunakan untuk regresi binomial. Seperti analisis
regresi pada umumnya, metode ini menggunakan beberapa variabel prediktor, baik numerik
maupun kategori. Misalnya, probabilitas bahwa orang yang menderita serangan jantung pada
waktu tertentu dapat diprediksi dari informasi usia, jenis kelamin, dan indeks massa tubuh.

Regresi logistik juga digunakan secara luas pada bidang kedokteran dan ilmu sosial, maupun
pemasaran seperti prediksi kecenderungan pelanggan untuk membeli suatu produk atau berhenti
berlangganan.

Sumber: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regresi_logistik ….. Diunduh 19/4/2012


LOGISTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

The logistic function is the solution of the simple first-order non-linear differential equation:

where P is a variable with respect to time t and with boundary condition P(0) = 1/2. This equation is the continuous version
of the logistic map.
The qualitative behavior is easily understood in terms of the phase line: the derivative is 0 at P = 0 or 1 and the derivative is
positive for P between 0 and 1, and negative for P above 1 or less than 0 (though negative populations do not generally
accord with a physical model). This yields an unstable equilibrium at 0, and a stable equilibrium at 1, and thus for any value
of P greater than 0 and less than 1, P grows to 1.

One may readily find the (symbolic) solution to be:

Choosing the constant of integration ec = 1 gives the other well-known form of the definition of the logistic curve:

More quantitatively, as can be seen from the analytical solution, the logistic curve shows early exponential growth for
negative t, which slows to linear growth of slope 1/4 near t = 0, then approaches y = 1 with an exponentially decaying gap.

The logistic function is the inverse of the natural logit function and so can be used to convert the logarithm of odds into a
probability; the conversion from the log-likelihood ratio of two alternatives also takes the form of a logistic curve.
The logistic sigmoid function is related to the hyperbolic tangent, A.p. by:
ECOLOGY POPULATION GROWTH

. A typical application of the logistic equation is a common model of population growth, originally due to Pierre-François Verhulst in
1838, where the rate of reproduction is proportional to both the existing population and the amount of available resources, all else
being equal. The Verhulst equation was published after Verhulst had read Thomas Malthus' An Essay on the Principle of Population.
Verhulst derived his logistic equation to describe the self-limiting growth of a biological population. The equation is also sometimes
called the Verhulst-Pearl equation following its rediscovery in 1920. Alfred J. Lotka derived the equation again in 1925, calling it the
law of population growth.
Letting P represent population size (N is often used in ecology instead) and t represent time, this model is formalized by the
differential equation:

where the constant r defines the growth rate and K is the carrying capacity.
In the equation, the early, unimpeded growth rate is modeled by the first term +rP. The value of the rate r represents the proportional
increase of the population P in one unit of time. Later, as the population grows, the second term, which multiplied out is −rP2/K,
becomes larger than the first as some members of the population P interfere with each other by competing for some critical resource,
such as food or living space. This antagonistic effect is called the bottleneck, and is modeled by the value of the parameter K. The
competition diminishes the combined growth rate, until the value of P ceases to grow (this is called maturity of the population).
Dividing both sides of the equation by K gives

Now setting gives the differential equation:

For we have the particular case with which we started.


In ecology, species are sometimes referred to as r-strategist or K-strategist depending upon the selective processes that have
shaped their life history strategies. The solution to the equation (with being the initial population) is

Where:
Which is to say that K is the limiting value of P: the highest value that the population can reach given infinite time (or come close to
Sumber:
reaching in finite time). It is important to stress ….. Diunduh
that the carrying 19/4/2012reached independently of the initial value
capacity is asymptotically
GOMPERTZ FUNCTION
A Gompertz curve or Gompertz function, named after Benjamin Gompertz, is a sigmoid function. It is a type of
mathematical model for a time series, where growth is slowest at the start and end of a time period. The right-
hand or future value asymptote of the function is approached much more gradually by the curve than the left-hand
or lower valued asymptote, in contrast to the logistic function in which both asymptotes are approached by the
curve symmetrically.

Formula:

where
a is the upper asymptote, since
b, c are negative numbers
b sets the x displacement
c sets the growth rate (x scaling)
e is Euler's Number (e = 2.71828...)
Graphs of Gompertz curves, showing the effect of varying one of a,b,c while keeping the others constant : Varying a

Sumber: …http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gompertz_curve.. Diunduh 19/4/2012


REGRESI LOGISTIK
In statistics, logistic regression (sometimes called the logistic model or logit model) is a type of regression
analysis used for predicting the outcome of a binary dependent variable (a variable which can take only two
possible outcomes, e.g. "yes" vs. "no" or "success" vs. "failure") based on one or more predictor variables.
Logistic regression attempts to model the probability of a "yes/success" outcome using a linear function of the
predictors. Specifically, the log-odds of success (the logit of the probability) is fit to the predictors using linear
regression. Logistic regression is one type of discrete choice model, which in general predict categorical
dependent variables — either binary or multi-way.

Logistic regression is a generalized linear model, specifically a type of binomial regression. It is often compared
with probit regression, the other main type of binomial regression, which transforms the probability using the
probit function (the quantile function of the normal distribution) rather than the logit function. Both functions have
a similar shape, and both serve to transform the limited range of a probability, restricted to the range , into the full
range , which makes the transformed value more suitable for fitting using a linear function. The effect of both
functions is to transform the middle of the probability range (near 50%) more or less linearly, while stretching out
the extremes (near 0% or 100%) exponentially.

The logistic function, with z on the horizontal axis and ƒ(z) on the vertical axis

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REGRESI LOGISTIK
. An explanation of logistic regression begins with an explanation of the logistic function, which, like probabilities, always
takes on values between zero and one:

A graph of the function is shown in figure 1. The input is z and the output is ƒ(z). The logistic function is useful because
it can take as an input any value from negative infinity to positive infinity, whereas the output is confined to values
between 0 and 1. The variable z represents the exposure to some set of independent variables, while ƒ(z) represents
the probability of a particular outcome, given that set of explanatory variables. The variable z is a measure of the total
contribution of all the independent variables used in the model and is known as the logit.

The variable z is usually defined as

where is called the "intercept" and , , , and so on, are called the "regression coefficients" of , , respectively.

The intercept is the value of z when the value of all independent variables are zero (e.g. the value of z in someone with
no risk factors).
Each of the regression coefficients describes the size of the contribution of that risk factor.
A positive regression coefficient means that the explanatory variable increases the probability of the outcome, while a
negative regression coefficient means that the variable decreases the probability of that outcome; a large regression
coefficient means that the risk factor strongly influences the probability of that outcome, while a near-zero regression
coefficient means that that risk factor has little influence on the probability of that outcome.

Logistic regression is a useful way of describing the relationship between one or more independent variables (e.g., age,
sex, etc.) and a binary response variable, expressed as a probability, that has only two values, such as having cancer
("has cancer" or "doesn't have cancer") .

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DIAGRAM SEBAB - AKIBAT
MENEMUKAN AKAR MASALAH (Underlying / ROOT causes)

The Cause & Effect (CE) diagram, also sometimes called the ‘fishbone’ diagram, is a tool for discovering all the
possible causes for a particular effect. The effect being examined is normally some troublesome aspect of product
or service quality, such as 'a machined part not to specification', 'delivery times varying too widely', 'excessive
number of bugs in software under development', and so on, but the effect may also relate to internal processes
such as 'high rate of team failures'.
The major purpose of the CE Diagram is to act as a first step in problem solving by generating a comprehensive
list of possible causes. It can lead to immediate identification of major causes and point to the potential remedial
actions or, failing this, it may indicate the best potential areas for further exploration and analysis. At a minimum,
preparing a CE Diagram will lead to greater understanding of the problem.
The CE Diagram was invented by Professor Kaoru Ishikawa of Tokyo University, a highly regarded Japanese
expert in quality management. He first used it in 1943 to help explain to a group of engineers at Kawasaki Steel
Works how a complex set of factors could be related to help understand a problem. CE Diagrams have since
become a standard tool of analysis in Japan and in the West in conjunction with other analytical and problem-
solving tools and techniques.

CE Diagrams are also often called Ishikawa Diagrams, after their inventor,
or Fishbone Diagrams because the diagram itself can look like the
skeleton of a fish.

Sumber: http://www.hci.com.au/hcisite3/toolkit/causeand.htm ….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


GUNAKAN DIAGRAM SEBAB-AKIBAT PADA SAAT MEMULAI MENGKAJI
PERMASALAHAN
Construct a CE Diagram whenever you need to investigate the causes or contributing factors for an effect (be it a
quality characteristic or other outcome) which is of concern to you. This will most likely be after you have
conducted a general investigation of problems for a particular function, product, or service, and ranked them using
a Pareto Chart. The effect ranked highest provides the starting point for a CE Diagram.

For example, you may just have completed an investigation of all the reasons recorded for goods being returned
by customers and found that the highest incidence relates to incorrect goods being sent. A CE Diagram can be
constructed to explore the possible causes for this.

Developing a CE Diagram in a team meeting is a very effective technique for,


concentrating team members' attention on a specific problem pooling, and reflecting back, team thinking
constructing a picture of the problem at hand without resorting to the tight discipline of a flowchart

M.B. Beck: Mathematical Modeling of Water Quality:


A Case Study in the UK

The purpose of the case study (the River Cam in eastern England) is that it illustrates a certain viewpoint on the
modeling process. The modeling process can be separated into the following :

1. Design and implementation of specialized experimentation;


2. Choice of a priori model;
3. Model structure identification;
4. Parameter estimation;
5. Verification; and
6. Validation. Sumber:
Mathematical Modeling of Water Quality-
Summarv Report of a IlASA Workshop , September 13-16 1977
Me Be Beck
BAGAIMANA MEMBUAT DIAGRAM SEBAB-AKIBAT

This is a three step process.


Step 1
Write down the effect to be investigated and draw the 'backbone' arrow to it. In the example shown below the effect is
'Incorrect deliveries'.
. Step 2
Identify all the broad areas of enquiry in which the causes of the effect being investigated may lie. For incorrect
deliveries the diagram may then become:
Step 3
This step requires the greatest amount of work and imagination because it requires you (or you and your team) to
write in all the detailed possible causes in each of the broad areas of enquiry. Each cause identified should be fully
explored for further more specific causes which, in turn, contribute to them.
You continue this process of branching off into more and more directions until every possible cause has been
identified. The final result will represent a sort of a 'mind dump' of all the factors relating to the effect being explored
and the relationships between them.

Sumber: http://www.hci.com.au/hcisite3/toolkit/causeand.htm….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


TIPE KLASIFIKASI PRODUKSI

This type differs from


the basic type above in
that each discrete
stage in the production
process leading up to
the effect being
examined is shown
along the main arrow
or 'backbone' of the
diagram. Possible
causes are then shown
as branches off these
as shown in the
illustration overleaf.

This type of CE
Diagram is often easier
to construct and
understand because
those involved are
already familiar with
each of the production
steps identified.

Sumber: http://www.hci.com.au/hcisite3/toolkit/causeand.htm….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM

What it is:
Graphically illustrates the relationship
between a given outcome and all the
factors that influence this outcome.
Sometimes called an Ishikawa or
“fishbone" diagram, it helps show the
relationship of the parts (and subparts)
to the whole by:
• Determining the factors that cause a
positive or negative outcome (or
effect)
• Focusing on a specific issue without
resorting to complaints and irrelevant
discussion
• Determining the root causes of a given
effect
• Identifying areas where there is a lack of
data

. Identify factors and subfactors. Use an idea-generating technique from


Section 2 to identify the factors and subfactors within each major category.
An easy way to begin is to use the major categories as a catalyst. For example,
“What policies are causing . . . ?”

Sumber: http://web2.concordia.ca/Quality/tools/12fishbone.pdf….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


. Pollution Prevention for Odor Reduction in Pig Farming Using Biogas
Production Technology in Nakhon Pathom Province Mr. Somsak Chaipipat, Public Health Specialist
Bureau of Environmental Health, Department of Health, Tel : 5904353
Pig farming is one among 130 enterprises endangering to health according to Public Health Act 1992. The survey,
by Department of Health in 1991, showed that the nuisance complaints due to pig farming were about 94% of the
total farms The major nuisance problems arising from pig farming Were odor, manure, wastewater, chemical use
and fly breeding source. These problems caused unpleasant conditions for the people who lived nearby the farm

. Cause and Effect Analysis One of the pig farm selected in Nakhon Pathom Province of Thailand can be
mapped out in the process of farming (Figure 1) . To determine the causes of bad odor, the sources of odor in the
farm had to be investigated by a walk through survey and by interviewing the farmers. After analyzing the data,
the cause and effect diagrams were shown (Figure 2) in four major categories.

Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


MANUSIA
Lack of knowledge and awareness among farmers and labourers on better farming and waste management.

Material
Type of food which caused the odor in the farm or effected to a digestive system of the pig which changed the volume
and characteristic of defecated waste. Unlimited number of pigs in each pigsty made overcrowded and raised the
problem of waste load.

Equipment
Poor ventilation and air quality inside pig buildings could effect the way to eliminate the odor level and to health. No
slope and unsmooth surface in the pigsty made difficult to remove or scrape the manure to the treatment plant.

Procedure
Feeding frequency and technique could effect the excess amount of waste load. High water usage in cleaning and
APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION

To cope with the odor problem, the farmer chose biogas production technology to prevent the pollution which will
be described as follows: There are two buildings in the farm, one for 100 sows and another one for 150 piglets.
The building for sow is designed with entire slotted floor. Beneath the floor there is a concrete slab floor with a
sloping gutter, along the two sides of the floor serving as the collecting device for the waste as it is scraped or
washed form the floor. The building for piglet is a solid concrete slab floor unit in which 100% is under the roof
constructed of wood. There are also sloping gutters along two sides of the floor.
All manure and waste from the two buildings are scraped and washed every 2 days. The waste empties into the
gutters running to the 30 m of fixed dome Thai-German biogas plant. The plant is approximately 50 meters away
from the farm and household.
Biogas production technology is anaerobic bacteria decomposition of animal manures conducted to yield
approximately 60% methane. The study showed that one kilogram of pig manure can produce 100 liters of
methane gas per day
The gas can be directly burnt as a fuel for a variety of purposes of household activities and farming, for example,
cooking, brooding the litter, fueling of internal combustion engines to generate electricity for pumping and lighting.
In addition, liquid effluent and well-digested sludge generally do not have the offensive odor of decomposing
sludge. They can be used as fertilizers for 1,600 m, 1,600 m and 400 m of growing land of Chinese celery, collard
and Chinese convolvulus, respectively.
The cost for constructing 30 m of the plant can be calculated and identified in three items, as follow: Construction
material costBaht 34,265.0 Labor costBaht 31,955.0 Gas pipeline & equipment costBaht 2,541.0 Total
costBaht 68,761.0
The benefits possibly achieved beyond biogas production can be identified into two ways.

Sumber: http://advisor.anamai.moph.go.th/factsheet/pig.htm….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


S.E. JORGENSEN : WATER QUALITY MODELING OF LAKES
Dr. Jorgensen offered the detailed strategy for water quality modeling. This strategy for modeling is composed of:

1. Definition of the goal for model development and application;


2. Selection of the state variables;
3. Development of conceptual flow diagrams;
4. Development of system state equations;
5. Parameter sensitivity analysis;
6. Calibration of model with field data; and
7. Validation of model with a second and further independent set(s) of field data.

The key question is determining "sufficient complexity" of the model to meet the stated goal for model application.
Broadly speaking, complexity is interpreted as the number of state variables and the goal is the response of the
ecological system--e.g., phytoplankton growth--to a change in nutrient input loadlngs.

In order to confer a quantitative value to "sufficient complexity", the concept of ecological buffer capacity is
introduced.
We can intuitively relate such a concept to the stated goal of the modeling exercise, and formally ecological buffer
capacity can be expressed and computed in terms of the exergy of the ecological system. More precisely, exergy,
the mechanical energy equivalent of distance from thermodynamic equilibrium, is found to be correlated with
ecological buffer capacity.

The contribution of each state variable to the total exergy is calculated from given field observations and selection
may be made between those variables that make a significant contribution and those that do not. For example,
from this kind of analysis of a eutrophication model one concludes that sediment is significant but the division of
zooplankton into two classes is not significant.

Notice here, however, that the analyst is once again involved in a subjective judgment on the required level of
model complexity: he must make a decision on what is and what is not significant.

Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


APAKAH PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN?
• Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment
• We will be examining 3 main parts of pollution
– Water Pollution
– Air Pollution
– Land Pollution

HOW TO CONTROL WATER POLLUTION?

Water pollution can be controlled in the multiple ways. It is best controlled by the dilution of water. The
pollutants must be treated chemically and must be converted into the non toxic substances. The low level of
radioactive wastes in the water is removed by the oxidation of ponds. There are certain chemicals which act on
the organic insecticide and are used in the pesticide.

There are different techniques which are very helpful in the process of thermal pollution and involve the cooling,
evaporation, water cooling; cooling can be wet or dry. Their main aim is to keep the water cool in rivers and
streams. The shallow ponds must be used to store the domestic and industrial wastes. One must avoid the
large ponds. The waste has a presence of sunlight and organic nutrients which may lead to the larger growth of
bacteria which act on the waste matter. The reclaimed polluted water can be used in making fertilizers as it is
rich in phosphorous, potassium and nitrogen. It can also be used for the irrigation and factories purposes.
The proper sewage treatment plans play a crucial role in the reclaimed polluted water. There must be a law
which ensures that the industries must treat the waste before the water is discharged into the rivers and seas.

The polluted water can be treated by the use of a plant known as water hyacinth which is also referred as
kaloli. It deals with the biological and chemical waste. The heavy metals are also removed by it.

Sumber: http://www.thebigger.com/biology/pollution/how-to-control-water-pollution/…. Diunduh 21/4/2012


SEBAB-SEBAB PENCEMARAN AIR
• Factors that contribute to water pollution can be categorized into two different groups
– Point sources
– Non-point sources
• Point sources are the easiest to identify and control
• Non point sources are ambiguously defined and harder to control

PENCEMARAN AIR: Beragam bentuk

• PENYAKIT: In developing nations, 80% of diseases are water-related.


• Senyawa organik sintetik
• Senyawa an-organik & Mineral seperti asam-asam dll.
• Substansi Radioactive
• Limbah yang butuh oksigen
• Unsur hara tanaman
• Sedimen
• Buangan limbah panas

Bentuk-bentuk Pencemaran Air

• Senyawa an-organik: Asam-asam, garam, logam toksik


• Satu gram Pb dalam 20,000 liter air mengakibatkan tidak layak minum. Pb lazim ditemukan pada pipa-
pipa yang sudah tua / aus.
• Berapa batas ambang aman As untuk air minum ? Berapa untuk Pb ?
TITIK-TITIK SUMBER PENCEMARAN
• Some point sources of water pollution include
– Waste products from factories
– Waste from sewage system
– Waste from power plants
– Waste from underground coalmines
– Waste from oil wells
• They are called point sources because they are direct sources of water pollution and can be reduced and monitored
DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN
Disposing of waste has huge environmental impacts and can cause serious problems. In the UK much is
buried in landfill sites – holes in the ground, sometimes old quarries, sometimes specially dug. Some waste
will eventually rot, but not all, and in the process it may smell or generate methane gas, which is explosive
and contributes to the greenhouse effect. Leachate produced as waste decomposes may cause pollution.
Badly-managed landfill sites may attract vermin or cause litter.

Incinerating waste also causes problems, because plastics tend to produce toxic substances, such as dioxins,
when they are burnt. Gases from incineration may cause air pollution and contribute to acid rain, while the ash
from incinerators may contain heavy metals and other toxins. Because of these problems there are active
campaigns against waste incineration. Greenpeace actively worked on these issues and some information,
including a map of UK waste incinerators, can be found by searching the Greenpeace website for waste
incineration. However, burning waste can generate energy and there are operational schemes.

The Renewable Energy Association website provides more information including a map of biomass and
energy from waste projects.
Throwing away things wastes resources. It wastes the raw materials and energy used in making the items
and it wastes money.
Reducing waste means less environmental impact, less resources and energy used and saves money.

Sumber: http://www.greenchoices.org/green-living/waste-recycling/environmental-impacts…. Diunduh 21/4/2012


SUMBER PENCEMAR BUKAN-TITIK

• The term non-point source encompasses a large range of sources such as:
– when rain or snow moves through the ground and picks up pollutants as it moves towards a major body of
water
– the runoff of fertilizers from farm animals and crop land
– air pollutants getting washed or deposited to earth
– storm water drainage from lawns, parking lots, and streets

Terlalu banyak air :


BANJIR

• Banjir alamiah disebabkan oleh hujan lebat atau mencairnya salju .


• Ini menyebabkan air dalam sungai melimpas ke daerah sekitarnya, yang disebut lembah sungai (dataran banjir)

• Lembah sungai ini, termasuk lahan sawah produktif , membantu untuk:


— Menyediakan kontrol alami atas banjir dan erosi
— Menjaga kualitas air yang bagus
— Mengisi groundwater

• When the floodwater recede, deposits of silt are left behind, creating a nutrient-rich soil.
PeNDUDUK menempati lembah sungai karena beberapa alasan :
1. Tanahnya subur
2. Cukup air untuk irigasi
3. Lahan datar cocok untuk pertanian
4. Menggunakan aliran sungai untuk transportasi

Akan tetapi, setiap tahun banjir (“bencana alam”) mengakibatkan kematian banyak orang & kerugian material
berjuta dolar.
Kegiatan manusia telah mengakibatkan peningkatan frekuensi banjir yg secara dramatis meningkatkan kematian dan
PENCEMARAN UDARA

THOR - an Integrated Air Pollution Forecasting and Scenario Management System

Since 1996, the National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Denmark, has developed a
comprehensive and unique integrated air pollution model system, THOR. The model system includes several
meteorological and air pollution models capable of operating for different applications and different scales.
The system is capable of accurate and high resolution three-days forecasting of weather and air pollution from
regional scale over urban background scale and down to individual street canyons in cities - on both sides of
the streets. Coupling models over different scales makes it possible to account for contributions from local,
near-local as well as remote emission sources in order to describe the air quality at a specific location - e.g. in
a street canyon or in a park. The system is used in connection with the urban and background monitoring
programs in Denmark. Furthermore, the system can be used to forecast air pollution from accidental releases
as e.g. power plants, industrial sites and natural or human made fires.

The main purposes of the THOR system are forecasting, nowcasting, emission reduction scenarios,
retrospective analyses and air pollution assessments and management. The system can be used for
information and warning of the public in cases of high air pollution levels and for policy management (e.g. by
emission reduction or traffic scenarios) of many different chemical compounds.

The system can be applied operationally for any location all over the world. The system consists of several
different air pollution models - all developed at NERI during the last decades. A schematic diagram of the
different modules and the data flow chart of the THOR system is shown in the figure below. The model system
consists of a coupling of several models, briefly described in the following.

Sumber: http://www2.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Miljoe-tilstand/3_luft/4_spredningsmodeller/5_Thor/default_en.asp …. Diunduh 21/4/2012


THOR - an Integrated Air Pollution Forecasting and Scenario Management System

Applications
Present capabilities of the THOR system include all aspects within forecasting, nowcasting, supplement to
monitoring programs, scenarios, retrospective analyses, assessment and management of air pollution.

Some examples are:


1. Three-day high-resolution regional weather forecasts.
2. Three-day regional air pollution forecasts of 56 chemical compounds, e.g. ozone, sulphur, nitrate, particles,
etc.
3. Three-day urban background air quality in specifically identified cities.
4. Three-day urban air quality forecasts at street level - at both sides of the streets.
5. Three-day forecasts of accidental releases into the atmosphere from e.g. nuclear power plants, fires,
chemical industries, etc.
6. Emission and traffic reduction scenarios for air pollution management and decision making.
7. Multiple-point and area source dispersion modelling, for determining the effects on air quality caused by
proposed new emission sources (e.g., new power plants, chemical industries, commercial activities).
8. Automated production of data, visualizations (maps and time series), information and warnings.
9. Data, forecasts and warnings are disseminated to the authorities and decision makers.
10. Data can be disseminated to the public via Internet or other media.

Sumber: http://www2.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Miljoe-tilstand/3_luft/4_spredningsmodeller/5_Thor/default_en.asp….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


THOR - an Integrated Air Pollution Forecasting and Scenario Management System

Sumber: http://www2.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Miljoe-tilstand/3_luft/4_spredningsmodeller/5_Thor/default_en.asp….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


THOR - an Integrated Air Pollution Forecasting and Scenario Management System

The weather forecast

A three-dimensional numerical weather forecast model, Eta, is applied. This model is


initialized with data from a global circulation model, run at the National Centers for
Environmental Prediction, NCEP, USA.
Data from this global circulation model are the starting point for nearly all weather
forecasts in the USA, and for many forecasts in Europe (e.g., Belgium, Greece,
Yugoslavia and Iceland).
The spatial resolution of the weather forecast model is e.g. 39 km x 39 km over the
global grid and 10 km x 10 km over a sub-domain (see the two figures below for an
example).

Three-dimensional information on winds, temperature, humidity, clouds, precipitation,


turbulent fluxes, radiation, etc. can be visualized e.g. every six hours as maps and e.g.
every one hour as time series for specific locations.

The figures below show the precipitation and surface pressure on November 12th, 2002
for Europe and Denmark.

Sumber: http://www2.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Miljoe-tilstand/3_luft/4_spredningsmodeller/5_Thor/default_en.asp….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


THOR - an Integrated Air Pollution Forecasting and Scenario Management System

The long-range transported air pollution

The weather forecast is used as input to a


long-range transport air pollution model, the
Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model, DEHM,
producing air pollution forecasts on regional
background scale (e.g. the greater European
scale).

The operational version of the model


calculates transport, dispersion, deposition
and chemistry (including photochemistry) of
56 chemical compounds.

Furthermore, the model can be used to


describe and forecast sand/dust storms.

The emission data used in DEHM are derived


from a combination of information provided by
the European Monitoring and Evaluation
Programme (EMEP) and global emission
databases.

The two figures below show concentrations of


nitrogen-dioxide over Europe and Denmark on
November 12th, 2002.

Sumber: http://www2.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Miljoe-tilstand/3_luft/4_spredningsmodeller/5_Thor/default_en.asp….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


THOR - an Integrated Air Pollution Forecasting and Scenario Management System

Air pollution in street canyons

The output from the urban background model is used as input to the Operational Street Pollution Model, OSPM,
producing the air pollution concentrations at street level at both sides of the streets in cities. The model calculates
air concentrations of NO, NO2, NOx, O3, CO and benzene in the street canyon at both sides of the street.

Particles will be included in the model in the near future. The OSPM has been successfully tested under specific
European field campaigns in a variety of different climatic and air quality conditions in, e.g., Copenhagen,
Gothenburg, Helsinki, Oslo, Brussels, Berlin, Hanover, and Milano. It has also been tested and applied in Beijing,
China, under a cooperation agreement with Tsinghua University.

Sumber: http://www2.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Miljoe-tilstand/3_luft/4_spredningsmodeller/5_Thor/default_en.asp….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


SEBAB-SEBAB PENCEMARAN UDARA

• One of the main causes of air pollution is the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, this happens because of Deforestation
and fossil fuel burning
• Sulfur dioxide is another air polluter and is released into the atmosphere by the burning of sulfur containing compounds of fossil
fuels. Sulfur oxides are very dangerous to humans at a high concentration. Sulfur in the atmosphere is responsible for acid rain

Sulphur oxides (SOx) - especially sulfur dioxide, a chemical compound with the formula SO2. SO2 is produced
by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds,
their combustion generates sulfur dioxide.
Further oxidation of SO2, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as NO2, forms H2SO4, and thus acid rain.
This is one of the causes for concern over the environmental impact of the use of these fuels as power
sources.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) - a colourless, odorless, non-toxic greenhouse gas also associated with
ocean acidification, emitted from sources such as combustion, cement production, and
respiration. It is otherwise recycled in the atmosphere in the carbon cycle.

Volatile organic compounds - VOCs are an important outdoor air pollutant. In this field they are often
divided into the separate categories of methane (CH4) and non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an
extremely efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced global warming. Other hydrocarbon
VOCs are also significant greenhouse gases via their role in creating ozone and in prolonging the life
of methane in the atmosphere, although the effect varies depending on local air quality. Within the
NMVOCs, the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene and xylene are suspected carcinogens and may
lead to leukemia through prolonged exposure. 1,3-butadiene is another dangerous compound which is
often associated with industrial uses.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_pollution …. Diunduh 21/4/2012


PENCEMAR UDARA: CFCs
• Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also contribute to air pollution by reducing the amount of ozone the stratosphere. CFCs come from a variety of places such
as:
– the burning of plastic foam items
– leaking refrigerator equipment
– spray cans
A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced
as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane.
A common subclass are the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), which contain hydrogen, as well. They are
also commonly known by the DuPont trade name Freon.
The most common representative is dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12 or Freon-12). Many CFCs have been
widely used as refrigerants, propellants (in aerosol applications), and solvents. The manufacture of such
compounds has been phased out by the Montreal Protocol because they contribute to ozone depletion.

Environmental impacts

As previously discussed, CFCs were phased out via the Montreal Protocol due to their part in ozone depletion.
However, the atmospheric impacts of CFCs are not limited to its role as an active ozone reducer. This
anthropogenic compound is also a greenhouse gas, with a much higher potential to enhance the greenhouse
effect than CO2.
Infrared bands trap heat from escaping earth's atmosphere. In the case of CFCs, the strongest of these bands
are located at the spectral region – referred to as an atmospheric window due to the relative transparency of the
atmosphere within this region.
The strength of CFC bands and the unique susceptibility of the atmosphere, at which the compound absorbs and
emits radiation, are two factors that contribute to CFC's "super" greenhouse effect.
Another such factor is the low concentration of the compound. Because CO2 is close to saturation with high
concentrations, it takes more of the substance to enhance the greenhouse effect. Conversely, the low
concentration of CFCs allow their effects to increase linearly with mass

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorofluorocarbons …. Diunduh 21/4/2012


PENCEMAR ALAMIAH
Pencemar-udara dari sumber alamiah adalah:
– Asap dari kebakaran liar
– Gas methana dari peternakan
– Erupsi vulkanik
A wildfire is any uncontrolled fire in combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or a wilderness
area. Other names such as brush fire, bushfire, forest fire, desert fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat fire,
vegetation fire, and veldfire may be used to describe the same phenomenon depending on the type of
vegetation being burned. A wildfire differs from other fires by its extensive size, the speed at which it can
spread out from its original source, its potential to change direction unexpectedly, and its ability to jump gaps
such as roads, rivers and fire breaks.
Wildfires are characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties such as speed of
propagation, the combustible material present, and the effect of weather on the fire.

Wildfire prevention refers to the preemptive methods of reducing the risk of fires as well as lessening its
severity and spread. Effective prevention techniques allow supervising agencies to manage air quality,
maintain ecological balances, protect resources, and to limit the effects of future uncontrolled fires.

A new and ecologically evolutionary practice, termed "Hydro-Pyrogeography", promises and claims to
bound wildfire from passing through any such wildland-urban interface anywhere on earth that the
practice is put into place, and thereby diminishing, even eliminating the above-referred oppositions and
concerns to traditional fuel management techniques.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wildfires …. Diunduh 21/4/2012


KONSEKWENSI PENCEMARAN UDARA
• CO2 is a good transmitter of sunlight, but it also partially restricts infrared radiation going back from the earth into space, which
produces the so-called greenhouse effect that prevents a drastic cooling of the Earth during the night
• Increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere reinforces this effect and is expected to result in a warming of the Earth's surface
• CO2 in atmosphereGLOBAL WARMING

The seven sources of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion are (with percentage contributions for 2000–2004):

Seven main fossil fuel Contribution


combustion sources (%)

Liquid fuels (e.g., gasoline, fuel oil) 36 %

Solid fuels (e.g., coal) 35 %

Gaseous fuels (e.g., natural gas) 20 %

Cement production 3%

Flaring gas industrially and at wells <1%

Non-fuel hydrocarbons <1%

"International bunker fuels" of transport


4%
not included in national inventories

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas …. Diunduh 21/4/2012


EFEK RUMAH KACA

As a result of human
activities lead to increased
concentrations of carbon
dioxide (CO2) and other
gases in the atmosphere.

The increase in CO2


concentration is due to the
increase in fuel oil
combustion (fuel), coal and
other organic fuels which
exceed the ability of plants
and sea to absorb.
Measurements are performed
by the levels of CO2 Mauna
Loa Observatory show a
significant rise in CO2 levels
of 313 ppm (parts per million)
in 1960 to 375 ppm in 2005.

Sumber: http://organicgardeningmagazine.info/greenhouse-effect/ …. Diunduh 21/4/2012


HUJAN ASAM
• When emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide from stationary sources are
transported long distances by winds, they form secondary pollutants such as nitrogen
dioxide, nitric acid vapor, and droplets containing solutions of sulfuric acid, sulfate,
and nitrate salts
• These chemicals descend to the earth's surface in wet form as rain or snow and in dry
form as a gases fog, dew, or solid particles, it is known as acid rain or acid deposition

Hujan asam diartikan sebagai segala macam hujan dengan pH di bawah 5,6. Hujan secara alami bersifat
asam (pH sedikit di bawah 6) karena karbondioksida (CO2) di udara yang larut dengan air hujan memiliki
bentuk sebagai asam lemah. Jenis asam dalam hujan ini sangat bermanfaat karena membantu melarutkan
mineral dalam tanah yang dibutuhkan oleh tumbuhan dan binatang.
Hujan asam disebabkan oleh belerang yang merupakan pengotor dalam bahan bakar fosil serta nitrogen di
udara yang bereaksi dengan oksigen membentuk sulfur dioksida dan nitrogen oksida. Zat-zat ini berdifusi ke
atmosfer dan bereaksi dengan air untuk membentuk asam sulfat dan asam nitrat yang mudah larut sehingga
jatuh bersama air hujan.
Air hujan yang masam tersebut akan meningkatkan kadar keasaman tanah dan air permukaan yang terbukti
berbahaya bagi kehidupan ikan dan tanaman. Usaha untuk mengatasi hal ini saat ini sedang gencar
dilaksanakan.

Masalah hujan asam tidak hanya meningkat sejalan dengan pertumbuhan populasi dan industri
tetapi telah berkembang menjadi lebih luas. Penggunaan cerobong asap yang tinggi untuk
mengurangi polusi lokal berkontribusi dalam penyebaran hujan asam, karena emisi gas yang
dikeluarkannya akan masuk ke sirkulasi udara regional yang memiliki jangkauan lebih luas.
Sering sekali, hujan asam terjadi di daerah yang jauh dari lokasi sumbernya, di mana daerah
pegunungan cenderung memperoleh lebih banyak karena tingginya curah hujan di sini.

Sumber: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hujan_asam …. Diunduh 21/4/2012


KABUT ASAP = Smog
• With the introduction of petroleum to replace coal economies in countries, photochemical smog has become predominant in many
cities, which are located in sunny, warm, and dry climates with many motor vehicles
• Worst episodes of photochemical smog tends to occur in summer

Asbut, istilah adaptasi dari bahasa Inggris smog (smoke and fog), adalah kasus pencemaran udara berat
yang bisa terjadi berhari-hari hingga hitungan bulan.
Di bawah keadaan cuaca yang menghalang sirkulasi udara, asbut bisa menutupi suatu kawasan dalam waktu
yang lama, seperti kasus di London, Los Angeles, Athena, Beijing, Hong Kong atau Ruhr Area dan terus
menumpuk hingga berakibat membahayakan.

Asbut Fotokimia
Disebabkan oleh beberapa jenis hasil pembakaran bahan kimia yang dikatalisasi oleh kehadiran cahaya matahari.
Asbut ini mengandung: hasil oksidasi nitrogen, misalnya nitrogen dioksida, ozon troposferik, VOCs (volatile organic
compounds), dan peroxyacyl nitrat (PAN).
VOC's adalah hasil penguapan dari bahan bakar minyak, cat, solven, pestisida dan bahan kimia lain. Sementara
oksida nitrogen banyak dihasilkan oleh proses pembakaran dalam bahan bakar fosil seperti mesin mobil,
pembangkit listrik, dan truk.
Asbut fotokimia biasanya terjadi di daerah-daerah industri atau kota padat mobil yang menghasilkan emisi berat
dan terkonsentrasi. Tetapi asbut fotokimia tidak hanya menjadi masalah di kota-kota industri, sebab bisa menyebar
ke daerah non industri.

Asbut Klasik
Merupakan asbut yang terjadi di London setelah terjadinya revolusi industri yang menghasilkan pencemaran besar-
besaran dari pembakaran batu bara. Pembakaran ini menghasilkan campuran asap dan sulfur dioksida.
Gunung berapi yang juga menyebabkan berlimpahnya sulfur dioksida di udara, menghasilkan asbut gunung berapi,
atau vog (vulcanic smog, asbut vulkanis).
Sumber: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asbut …. Diunduh 21/4/2012
DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN
• Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone and peroxyacl nitrates (PANs), cause direct damage to leaves of crop plants and trees when
they enter leaf pores (stomates)
• Chronic exposure of leaves and needles to air pollutants can also break down the waxy coating that helps prevent excessive water
loss and damage from diseases, pests, drought and frost

Trees Reduce Temperature


Trees reduce surrounding air temperature and create their own microclimates through transpiration and the effects of tree
canopies. Tree canopies not only provide shade but they also reduce solar radiation absorption and provide heat storage. The
larger the tree canopy, the greater the reduction of surrounding air temperature. Decreasing air temperature is effective in
reducing air pollution because many of the chemicals that create pollution are temperature dependent. Shade from trees planted
in parking lots can create small reductions, 1 to 2%, of the levels of harmful emissions produced from car ignitions.

Trees Reduce Energy Usage


Trees can keep buildings cooler in the summer and more insulated in winter. By blocking solar radiation and creating a cooler
microclimate, trees offer buildings protection from summer heat. During winter, trees can provide effective wind breaks and block drafts
from entering structures. This lowers the amount of energy used to heat or cool the building and reduces the air pollution created in the
production of energy.

The following strategies can be used to design and manage urban forests to improve air quality :
1. Greater tree cover will result in increased pollution removal;
2. Dense evergreen canopies are better than sparse deciduous canopies for particulate matter removal;
3. The greater the precipitation in a given area, the lower the pollution removal ability of trees for that area (in this case
pollution is removed by precipitation);
4. The less maintenance is required for a tree, the better that tree's contribution is for air pollution removal (use low
maintenance trees and reduce gas or diesel use);
5. Longer-lived trees will provide more pollution removal for a longer period of time;
6. Plant trees in places that will provide summertime cooling for buildings and cars, and solar heating during the winter;
7. Plant trees in highly urbanized areas with pollution problems; trees will remove more pollution in areas with higher pollution
concentrations;
8. Avoid using trees that are not resistant to air pollution.

Sumber: http://jacquelinelerche.suite101.com/trees-reduce-urban-air-pollution-a152758 …. Diunduh 21/4/2012


SEBAB-SEBAB PENCEMARAN LAHAN
• Four Main causes of land pollution
– Construction
– Agriculture
– Domestic waste
– Industrial Waste
Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by one or more
combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.
It is viewed as any change or disturbance to the land perceived to be deleterious or undesirable.
Natural hazards are excluded as a cause, however human activities can indirectly affect phenomena such as
floods and bushfires.
This is considered to be an important topic of the 21st century due to the implications land degradation has
upon agronomic productivity, the environment, and its effects on food security.
It is estimated that up to 40% of the world's agricultural land is seriously degraded.

Land degradation is a broad term that can be applied differently across a wide range of scenarios. There
are four main ways of looking at land degradation and its impact on the environment around it:
1. A temporary or permanent decline in the productive capacity of the land. This can be seen through a
loss of biomass, a loss of actual productivity or in potential productivity, or a loss or change in
vegetative cover and soil nutrients.
2. A decline in the lands “usefulness”: A loss or reduction in the lands capacity to provide resources for
human livelihoods. This can be measured from a baseline of past land use.
3. Loss of biodiversity: A loss of range of species or ecosystem complexity as a decline in the
environmental quality.
4. Shifting ecological risk: increased vulnerability of the environment or people to destruction or crisis.
This is measured through a baseline in the form of pre-existing risk of crisis or destruction.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_degradation…. Diunduh 21/4/2012


PERTANIAN
• As there are more and more people inhabiting the earth, food is in higher demand and so forests are chopped
down and turned into farmland
• In addition, herbicides, pesticides, artificial fertilizers, animal manure (poop) are washed into the soil and pollute
it

Environmental impacts of irrigation are the changes in quantity and quality of soil and water as a result of
irrigation and the ensuing effects on natural and social conditions at the tail-end and downstream of the
irrigation scheme. The impacts stem from the changed hydrological condition owing to the installation and
operation of the scheme.
An irrigation scheme often draws water from the river and distributes it over the irrigated area. As a
hydrological result it is found that:
1. the downstream river discharge is reduced
2. the evaporation in the scheme is increased
3. the groundwater recharge in the scheme is increased
4. the level of the water table rises
5. the drainage flow is increased.
Reduced downstream river discharge
The reduced downstream river discharge may cause:
1. reduced downstream flooding
2. disappearance of ecologically and economically important wetlands or flood forests
3. reduced availability of industrial, municipal, household, and drinking water
4. reduced fishing opportunities. Fish populations, the main source of protein and overall life
support systems for many communities, are also being threatened.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_irrigation…. Diunduh 21/4/2012


LIMBAH DOMESTIK
• Tons of domestic waste is dumped every day. Some waste from homes, offices and industries can be recycled or burnt in
incinerators
• There is still a lot of garbage, such as refrigerators and washing machines that are dumped in landfills simply because they cannot
be reused in anyway, nor recycled

Landfill gas is a complex mix of different gases created by the action of microorganisms within a landfill.
Landfill gas production results from chemical reactions and microbes acting upon the waste as the putrescible
materials begins to break down in the landfill. The rate of production is affected by waste composition and
landfill geometry, which in turn influence the bacterial populations within it, chemical make-up, thermal
characteristics, entry of moisture and escape of gas.

Landfill gas is approximately forty to sixty percent methane, with the remainder being mostly carbon dioxide.
Landfill gas also contains varying amounts of nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour,hydrogen sulphide, and other
contaminants. Most of these other contaminants are known as "non-methane organic compounds" or NMOCs.
Some inorganic contaminants (for example mercury) are also known to be present in landfill gas.
There are sometimes also contaminants (for example tritium) found in landfill gas. The non-methane organic
compounds usually make up less than one percent of landfill gas. In 1991, the US EPA identified ninety-four
non-methane organic compounds including toxic chemicals like benzene, toluene, chloroform, vinyl chloride,
and carbon tetrachloride. At least forty one of the non-methane organic compounds are halogenated
compounds (chemicals containing halogens: typically chlorine, fluorine, or bromine).

General options for managing landfill gas are: flaring, boiler (makes heat), internal combustion engine (makes
electricity), gas turbine (makes electricity), fuel cell (makes electricity), convert the methane to methyl alcohol,
clean it enough to pipe it to other industries or into natural gas lines.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landfill_gas…. Diunduh 21/4/2012


LIMBAH INDUSTRI
Plastics factories, chemical plants, oil refineries, nuclear waste disposal activity, large animal farms, coal-fired power
plants, metals production factories and other heavy industry all contribute to land pollution

A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids that are moldable.
Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain other substances. They
are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, but many are partially natural.
Almost invariably, organic polymers mainly comprise plastics. The vast majority of these polymers are based
on chains of carbon atoms alone or with oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen as well. The backbone is that part of the
chain on the main "path" linking a large number of repeat units together. To customize the properties of a
plastic, different molecular groups "hang" from the backbone (usually they are "hung" as part of the monomers
before linking monomers together to form the polymer chain). The structure of these "side chains" influence
the properties of the polymer.

Toxicity
Due to their insolubility in water and relative chemical inertness, pure plastics generally have low toxicity.
Some plastic products contain a variety of additives, some of which can be toxic. For example, plasticizers
like adipates and phthalates are often added to brittle plastics like polyvinyl chloride to make them pliable
enough for use in food packaging, toys, and many other items.

Traces of these compounds can leach out of the product. Owing to concerns over the effects of such
leachates, the European Union has restricted the use of DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate)and other phthalates
in some applications. Some compounds leaching from polystyrene food containers have been proposed to
interfere with hormone functions and are suspected human carcinogens

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic …. Diunduh 21/4/2012


KONSEKWENSI PENCEMARAN LAHAN

• Land pollution exterminates wild life


• Acid rain kills trees and other plants
• The vegetation that provides food and shelter is destroyed
• Land pollution can seriously disrupt the balance of nature, and, in extreme cases, can cause human fatalities
• Pesticides can damage crops; kill vegetation; and poison birds, animals, and fish. Most pesticides kill or damage
life forms other than those intended. For example, pesticides used in an effort to control or destroy undesirable
vegetation and insects often destroy birds and small animals. Some life forms develop immunity to pesticides used
to destroy them

Land pollution is the demolition of Earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of
land resources. It occurs when waste is not disposed properly. Health hazard disposal of urban and industrial
wastes, exploitation of minerals, and improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few
factors. Urbanization and industrialization are major causes of land pollution. The Industrial Revolution set a
series of events into motion which destroyed natural habitats and polluted the environment, causing diseases
in both humans and other species of animals.

Penyebab Pencemaran Tanah


Tanah tercemar oleh banyak cara:
1. When pollutants get mixed with air, this causes acid rain. Acid rain degrades the
top soil.
2. Garbage dumping, specially plastics, degrade the soil fertility as they are non
biodegradable.
3. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides,when over used pollute the soil and also
penetrate into ground water and make it non potable.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_pollution…. Diunduh 21/4/2012


CARA MENGHENTIKAN PENCEMARAN
You can help to reduce global air pollution and climate change by:
– Driving a car that gets at least 35 mpg
– Walking, biking, and using public transportation
– Using CFL bulbs over incandescent bulbs
– Buying only energy efficient appliances
– Recycling newspaper, aluminum, and others
– Planting trees!
– Avoid purchasing products that contain CFCs
– Supporting much stricter clean air laws and enforcement of international treaties to reduce ozone depletion and slow global
warming
Pollution mitigation and carbon sequestration by an urban forest (Environmental Pollution 116
(2002) S195–S200)

Canberra has a population of about 300 000 residents and about 400 000 trees planted in publicly managed
areas. These trees have a significant value for the aesthetic and landscape qualities. They also have a
significant value in their potential to reduce energy consumption and ameliorate pollution in the city. This
example study estimated the value of this amelioration may be between US$20–$67 million (or $66–$223/
resident) between 2008 and 2012. Management of this important resource and the establishment or
reestablishment of trees as suburbs grow and change must take these values into account.

Manfaat Hutan Kota:


1. Benefits relating to pollution mitigation
2. Amelioration of urban climate extremes
3. Mitigation of urban heat islands
4. Store and sequester carbon
5. Reduce noise pollution
6. Improve air quality
7. Improve water quality
8. Lower temperatures of parked cars
9. Reduce volatilisation of bitumen
METODE-METODE ANALISIS DAMPAK
MetodE Identifikasi Efek dan Dampak

There are three principal methods for identifying environmental effects and impacts (Sorensen and Moss, 1973;
Warner and Preston, 1973).

Metode Checklists
Checklists are comprehensive lists of environmental effects and impact indicators designed to stimulate the
analyst to think broadly about possible consequences of contemplated actions. This strength can also be a
weakness, however, because it may lead the analyst to ignore factors that are not on the lists ('tunnel vision’).
Checklists are found in one form or another in nearly all EIA methods. One of the most comprehensive is
published in the United States (AEC, 1973).

Metode Matriks
Matrices typically employ a list of human actions in addition to a list of impact indicators. The two are related in a
matrix which can be used to identify (to a limited extent) cause-and-effect relationships. Published guidelines may
specify these relationships or may simply list the range of possible actions and characteristics in an open matrix,
which is to be completed by the analyst.

Metode Diagram Alir


Flow diagrams are sometimes used to indentify action-effect- impact relationships. An example is given to show
the connection between a particular environmental impact (decrease in growth rate and size of commercial
shellfish) and coastal urban development.
The flow diagram permits the analyst to visualize the connection between action and impact. The method is best
suited to single-project assessments, and is not recommended for large regional actions. In the latter case, the
display may sometimes become so extensive that it will be of little practical value, particularly when several action
alternatives must be examined. In the study by Sorensen and Moss (1973) of hydrologic impacts of coastal urban
development, for example, an initial print-out of 350 pages was produced.

Sumber: http://www.scopenvironment.org/downloadpubs/scope5/chapter04.html#t4.2 ….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


METODE PREDIKSI EFEK
Methods for prediction cover a wide spectrum and cannot readily be categorized. All predictions are based on
conceptual models of how the universe functions; they range in complexity from those that are totally intuitive to
those based on explicit assumptions concerning the nature of environmental processes. Provided that the
problem is well formulated and not too complex, scientific methods can be used, to obtain useful predictions,
particularly in the biogeophysical disciplines. For example, given the climate (particularly the wind) at a
representative site, together with information on time of day, topography and chimney specifications, the patterns
of ground level pollution concentrations around a chimney can be estimated (mean values for various averaging
times, as well as frequency distributions).

Methods for predicting qualitative effects are difficult to find or to validate. In many cases, the prediction consists
of indicating merely whether there will be degradation, no change, or enhancement of environmental quality.
In other cases, qualitative ranking scales (from 1 to 5, 10 or 100) are used.
* This of course can become a weakness of any method.
**Moore et al. (1973) have used flow diagrams in a system for reviewing (as contrasted to preparing) impact
statements.

Because some methods are better or more relevant than others, a listing of recommended methods for solving
specific environmental problems would seem to be desirable. However, a compendium of methods, even with
numerous footnotes and words of caution, is likely to be a snare for the unwary non-specialist. The environment is
never as well behaved as assumed in models, and the assessor is to be discouraged from accepting off-the-shelf
formulae.
Example of a flow-chart used for impact identification (Sorensen, 1971)
METODE INTERPRETASI DAMPAK
Display of Sets of Values of Individual Impact Indicators
One way to avoid the problem of synthesis is to display in a checklist or matrix all the impact indicators. For a relatively small set, and
provided that some thought is given to a sensible grouping of similar kinds of indicators into sub-sets, a qualitative picture of the
aggregate impact may become apparent by the clustering of checkmarks in the diagram.
This approach is used in numerous methods. Because the assessor wishes to be all-inclusive, however, the sets are usually much
too large for visual comprehension. In the Leopold matrix, for example, 17,600 pieces of information are displayed. Such an array
may confuse the decision-maker, particularly if a separate checklist or matrix is prepared for each alternative. Effort may be wasted if
the assessor conscientiously tries to fill in a high proportion of the boxes, and he may be swamped with excessive information if he
succeeds

Ranking of Alternatives within Impact Categories


A second and better method for estimating relative importance is to rank alternatives within groups of impact indicators. This permits
the determination of alternatives that have the least adverse, or most beneficial, impact on the greatest number of impact indicators.
No formal attempt is made to assign weights to the impact indicators; hence the total impacts of alternatives cannot be compared.
Inspection of the table suggests that Plan IV is environmentally most acceptable, although construction costs are the highest.

Normalization and Mathematical Weighting


In order to compare indicators numerically and to obtain aggregate impacts for each alternative:
1. the impact indicator scales must be in comparable units;
2. an objective method for assigning numerical weights must be selected.

Various normalization techniques are available to achieve the first objective. In the Battelle system (Dee et al., 1972, 1973a), for
example, environmental quality is scaled from 0 (very bad) to 1 (very good) by the use of 'value functions‘. 'Very bad' and 'very good'
can be defined in various ways. For a qualitative variable such as scenic beauty which has been ranked from 1 to 5 or from 1 to 10
by the assessor, the scales are simply transformed arithmetically to the range from 0 to 1. For quantitative variables such as water or
air quality , 'very bad' could be the maximum permissible concentrations established by law, while 'very good' could be the
background concentrations found at great distances from sources.
METODE INTERPRETASI DAMPAK

Finally, a method of weighting may be required in order to obtain an aggregate index for comparing alternatives.
This is undoubtedly a controversial part of the analysis.

The following schemes are listed in increasing order of complexity :


count the numbers of negative, insignificant, and positive impacts, and sum in each class;
when the impact indicators are in comparable units, assign equal weights;
weight according to the number of affected persons;
weight according to the relative importance of each impact indicator.

Scheme (a) is a special case of (b), both of which are to be discouraged. Scheme (d) may implicitly include (c). In
either case, the criteria for weighting should be obtained from the decision-maker or from national goals. The
number of weights will often be rather small, as few as two positive and two negative.
The use of weights is not perfect but it helps to quantify value judgements. The chief element of dispute is whether
the task should be done by specialists or laymen. In the former case, the views may not reflect those of the public
directly affected by the action. In the latter case, the non-specialist may not have sufficient factual information for
impact assessment. For example, laymen have no basis for comparing the nutritional value of oranges, apples,
and pears, although they could be asked quite appropriately to rank the flavours.
The system described above also assumes that the numerical values of the individual impact indicators should
indeed be aggregated into a single index. This has proved to be a controversial question. On the one hand,
'Because net environmental impact is expressed as a single value, it is easily compared to other alternatives to
determine the most environmentally sound approach to development of a particular resource‘.

Proponents of this point of view argue that an impact assessment should be in a form suitable for making a
decision, and that decision-making is simplified if the major impacts are collapsed to a single number. Too often in
the past a task force has prepared an impact assessment containing a catalogue of independent environmental
concerns and impacts.

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TIGA METODE PENDUGAAN DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN
Three general approaches, selected because they represent a range of options* for impact
assessment, are discussed in this section:
-Leopold matrix
-Overlays
-Battelle environmental evaluation system

The Battelle Environmental Evaluation System (EES) is a methodology for conducting environmental impact
analysis developed at Battelle Columbus Laboratories by an interdisciplinary research team under contract with
the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. It is based on a hierarchical assessment of environmental quality indicators.

The system is based on a classification consisting of four levels:


Level I: Categories,
Level II: Components,
Level III: Parameters, and
Level IV: Measurements.

Each category (Level I) is divided into several components, each component (Level II) into several parameters,
and each parameter (Level III) into one or more measurements. The EES identifies a total of four (4) categories,
eighteen (18) components and seventy-eight (78) parameters.
EES assessment of the environmental impacts of water resources development projects is based on
commensurate "environmental impact units" (EIU). Two EIU scores are produced, one 'with' and another 'without'
the proposed project. The difference between the two scores is a measure of the environmental impact. The
scores are based on the magnitude and importance of specific impacts.

Sumber: http://saltonsea.sdsu.edu/the_battelle_ees.html ….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


MODEL MATEMATIK UNTUK PENDUGAAN DAMPAK

Many problems arise in the evaluation of environmental impacts due to new projects; for instance:
1. the determination of the pertinent variables,
2. the choice of methodology to follow,
3. the need to inform the project proponent and regulatory agencies at every step of the evaluation process, and
to present the best assessments possible for a variety of alternatives,
4. the necessity to provide understandable information to the public.

Usually environmental management encompasses the following steps:


1. perception of needs,
2. problem definition and monitoring program,
3. problem analysis and modelling,
4. simulation to test alternative strategies,
5. Evaluation of alternatives,
6. Selection by decision makers,
7. Implementation
Modelling playsand monitoringrole
an important program.
in the decision-making process. However, the results are are uncertain
because:
1. the conceptual analysis (summation of “mental” evaluations and physical concepts) is incomplete,
2. the mathematical relations used are representative of present knowledge,
3. some uncontrollable or unpredictable even (e.g., natural catastrophe) can occur.

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MODEL MATEMATIK UNTUK PENDUGAAN DAMPAK

Advantages and Disadvantages of Simulation Modelling

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MODEL MATEMATIK UNTUK PENDUGAAN DAMPAK
Hierarchical Analysis of Impact Assessment to Meet Standards
MODEL MATEMATIK UNTUK PENDUGAAN DAMPAK

MODEL DISPERSI UDARA


Air dispersion modelling is, by far, the main mathematical tool used by consulting firms in the
environmental area. This is understandable because air is, with water, one of the chief dilution and
transport media. This is also due to the fact that several mathematical models are available (mainly
from U.S. EPA), and are easy to use. Many companies or government agencies in Canada have
developed their own models, and information about these models ranges from excellent to very
poor. Some calibration and validation have been done, but the results are not always easy to
interpret.

Different Types of Air Dispersion Models:


Short-range (up to about 10 km)
to medium-range (up to about
30 km) models are applied
close to the source.

Long: range models examine


the fate of pollutants which
travel hundreds or thousands
of kilometres, and must
generally consider the physical
processes of dry and wet
pollutant deposition and
chemical change.
Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20/4/2012
MODEL MATEMATIK UNTUK PENDUGAAN DAMPAK

SHORT- AND MEDIUM-RANGE MODELS

Gaussian Models
Air dispersion modelling is largely dominated by the Gaussian
model established some twenty years ago (Pasquill-Gifford
equations). This model assumes normal distributions of pollutants along the vertical and
horizontal, perpendicular to the direction of wind. It permits assessments of continuous
or instantaneous release of pollutants, with or without a linear reaction rate or decay.

Further developments have consisted of the inclusion of special features which were not
part of the original model:
1. pollutant reflection at the ground and at the inversion lid,
2. introduction of a variety of different sources (point sources, line sources, area
sources, volumic sources, fugitive sources),
3. linear reaction or decay rate, washout by rain, settling of particles, uptake by
vegetation or water,
4. topographic effects,
5. lake or sea breeze,
6. temporal and spatial variation of meteorological conditions.
Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20/4/2012
MODEL MATEMATIK UNTUK PENDUGAAN DAMPAK

MODEL STATISTIKA
Statistical models of air pollution have been developed primarily to provide a
simpler and less data-demanding approach to estimating atmospheric
concentrations, either for the purpose of air quality management (e.g. as
screening models) or for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies.
A range of approaches have been devised, so that statistical models take many
different forms.

Amongst these, two approaches are of particular utility in exposure


assessment:
simplified dispersion models, in which the dynamic transfer equations have
been reduced to a series of formulae;

GIS-based models, where associations between source and receptor are


represented by empirically defined equations, derived using regression analysis
or similar techniques.
Sumber: http://www.integrated-assessment.eu/guidebook/statistical_air_pollution_models ….. Diunduh 20/4/2012
MODEL MATEMATIK UNTUK PENDUGAAN DAMPAK
Simplified dispersion models
These typically represent an attempt to reduce the complex, dynamic equations inherent
in a true dispersion model to a simpler, and generally static, form. Simplification is
achieved primarily by ignoring the local, time-varying processes that affect short-term air
pollutant concentrations (e.g. associated with variations in meteorology), and modelling
instead the average (net) long-term patterns. Models thus comprise a series of formulae
or statistical equations, which can be solved either arithmetically (e.g. using spreadsheet
functions) or through the use of look-up tables and graphs.

Amongst many examples, two of the most widely used in Europe are the Calculation of
Air pollution from Road traffic (CAR) model.
The original CAR model was developed for use as a screening tool for air quality
management in the Netherlands, but a more generic version (CAR-International) was later
devised. This model has been widely tested and compared against other, more
sophisticated appraoches, and have generally been shown to work well when used
within their intended operating conditions (i.e. to assess locally-derived concentrations
of traffic-related air pollutants in relatively simple source-receptor environments). They
are, however, inevitably limited in that they are not designed to deal with non-transport
emissions, and in terms of the sources number of sources and receptors that can easily
be analysed, or their ability to model long-range transfers of pollutants.
Sumber: http://www.integrated-assessment.eu/guidebook/statistical_air_pollution_models ….. Diunduh 20/4/2012
WELCOME TO THE GAINS MODEL

The Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS)-
Model provides a consistent framework for the analysis of co-benefits reduction
strategies from air pollution and greenhouse gas sources.

The model considers emissions of:


1. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
2. Methane (CH4)
3. Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
4. Nitrous oxide (N2O)
5. Particulate matter (TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1)
6. Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
7. Volatile organic compounds (VOC)

Certain versions of the GAINS Model also contain:


1. Ammonia (NH3)
2. Carbon monoxide (CO)
3. Fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-Gases)

Sumber: http://gains.iiasa.ac.at/gains/IND/index.login?logout=1 ….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


MODEL GAINS
The GAINS Model consists of several screen options, which display information
pertaining to:
1. Economic Activity Pathways
activities causing emissions (energy production & consumption, passenger
& freight transport, industrial and agricultural activities, solvent use, etc.)
2. Emission Control Strategies
the evolution of emissions and control over a given time horizon
3. Emissions Scenarios
emissions are computed for a selected emissions scenario (combination of
energy pathway and emissions control strategy), emission factors, results
displays, and input values are also available under this action
4. Emission Control Costs
displays emission control costs computed for a selected emissions scenario
5. Impacts. Presents ecosystem sensitivities and human health impacts of air
pollution
6. Data Management
provides an interactive interface where owner-specific data can be modified,
updated, exported, and downloaded .

Sumber: http://gains.iiasa.ac.at/gains/IND/index.login?logout=1 ….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


MODEL GAINS
The GAINS Model simultaneously addresses health and ecosystem impacts of particulate pollution, acidification,
eutrophication and tropospheric ozone.

Simultaneously, the GAINS Model considers greenhouse gas emission rates and the associated value per ton of CO2
equivalence. Historic emissions of air pollutants and GHGs are estimated for each country based on information collected
by available international emission inventories and on national information supplied by individual countries. The GAINS
Model assesses emissions on a medium-term time horizon, emission projections are specified in five year intervals through
the year 2030.

Options and costs for controlling emissions are represented by several emission reduction technologies. Atmospheric
dispersion processes are often modeled exogenously and integrated into the GAINS Model framework. Critical load data
and critical level data are often compiled exogenously and incorporated into the GAINS modeling framework.

The model can be operated in the 'scenario analysis' mode, i.e., following the pathways of the emissions from their sources
to their impacts. In this case the model provides estimates of regional costs and environmental benefits of alternative
emission control strategies.

The Model can also operate in the 'optimization mode' which identifies cost-optimal
allocations of emission reductions in order to achieve specified deposition levels,
concentration targets, or GHG emissions ceilings.
The current version of the model can be used for viewing activity levels and emission
control strategies, as well as calculating emissions and control costs for those strategies.

Sumber: http://gains.iiasa.ac.at/gains/IND/index.login?logout=1 ….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


INDOOR AIR POLLUTION MODELS
Indoor air pollution models provide estimates of indoor concentrations of
contaminants derived from external and/or internal sources. Models have mainly
been developed for the purpose of building design, but have variously been adopted
and adapted for use in epidemiological and health impact studies.
A range of models have been applied in this context. The most widely used are
dilution (or ventilation) models. These simulate changes in concentrations of
contaminants under the influence of atmospheric mixing within a room, and air
exchange with the outdoor environment and/or between rooms.

Two main approaches to dilution modelling may be identified: mass balance models
and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. The simplest (mass balance)
models apply for a single compartment (i.e. a room where the source, ventilation
and the exposed target occur), steady state conditions and complete mixing. Multi-
zone models are also available to simulate more complex situations, with several
interconnected compartments.
The most advanced (CFD) models deal with dynamic conditions, including changing
or intermittent release and ventilation, multiple interconnected compartments and
displacement ventilation. Indoor air chemistry, sedimentation and absorption
(deposition) of pollutants indoors can also be incorporated into the models.

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INDOOR AIR POLLUTION MODELS
Principles
Dilution models are mechanistic in that they are based on simplified physical
mixing, yet often semi-empirical - i.e. adjusted by empirical correction factors
for different air ingress and egress configurations and room
characteristics. The models are deterministic: with appropriate input data, the
same model applies for any indoor space – usually the home or workplace of an
individual. If, however, full ranges and distributions of the input data are
available (e.g. for the rooms in a large office building, or homes in a suburb),
dilution models can be run for probabilistic simulation of the whole range of
indoor exposure concentrations for the target population.

For general modeling of exposure to contaminants released into the indoor air,
dilution models often lack important terms:
1. Decay, e.g. absorption to room surfaces and furnishings;
2. Removal, e.g. filtration by air cleaning devices;
3. Medium transfer, e.g. sedimentation and absorption from air to dust; and
4. Contact rate/time.

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INDOOR AIR POLLUTION MODELS
In the simplest formulations, with assumptions of steady state conditions and complete mixing, the indoor concentration (C)
is seen as the product of a constant source term (m) (mass/time) and ventilation rate (Q) (volume/time)
C = m/Q

Incomplete mixing is dealt with by a dimensionless empirical correction factor (0 < c < 1.0), in which c = 1.0 would indicate
complete mixing:
C = m/c۰Q

Displacement ventilation is often used in large rooms. This avoids mixing fresh and used indoor air, and instead gently
flows fresh cool air below the used and warmed up room air, pushing it upwards to exhaust vents. In dilution modeling this
is treated simply by giving the empirical correction factor a value higher than 1.0 (c ≥ 1.0).
A source release starting at time t = 0 leads to an indoor concentration (in room of volume V) that asymptotically changes
towards the steady state.
C(t) = m۰e^-(V/Q۰t)^/c۰Q

Stopping the source release at any point of time leads to a similar concentration decay towards zero. Instantaneous
releases are incompatible with complex mixing: in reality, mixing is not instantaneous. Indoor concentrations from
instantaneous releases can therefore be modeled only from the time required for complete mixing (t~cm~). If the source
release and/or ventilation rate can be expressed as mathematical function(s) of time, the most complicated single
compartment model thus becomes:
C(t) = m(t)۰e^-(V/Q(t)۰t)^/c۰Q(t)

The contribution of pollution from outdoor air to indoor exposure can be incorporated simply by adding the outdoor air
concentration, corrected if necessary by an indoor/outdoor removal term.
More complicated cases of dynamic releases and ventilation, multiple interconnected compartments, incorporation of decay
and removal by indoor air chemistry or pollutant deposition on indoor surfaces require increasingly complicated and often
numerical dilution models.
The figure below summarises the main factors and processes affecting indoor concentrations of particulates.
Sumber: http://www.integrated-assessment.eu/guidebook/indoor_air_pollution_models….. Diunduh 20/4/2012
INDOOR AIR POLLUTION MODELS

Recommended models for


indoor air pollution are given
in ventilation handbooks and
the legally binding
ventilation codes.

The National Institutes for


Standards and Technology
(NIST), the American Society
of Heating, Refrigerating,
and Air-Conditioning
Engineers (ASHRAE) and the
Air Infiltration and Ventilation
Centre (AIVC) are examples
of organisations with
ventilation modelling
resources.

Sumber: http://www.integrated-assessment.eu/guidebook/indoor_air_pollution_models….. Diunduh 20/4/2012


METODE PENDUGAAN DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN
Changes in the practice of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and advances in informationtechnology have
greatly expanded the range of tools available to the EIA practitioner. For example, map overlaymethods, originally
pioneered by McHarg (1971), have evolved into sophisticated Geographic InformationSystems (GIS).

Expert systems, a branch of artificial intelligence, have been developed to help in screening,scoping, developing
terms of reference (TOR), and conducting preliminary assessments.

These systems usecomprehensive checklists, matrices, and networks in combination with hundreds of impact
rules developed byEIA experts. The global embrace of sustainable development has made the analysis of costs
and benefits anintegral part of EIA.
This has forced the expansion of factors to be considered in traditional cost benefit analysis.The following
chapters describe some of these more specialized approaches and methods that have evolved tomeet the
changing needs of EIA:
1) predictive methods
2) environmental risk assessment
3) economic analysis
4) expert systems .

The Role of Expert Judgement


Most methods and techniques for identifying, measuring, and assessing impacts rely on expert judgement.

In fact, many checklists, matrices, and models used in EIA represent decades of experience accumulated
bynumerous experts.

The experts themselves are heavily involved in all aspects of the assessment — they are usedto help identify
the potential for significant impacts, plan data collection and monitoring programs, provide their judgement on
the level of significance for specific impacts, and suggest ways of reducing or preventing impacts
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PEMILIHAN METODE PENDUGAAN DAMPAK
EIA methods range from simple to complex, requiring different kinds of data, different data
formats, andvarying levels of expertise and technological sophistication for their
interpretation.

The analyses they produce havediffering levels of precision and certainty.

All of these factors should be considered when selecting a method

The EIA practitioner is faced with a vast quantity of raw and


usually unorganized information that mustbe collected and
analyzed in preparation of an EIA report.
The best methods are able to:
1. organize a large mass of heterogenous data;
2. allow summarization of data;
3. aggregate the data into smaller sets with least loss of
information; and
4. display the raw data and the derived information in a direct
and relevant fashion

Sumber: http://www.scribd.com/SHUVA_Msc%20IB/d/21248236-Methods-for-Environmental-Impact-Assessment ….. Diunduh 25/4/2012


AD HOC METHOD
Ad hoc methods are not really methods as they do not structure the problem so it is more amenable
tosystematic analysis. A good example of an ad hoc method is a team of experts assembled for a
short time toconduct an EIA. Each expert's conclusions are based on a unique combination of
experience, training andintuition. These conclusions are assembled into a report. Sometimes this is
the only required or possible approach.In other instances, when more scientific methods are
available, it is not sufficient to rely on ad hoc methods.

Broad qualitative information about factors useful in the comparative evaluation of alternative
development actionsis presented. The information is stated in simple terms that are readily
understood by the lay person. No information about the cause-effect relationship between project
actions and environmental components isprovided.

The actual impacts on specific environmental components likely to be affected by the project or
thosethat may require further investigation are not identified. The method merely presents the
pertinent informationwithout resorting to any relative weighting of importance.

This method is very easy to use, but does have a few drawbacks (Lohani and Kan, 1983):
1. it may not encompass all the relevant impacts;
2. because the criteria used to evaluate impacts are not comparable, the relative weights of
variousimpacts cannot be compared;
3. it is inherently inefficient as it requires sizeable effort to identify and assemble an appropriate
panel of experts for each assessment; and
4. it provides minimal guidance for impact analysis while suggesting broad areas of possible
impacts
Sumber: http://www.scribd.com/SHUVA_Msc%20IB/d/21248236-Methods-for-Environmental-Impact-Assessment ….. Diunduh 25/4/2012
CHECKLISTS
Checklists are standard lists of the types of impacts associated
with a particular type of project.

Checklists methods are primarily for organizing information or


ensuring that no potential impact is overlooked.They are a more
formalized version of ad hoc approaches in that specific areas of
impact are listed and instructions are supplied for impact
identification and evaluation.

Sophisticated checklists include:


1. Scalingchecklists in which the listed impacts are ranked in
order of magnitude or severity, and
2. Weighting-scalingchecklists, in which numerous environmental
parameters are weighted (using expert judgement), and an
index isthen calculated to serve as a measure for comparing
project alternatives.
Sumber: http://www.scribd.com/SHUVA_Msc%20IB/d/21248236-Methods-for-Environmental-Impact-Assessment ….. Diunduh 25/4/2012
CHECKLISTS
There are four general types of checklists:

1. Simple Checklist:
a list of environmental parameters with no guidelines on how they are to
bemeasured and interpreted. Table 3-4 illustrates a simple checklist that
identifies the potential impacts of the Huasai-Thale Noi Road Project in
Thailand.

2. Descriptive Checklist:
includes an identification of environmental parameters and guidelines on how
tomeasure data on particular parameters.

3. Scaling Checklist:
similar to a descriptive checklist, but with additional information on
subjectivescaling of the parameters.

4. Scaling Weighting Checklist:


similar to a scaling checklist, with additional information for thesubjective
evaluation of each parameter with respect to all the other parameters.

Sumber: http://www.scribd.com/SHUVA_Msc%20IB/d/21248236-Methods-for-Environmental-Impact-Assessment ….. Diunduh 25/4/2012


CHECKLISTS
Varying levels of information and expertise are required to prepare checklists.

Simple checklists may require only a generalized knowledge of the environmental


parameters likely to be affected, and access to aninformation base. Alternatively, simple
checklist methods can be used to summarize the results of an EIA. Scalingweighted
checklists are likely to require more expertise to prepare.

There are several major reasons for using checklists:


1. they are useful in summarizing information to make it accessible to specialists from
other fields, or todecision makers who may have a limited amount of technical
knowledge;
2. scaling checklists provide a preliminary level of analysis; and
3. weighting is a mechanism for incorporating information about ecosystem functions.

Westman (1985) listed some of the problems with checklists when used as an impact
assessment method:
1. they are too general or incomplete;
2. they do not illustrate interactions between effects;
3. the number of categories to be reviewed can be immense, thus distracting from the
most significantimpacts; and
4. the identification of effects is qualitative and subjective.

Sumber: http://www.scribd.com/SHUVA_Msc%20IB/d/21248236-Methods-for-Environmental-Impact-Assessment ….. Diunduh 25/4/2012


International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Vol. XXXIII, Part B7. Amsterdam 2000.

The construction of roads and motorways implies a variety of environmental impacts on landscape features. Some
of those features are essentially static and impacts on them can be assessed using straight-forward methods.
However, impacts on dynamic landscape features will have to be evaluated in other ways, since the impact itself
will also be of a dynamic nature.

Fundamental to the geomorphological impact of any construction is the way in which hydrology is affected.
Changes imposed upon the landscape by road construction and use will affect mechanisms such as infiltration,
runoff and erosion.

These impacts cannot be assessed directly, due to the complexity of hydrological processes and the way in which
the processes are interrelated, both spatially and temporally. Insights into the hydrological response to
construction ask for the understanding of underlying hydrological mechanisms.

A way to achieve a better understanding of these processes is by modelling them. If spatial and temporal variability
are accounted for in such a model, the behaviour of hydrological mechanisms and their interactions could be
predicted.
Incorporating the presence of infrastructure in such model can lead to a better prediction and assessment of the
effects of road construction.

The development of a procedure for linking this type of models with a spatial database can generate useful
information regarding the assessment of the hydrological response of the environment to alterations imposed by
road construction. Such a procedure should be valid for situations where data availability is sub-optimal (which
will often be the case within the framework of EIA).
Expected effects on hydrology and related processes due to motorway
construction

Sumber: ….. Diunduh 25/4/2012


Methodological sequence for the development of an EIA specific hydrological model(the numbers
between parenthesis in the text correspond to the boxes in the figure)
Mathematical Modeling of Environmental Noise Impact
K. Rawat, V. K. Katiyar, Pratibha
Department of Mathematics , Indian Institue of Technology, Roorkee,IndiA-247667.
Indian Journal of Biomechanics: Special Issue (NCBM 7-8 March 2009)

Noise can have negative impact on health. Hearing damage, annoyance, sleep disturbance, high
blood pressure, poor cardiovascular health is all linked to community noise. Children, people with
existing physical and mental illness and elderly people are most susceptible to community noise.
High level of noise from sources such as busy traffic can adversely affect the health of the people
living near road highways.

It is therefore desirable to model a road traffic noise that predicts well the traffic noise near
highways so that the people living near highways who are highly exposed by everyday traffic noise
can be protected from noise exposure to some extent .

Measurement of noise level ( dB(A) ) by noise analyzer will be conducted on road segment of
Dehradun Haridwar highway for Dehradun city at different locations.

The noise level predicted from the developed model is compared with the measured one .t-test is
then applied and observed highly significant at 5% level and 95% confidence level.

The proposed road traffic noise model can be effectively used as a decision supporting tool for
prediction of road traffic noise in Indian conditions.

Examining the behavior of various factors affecting road traffic noise, people living near highways
can be better prevented from high degree of environmental noise impact.
Sumber: http://www.iitr.ac.in/ISB/uploads/File/ISB/pdf/kamini.pdf ….. Diunduh 25/4/2012
METHODOLOGY
Noise impact criteria for different land uses close to highways established by Federal Highway Administration
(FHA) is given as:
Land Use LdB(A)
Residential 65 dB(A)
Commercial 70 dB(A)

Above this level a statistically significant increase in blood pressure level of the people living near highways since
long and continuously exposed by traffic noise is observed.
Since traffic characteristics and type of vehicle in India differ from those in Western countries, a new model
including traffic flow (vehicle/hour), traffic speed (Km/hour), traffic composition in terms of heavy vehicle (%) were
investigated.
For each type of vehicle, regression analysis of noise level (dB A) on speed was carried out based on Logarithmic
relationship i.e.
L = a log( speed ) + b ;
Where a andb are constants and there values differ for each type of vehicle.

Pengukuran Bising Lalulintas


The noise level was measured at different hours (8am-9:30am; 11am-12:30am; 2pm- 3:30pm; 5pm-6:30 pm),
when traffic flow was mild, average and heavy at 20 different locations of Dehradun-Haridwar highway by
using noise analyzer (sound level meter).Readings of noise level in dB(A) at different locations are given in.
The sound level meter was set back at the edge of the road on pedestrian side walk at a height of 1.2 meter
above the ground surface. Traffic flow in terms of vehicle/hour, average traffic speed in terms of Km. /hour
and traffic composition in terms of percentage of heavy vehicle at different locations are given in.

Mathematical Modeling of Environmental Noise Impact


K. Rawat, V. K. Katiyar, Pratibha
Department of Mathematics , Indian Institue of Technology, Roorkee,IndiA-247667.
Indian Journal of Biomechanics: Special Issue (NCBM 7-8 March 2009)
ANALYSIS OF DATA AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT
A traffic noise model was then developed by applying the basic noise level from this study. The equation being
used in practice for predicting the basic traffic noise is the CRTN model (Lam and Tam 1998). The main equation for
predicting the noise level is given by

L = 10 log Q + 33 log( V + 40 + 500 / V ) + 10 log( 1 + 5P / V ) - 26 .6 (1)

Where: Q = Traffic flow; P = Percentage of heavy vehicle; V = Average speed of vehicles.

For making sensitivity analysis the values of each factor was changed in order to compute, while other factors
were kept fixed.

Using the Linear Regression Model, the accuracy of estimated Sound Pressure Level L dB(A) to the observed value
(directly collected from the surveys) is examined. Figure 1 shows the result of regression analysis of the noise level L
dB(A) .The coefficient of determination (R2 ) of the 450 line is 0.8733. A simple way of modifying prediction
procedure is only to recalculate the coefficient of equation and the constant term using the survey data. Regression
model of observed L dB(A)with the measured L dB(A) is given as follows:

By substituting this equation into equation (1), the general form of revised equation is:

L =10.2 logQ + 33.66 log (V + 40 + 500/V ) +10.2 log (1+ 5P/V) - 27.302 (3)

Mathematical Modeling of Environmental Noise Impact


K. Rawat, V. K. Katiyar, Pratibha
Department of Mathematics , Indian Institue of Technology, Roorkee,IndiA-247667.
Indian Journal of Biomechanics: Special Issue (NCBM 7-8 March 2009)
Figure 1. Measured L dB(A) against predicted L dB(A) for Figure 2: Measured L dB(A) against predicted L dB(A)
equation (1). for equation (3).

Mathematical Modeling of Environmental Noise Impact


K. Rawat, V. K. Katiyar, Pratibha
Department of Mathematics , Indian Institue of Technology, Roorkee,IndiA-247667.
Indian Journal of Biomechanics: Special Issue (NCBM 7-8 March 2009)
Summary logic used to place assessment units (AUs) into each of the five categories in
the 2002 Integrated Report

Sumber: http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/lawsguidance/cwa/tmdl/2002wqma.cfm….. Diunduh 27/4/2012


Efforts for Promoting Sound Hydrological Cycles

In the basin of River Ebi, sensitivity


analysis was conducted for the cases
when some measures were
implemented,using a hydrological
cycle model.

As the measures, introduction and


maintenance of parks and green areas,
regulating reservoirs/ storage of
rainwater/ percolation facilities and so
on were considered.
Figures indicated in the diagram below
are for the cases when the measures
were and were not implemented
(parenthesized), assuming
precipitation to be 100. By
implementing these measures, surface
runoff decreases, and percolation and
groundwater runoff increase. At the
same time, by making use of treated
waste water, the amount of river flow
at normal times increases and water
quality is improved.

Sumber: http://www.mlit.go.jp/tochimizushigen/mizsei/water_resources/contents/responding_properly.html….. Diunduh 27/4/2012


Biomass recovery increases, Air / water polution deacreases
What if there was a way to collect human and animal waste in such a way to decrease air pollution,
decrease water pollution, while creating a sustainable source of energy?
I'm in! And the technology is available for large scale agriculture.
The challenge is if it can be adapted to a much smaller scale.

Sumber: http://www.openideo.com/open/how-can-we-improve-sanitation-and-better-manage-human-waste-in-low-income-urban-
communities/inspiration/biomass-recovery-increases-air-water-polution-deacreases/….. Diunduh 27/4/2012
Nitrogen Pollution in Buzzards Bay

Sumber: …http://www.buzzardsbay.org/nitrogen-pollution.htm
.. Diunduh 27/4/2012
What are the causes of water pollution? How can we provide enough clean
water?

Imagine a river that is the only source of


water for a series of farming villages
along its banks.
The people in the first village might be
very careful and always get their
drinking water from above the village,
do all their washing a little further down
stream, and let their animals drink in the
river as it leaves their village. By being
very careful and aware of basic hygiene
they can try to stay healthy. They can
do very little to protect themselves from
dead animals decaying in the river
further upstream, or from germs and
parasites introduced to the water by
wild animals.
As the river leaves their village the
water will have been polluted by
washed bodies, food scraps from
washed pots and pans, and body waste
from the farm animals and village
dwellers. The people in the next village
will have to drink this polluted water,
and will suffer from the diseases that
accompany dirty water.

Sumber: http://ih-igcse-geography.wikispaces.com/1.8+Clean+Water….. Diunduh 27/4/2012


Earthquakes
& Sewers
December 12, 2011
By phlush

The diagram
below from an
illustrated
study from
Japan shows the
immediate and
longer term
impact on
sanitation when
an earthquake
damages water
and sewer
systems, causes
building collapse
and disrupts
traffic.

Sumber: http://www.phlush.org/emergencysan/earthquakes-sewers/….. Diunduh 27/4/2012


PATHWAY OF EFFECTS DIAGRAM FOR VEGETATION CLEARING

Sumber: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/habitat/role/141/1415/14155/risk-risque/page03-eng.asp ….. Diunduh 27/4/2012


EFEK VEGETASI
Feedbacks that may cause a vegetation-
dominated state and a turbid state to be
alternative equilibria.
The qualitative effect of each route in the
diagram can be computed by multiplying the
signs along the way. This shows that both
the vegetated and the turbid state are self-
reinforcing (from Scheffer et al. 1993).

In order to understand how nutrient loading


and lake depth may affect the ecosystem, we
need to turn to models rather than qualitative
reasoning. Although relatively complex
mathematical models are needed to capture
the dominant mechanisms that are involved,
a very simple graphical approach suffices to
illustrate the main point (Scheffer 1990,
Scheffer et al. 1993).
The graph is based on three assumptions:
(1) turbidity increases with the nutrient level;
(2) vegetation reduces turbidity; and (3)
vegetation disappears when a critical
turbidity is exceeded.

Sumber: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol3/iss2/art11/….. Diunduh 27/4/2012