Anda di halaman 1dari 24

13,8 kV-24 kV / 150 kV

Atau ke 500kV

150 kV/ 20 kV

20 kV/ 220 V
Electric Distribution System
 Electric Distribution
System is a part of
electrical power system
that actually deliver
power to consumers.

 Dystribution system as a
subset of whole electrical
Electric Utility Plant (1960-1978)

 Capital Investment. Electric

utility plant in service (1960-
1978). From Energy Information
Administration Energy Data
Reports-Statistics of Privately-
Owned Electric Utilities in the
United States, U.S. Department
of Energy, 1960-1978.
 Ratio of maintenance expenses
to plant in service for each
utility sector (1960-1978). From
Energy Information
Administration Energy Data
Reports-Statistics of Privately-
Owned Electric Utilities in the
United States, U.S. Department
of Energy, 1975-1978.
Distribution System Planning
 The objective of distribution system planning is essential to
assure that the growing demand for electricity can be satisfied by
distribution system additions which are both technically adequate
and reasonably economical.
For example, the scarcity of available land in urban areas and
ecological considerations, can put the problem of optimal
distribution systems planning.
 Distribution system planners must determine the load
magnitude and its geographic location. Then the distribution
substations must be placed and sized in such a way as to serve the
load at maximum cost effectiveness by minimizing feeder losses
and construction costs, while considering the constraints of
service reliability.
Load Forecasting

Factors affecting load forecast

Substation Expansion
Present Distribution System Planning Techniques

A Block Diagram of a typical distribution system planning process

Distribution system planning can be categorized as:

 New Expansion Planning

 Augmentation and Upgrades
 Operational Planning
 Benefits of Optimization Applications
Future Nature of Distribution Planning
 Increasing Importance of Good Planning
 Impacts of Load Management
 Cost/Benefit Ratio for Innovation
 New Planning Tolls
Distribution System Planning in the Future

 Economics factors
 Demographic Factors
 Technological Factors
Distributed Generation
 a distributed generation (DG) is a small generation
connected to distributed network.
 IEEE standard Dictionary Terms :
Electric generation facilities connected to an Area EPS
(Electric Power System) through a PCC (Point of
Common Coupling); a subset of DR (Distributed Resources).
 alternative names: embbeddedd generation, dispersed
DG(International Energy Agency’s Definition)
 Distributed Generation is generating plant serving a
customer on-site or providing support to a distribution
network, connected to the grid at distribution-level voltages.
 Dispersed Generation is distributed generation plus wind
power and other generation.
DG Classifications
DGs can be…:
 renewable (wind, PV, hydro) or non renewable (diesel)
 dispatchable (diesel, micro/small hydro) or not-
dispatchable (wind, PV)
 intermittent (PV, wind, ocean wave) or steady (diesel,
hydro, fuel cell)
 Grid-connected or isolated
Traditional electric power system (left) and electric power system
with distributed generation (right)
Dispersed Generation is
distributed generation plus
wind power and other
generation, either connected to
distribution network.

In the future, small dispersed

energy storage and generation
units attached to a customer’s
home, a power distribution
feeder, or a substation would
require an increasing amount of
automation and control
Challenges for Voltage Distribution Systems

 It has been predicted that the amount of DG connected to the

distribution system will increase significantly in the near future
because they can provide many technical, economic, as well as
environmental benefits.
 However, DG also presents new challenges to the operation of
distribution networks which were initially designed without
considering DG presence.
DG Benefits
In comparison to conventional power plant, DG produces lower power
and connected to power network at MV or LV. DGs are usually
located near the load. The owner of the DG can be the utility or other
parties. Non-utility owner would prefer to build DG near the load to
avoid transmission cost.
Benefits of DG can be categorized into technical, economical and
environmental ones.
- Technical: reducing transmission losses, voltage profile
improvement, enhanced system reliability and security.
- Economics: deferred investment related to upgrades of facilities,
reduce OM cost for some DG technologies, reduces healthcare cost
due to improvement of environment.
- Environmental: reduced carbon emission for DG with renewable
energy sources.
DG Impacts
 In addition to those benefits, DGs also introduce many impacts to power
systems. Current standards requires that DG should not actively regulate
distribution system voltages. The reason is that, in general, an attempt
by a DG to regulate distribution system voltage can conflict with
existing voltage regulation schemes applied by the utility to regulate the
same or a nearby point to a different voltage reference.
 Even if DG does not participate in the system voltage control, it can
cause a voltage increase or decrease along the feeder depending on its
type, control method, its delivered power and feeder parameters and
 Furthermore, DG impact on capacitor switching depends on the DG
type, control mode, location, and capacitor switching controls that
include system voltage.
 In addition, DG also impact Line Drop Compensation operation of SVR
Daftar Pustaka
 Electric Power Distribution Sistem
Engineering. Turan Gonen.
Terima Kasih