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Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

II. ATOMIC BONDING


STRUCTURE OF SOLIDS

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

ATOMIC BONDING
 Attractive Forces between the atoms
(proportional to the distance between
them)
 Repulsive forces (When the outer shell
atoms begin to overlap)
 The net energy is:
EN = EA + ER
EN = Bonding Energy
Ro = Equilibrium distance between atoms
(Fig.2.1)

the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of


energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous s
to formProf.Dr.
a negative Ögel[1]
Bilgehanion. 2
X + e− → X− + energy
Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Atomic Bonding

 Ionic Bonding
 Covalent Bonding Van der Waals forces include
 Metallic Bonding attraction and repulsions
between atoms, molecules, and
 Secondary (Van Der Waals) Bonding
surfaces, as well as other
intermolecular forces. They
differ from covalent and
ionicbonding in that they are
caused by correlations in the
fluctuating(kararsız)
polarizations of nearby particles
(a consequence of quantum
dynamics).

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Crystal Structures in Solids

 In Crystal structures, the atoms are in


repetitive order at long distances. (Fig.2.2a)

 The smallest unit of the crystal structure is


called UNIT CELL
(Fig.2.2b)

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel 4


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Crystal Structures

Crystal Structures can be classified as 7 different Bravais


Lattices:
1) Cubic System
2) Hexagonal System
3) Tetragonal
4) Rhombohedral
5) ...........

1. CUBIC SYSTEM
a) Simple Cubic
b) Body Centered Cubic (BCC)
c) Face Centered Cubic (FCC)

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel 5


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Crystal Structures

 Simple Cubic (Fig.2.3)

 a=2R

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

 Simple Cubic System (view from (100) plane

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel 7


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Crystal Structures

 Body Centered Cubic (BCC) (Fig.2.4)


4R = a√3

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

 The green atoms are at the centre of the unit cell

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel 9


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Crystal Structures

 Face Centered Cubic (Fig.2.5)


4R = a√2

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

 Face centered cubic system from (100) plane.

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel 11


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Crystallographic Directions and Planes

 In a crystal system, it is necessary to define a point, line or plane!

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Imaginary Crystallographic Planes

 The illustration of crystallographic planes are


given below:

Animation.2.1

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel 14


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel 15


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Crystal Structure of Compounds

 The crystal structure of compounds like ceramics are more


complicated.
 The charge neutrality must be preserved.
 Depending on the ionic radii of anions and cations, the number of
neighbor atoms (coordination number) is defined. (Fig.2.10)

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel 16


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Amorphous Ceramics

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel Fig.2.11


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Amorphous Structures

 Amorphous Materials do not have a systematic, long range ordering


of atoms.
 Metals are normally crystalline
 Most of the ceramics are also crystalline
 Glassy ceramics are amorphous
 Polymers are amorphous. Some of them may be semi-crystalline

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Polymers

 Polymers consist of hydrocarbon molecules


 A monomer is a small molecule from which a polymer is synthesized.
Repeat units of several polymers: (Fig.2.12a)

Fig.2.12a

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Polymers

Fig.2.12b

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Polymers

 Between carbon, hydrogen, chlorine atoms, there is covalent


bonding.
 However, between chains weak Van Der Waals Bonding is effective.
 The number-average molecular weight, Mn, is a good measure to
find a size of the molecule. (in other words, how many units are
attached to make a molecule)

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel


Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Polymers

Fig.2.13
Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel
Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structures

Polymers

 Linear Polymers:
 Long chains are flexible and similar to spaghetti
 Branched Polymers:
 They are synthesized with side branches.
 Crosslinked Polymers:
 The linear chains are connected to each other at definite
locations by covalent bonds
 Network Polymers:
 They form three dimensional networks

Prof.Dr. Bilgehan Ögel