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6.

3 Proving
Quadrilaterals are
Parallelograms
Geometry
Objectives:
 Prove that a quadrilateral is a
parallelogram.
 Use coordinate geometry with
parallelograms.
Theorems
A
B
Theorem 6.6: If both
pairs of opposite
sides of a
quadrilateral are D C
congruent, then the
quadrilateral is a
ABCD is a parallelogram.
parallelogram.
Theorems
A
B
Theorem 6.7: If both
pairs of opposite
angles of a
quadrilateral are D C
congruent, then the
quadrilateral is a
ABCD is a parallelogram.
parallelogram.
Theorems
A
B
Theorem 6.8: If an (180 – x)° x°
angle of a
quadrilateral is
supplementary x°
D C
to both of its
consecutive
ABCD is a parallelogram.
angles, then the
quadrilateral is a
parallelogram.
Theorems
A
B

Theorem 6.9: If the


diagonals of a
quadrilateral
bisect each other, D
C
then the
quadrilateral is a
ABCD is a parallelogram.
parallelogram.
C B

Ex. 1: Proof of Theorem 6.6


Statements: Reasons: D A

1. AB ≅ CD, AD ≅ CB. 1. Given


2. AC ≅ AC
3. ∆ABC ≅ ∆CDA
4. BAC ≅ DCA,
DAC ≅ BCA
5. AB║CD, AD ║CB.
6. ABCD is a 
C B

Ex. 1: Proof of Theorem 6.6


Statements: Reasons: D A
1. AB ≅ CD, AD ≅ CB. 1. Given
2. AC ≅ AC 2. Reflexive Prop. of Congruence

3. ∆ABC ≅ ∆CDA
4. BAC ≅ DCA, DAC
≅ BCA
5. AB║CD, AD ║CB.
6. ABCD is a 
C B

Ex. 1: Proof of Theorem 6.6


Statements: Reasons: D A
1. AB ≅ CD, AD ≅ CB. 1. Given
2. AC ≅ AC 2. Reflexive Prop. of Congruence

3. ∆ABC ≅ ∆CDA 3. SSS Congruence Postulate


4. BAC ≅ DCA, DAC
≅ BCA
5. AB║CD, AD ║CB.
6. ABCD is a 
C B

Ex. 1: Proof of Theorem 6.6


Statements: Reasons: D A
1. AB ≅ CD, AD ≅ CB. 1. Given
2. AC ≅ AC 2. Reflexive Prop. of Congruence

3. ∆ABC ≅ ∆CDA 3. SSS Congruence Postulate


4. BAC ≅ DCA, DAC 4. CPCTC
≅ BCA
5. AB║CD, AD ║CB.
6. ABCD is a 
C B

Ex. 1: Proof of Theorem 6.6


Statements: Reasons: D A
1. AB ≅ CD, AD ≅ CB. 1. Given
2. AC ≅ AC 2. Reflexive Prop. of Congruence

3. ∆ABC ≅ ∆CDA 3. SSS Congruence Postulate


4. BAC ≅ DCA, DAC 4. CPCTC
≅ BCA
5. AB║CD, AD ║CB. 5. Alternate Interior s Converse
6. ABCD is a 
C B

Ex. 1: Proof of Theorem 6.6


Statements: Reasons: D A
1. AB ≅ CD, AD ≅ CB. 1. Given
2. AC ≅ AC 2. Reflexive Prop. of Congruence

3. ∆ABC ≅ ∆CDA 3. SSS Congruence Postulate


4. BAC ≅ DCA, DAC 4. CPCTC
≅ BCA
5. AB║CD, AD ║CB. 5. Alternate Interior s Converse
6. ABCD is a  6. Def. of a parallelogram.
Ex. 2: Proving Quadrilaterals are
Parallelograms

 As the sewing box below is opened, the


trays are always parallel to each other.
Why? 2 in.

2.75 in. 2.75 in.

2 in.
Ex. 2: Proving Quadrilaterals are
Parallelograms
 Each pair of hinges are
opposite sides of a
quadrilateral. The 2.75 inch 2 in.
sides of the quadrilateral are
opposite and congruent. The
2 inch sides are also opposite
and congruent. Because 2.75 in. 2.75 in.
opposite sides of the
quadrilateral are congruent, it
is a parallelogram. By the
definition of a parallelogram,
opposite sides are parallel, so 2 in.
the trays of the sewing box
are always parallel.
Another Theorem ~
 Theorem 6.10—If one pair of opposite
sides of a quadrilateral are congruent and
parallel, then the quadrilateral is a
parallelogram. B C

 ABCD is a
parallelogram.
A
D
Ex. 3: Proof of Theorem 6.10 C
B

Given: BC║DA, BC ≅ DA
Prove: ABCD is a 
D A

Statements: Reasons:
1. BC ║DA 1. Given
2. DAC ≅ BCA
3. AC ≅ AC
4. BC ≅ DA
5. ∆BAC ≅ ∆DCA
6. AB ≅ CD
7. ABCD is a 
Ex. 3: Proof of Theorem 6.10 C
B

Given: BC║DA, BC ≅ DA
Prove: ABCD is a 
D A

Statements: Reasons:
1. BC ║DA 1. Given
2. DAC ≅ BCA 2. Alt. Int. s Thm.
3. AC ≅ AC
4. BC ≅ DA
5. ∆BAC ≅ ∆DCA
6. AB ≅ CD
7. ABCD is a 
Ex. 3: Proof of Theorem 6.10 C
B

Given: BC║DA, BC ≅ DA
Prove: ABCD is a 
D A

Statements: Reasons:
1. BC ║DA 1. Given
2. DAC ≅ BCA 2. Alt. Int. s Thm.
3. AC ≅ AC 3. Reflexive Property
4. BC ≅ DA
5. ∆BAC ≅ ∆DCA
6. AB ≅ CD
7. ABCD is a 
Ex. 3: Proof of Theorem 6.10 C
B

Given: BC║DA, BC ≅ DA
Prove: ABCD is a 
D A

Statements: Reasons:
1. BC ║DA 1. Given
2. DAC ≅ BCA 2. Alt. Int. s Thm.
3. AC ≅ AC 3. Reflexive Property
4. BC ≅ DA 4. Given
5. ∆BAC ≅ ∆DCA
6. AB ≅ CD
7. ABCD is a 
Ex. 3: Proof of Theorem 6.10 C
B

Given: BC║DA, BC ≅ DA
Prove: ABCD is a 
D A

Statements: Reasons:
1. BC ║DA 1. Given
2. DAC ≅ BCA 2. Alt. Int. s Thm.
3. AC ≅ AC 3. Reflexive Property
4. BC ≅ DA 4. Given
5. ∆BAC ≅ ∆DCA 5. SAS Congruence Post.
6. AB ≅ CD
7. ABCD is a 
Ex. 3: Proof of Theorem 6.10 C
B

Given: BC║DA, BC ≅ DA
Prove: ABCD is a 
D A

Statements: Reasons:
1. BC ║DA 1. Given
2. DAC ≅ BCA 2. Alt. Int. s Thm.
3. AC ≅ AC 3. Reflexive Property
4. BC ≅ DA 4. Given
5. ∆BAC ≅ ∆DCA 5. SAS Congruence Post.
6. AB ≅ CD 6. CPCTC
7. ABCD is a 
Ex. 3: Proof of Theorem 6.10 C
B

Given: BC║DA, BC ≅ DA
Prove: ABCD is a 
D A
Statements: Reasons:
1. BC ║DA 1. Given
2. DAC ≅ BCA 2. Alt. Int. s Thm.
3. AC ≅ AC 3. Reflexive Property
4. BC ≅ DA 4. Given
5. ∆BAC ≅ ∆DCA 5. SAS Congruence Post.
6. AB ≅ CD 6. CPCTC
7. ABCD is a  7. If opp. sides of a quad.
are ≅, then it is a .
Objective 2: Using Coordinate Geometry

 When a figure is in the coordinate plane,


you can use the Distance Formula (see—it
never goes away) to prove that sides are
congruent and you can use the slope
formula (see how you use this again?) to
prove sides are parallel.
Ex. 4: Using properties of parallelograms
 Show that A(2, -1), B(1,
6

3), C(6, 5) and D(7,1) C(6, 5)

are the vertices of a 4

parallelogram. B(1, 3)

D(7, 1)

5 1

A(2, -1)
-2

-4
Ex. 4: Using properties of parallelograms
 Method 1—Show that opposite
sides have the same slope, so 6
they are parallel.
C(6, 5)
 Slope of AB.
 3-(-1) = - 4 4

1-2 B(1, 3)

 Slope of CD.
1–5=-4
2

7–6 D(7, 1)
 Slope of BC.
5–3=2
5 1

6 -1 5 A(2, -1)

 Slope of DA. -2

 -1–1=2
2- 7 5 -4

 AB and CD have the same


slope, so they are parallel. Because opposite sides are
Similarly, BC ║ DA.
parallel, ABCD is a
parallelogram.
Ex. 4: Using properties of parallelograms
 Method 2—Show that
opposite sides have the 6

C(6, 5)
same length.
AB=√(1 – 2)2 + [3 – (- 1)2] = √17
4

B(1, 3)
 CD=√(7 – 6)2 + (1 - 5)2 = √17
BC=√(6 – 1)2 + (5 - 3)2 = √29
2

 DA= √(2 – 7)2 + (-1 - 1)2 = √29 D(7, 1)

5 1

 AB ≅ CD and BC ≅ DA. A(2, -1)

Because both pairs of opposites -2

sides are congruent, ABCD is a


parallelogram. -4
Ex. 4: Using properties of parallelograms
 Method 3—Show that
6

one pair of opposite C(6, 5)

sides is congruent and 4

parallel. B(1, 3)

 Slope of AB = Slope of CD 2

= -4 D(7, 1)

 AB=CD = √17 5 1

A(2, -1)
-2

 AB and CD are congruent


and parallel, so ABCD is a -4

parallelogram.