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A motherboard is one of the most essential parts of a computer system. It holds together
many of the crucial components of a computer, including the central processing unit
(CPU), memory and connectors for input and output devices.
Types of Motherboards:
Motherboards come in different sizes, known as form factors. The most common
motherboard form factor is ATX. The different types of ATX are known as micro-
ATX (sometimes shown as µATX, mini-ATX, FlexATX, EATX, WATX, nano-ATX, pico-
ATX, and mobileATX). A smaller form factor is ITX, which comes in mini-ITX, nano-ITX,
and pico-ITX sizes. Some motherboards, such as the NLX and LPX form factors, had a riser
board that attached to the smaller motherboard. Adapters go into the slots on the riser board
instead of into motherboard slots
AGP-Video Card
AMR-Modem ,Sound Card
CNR-Modem, Network Card
EISA-SCSI, Network Card, Video Card
ISA-Network card, Sound card, Video card
PCI-Network card, SCSI, Sound card, Video card
PCI EXP Video card, Modem, Sound Card, Network Card
BIOS, which stands for Basic Input Output System, is software stored on a small memory
chip on the motherboard. You might need to access BIOS to change how the device works
or to assist in troubleshooting a problem.BIOS instructs the computer on how to perform
a number of basic functions such as booting and keyboard control.BIOS is also used to
identify and configure the hardware in a computer such as the hard drive, floppy
drive, optical drive, CPU, memory, etc.
PATA:These were the first types of hard disk drives and they made use of the
Parallel ATA interface standard to connect to computers. They provided a common
drive interface technology for connecting hard drives and other devices to
computers. Data transfer rate can go up to 133MB/s and a maximum of 2
devices can be connected to a drive channel.
SATA drives can transfer data faster than PATA types by using serial signalling
technology.SATA cables are thinner and more flexible than PATA cables.They have
a 7-pin data connection. Disks do not share bandwidth because there is only one
disk drive allowed per SATA controller chip on the computer motherboard. They
consume less power. They only require 250 mV as opposed to 5V for PATA.
These are quite similar to IDE hard drives but they make use of the Small Computer
System Interface to connect to the computer, SCSI drives can be connected internally
or externally. They are faster and reliable,good for 24/7 operation,have a better
scalability and flexibility in arrays,well-adapted for storing and moving large amounts
of data.