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 Basic Assumptions
 leader effectiveness depends on the
 must isolate situational conditions or
Leadership Situational Models
 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory.
 The Path-Goal Theory
 The Hersey-Blanchard Situational
Leadership Model
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of
Leadership Effectiveness
 Model assumes that leader’s style was always the
same and could not change in different situations

 Three contingency factors that identify eight possible

leadership situations that vary in favourability
○ leader-member relations - degree of confidence,
trust, and respect members had for leader
○ task structure - degree to which job assignments
were formalized and had procedures
○ position power - degree of influence a leader had
over power-based activities
The Path-Goal Theory of
Leadership Effectiveness
 Identifies four leadership behaviours
○ Directive - describes tasks, sets schedules, and
offers guidance on task performance
○ Supportive - shows concern for subordinates
○ Participative - relies on subordinates’ suggestions
when making a decision
○ Achievement oriented - sets challenging goals

 Assumes that a leader can display any or all of the

behaviours depending on the situation
The Hersey-Blanchard
Situational Leadership Model
 Based on the amount of direction and amount of
socioemotional support
○ The Relationship between the Leaders and
Followers - If leader are liked and respected, they
are more likely to have the support of others
○ The structure of task – if the task is clearly
spelled in the form of goals, method and
standards of performance, then it is more likely
that leaders will be able to exert influence
○ Position power – if an organisation or group
confers powers on the leader for the purpose of
getting the job done, the influence of the leader
will be increase
 Four leadership styles defined by the two
○ Telling - leader defines roles and tells people
how to do their jobs
○ Selling - leader is both directive and
○ Participating - leader and follower make
○ Delegating - leader provides little direction or