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Hazard Identification

and Risk Assessment

HIRA
HSE POLICY

1. Menjamin kualitas pekerjaan kami dan memberi


solusi yang aman dan dapat diandalkan untuk klien
kami.
2. Melindungi kesehatan , keselamatan, lingkungan
dan properti karyawan , klien, kontraktor dan
hubungan lainnya.
3. Mematuhi semua peraturan perundangan yang
berlaku di Indonesia, peraturan klien dan praktik
industri yang berlaku umum.
4. Saling menghargai warga sekitar. Menghormati
nilai – nilai dan warisan budaya masyarakat
setempat.
5. Melakukan perbaikan secara terus
menerus dalam hal kesehatan,
keselamatan kerja dan lingkungan.
STRATEGY
Melakukan Pelatihan terhadap semua karyawan.
Menghentikan pekerjaan jika ditemukan “Unsafe
Act/condition” dan melakukan tinjau ulang.
Melakukan investigasi terhadap setiap kecelakaan
dan melakukan countermeasure untuk mencegah
kejadian yang berulang.
Memastikan bahwa karyawan yang akan
dipekerjakan dalam kondisi sehat ( mis. MCU)
Melakukan Hazard Identification Risk
Assessment/Job (Hazard) Safety Analysis
Hazard
A Hazard is the potential for harm. In practical terms, a hazard often is
associated with a condition or activity that, if left uncontrolled, can result
in an injury or illness.

Hazard (Bahaya) adalah sesuatu yang dapat menimbulkan kerugian,


kerusakan. Di dalam prakteknya, hazard sering dihubungkan dengan
suatu kondisi atau kegiatan yang tidak terkontrol sehingga dapat
menimbulkan luka atau sakit.
Identification
An Identification is an act of recognizing and naming somebody or
something

Identifikasi adalah suatu proses/kegiatan untuk memberikan identitas


terhadap seseorang atau sesuatu benda.
Risk
A risk is the likelihood of someone being exposed to that
hazard and harmed as a result.

Risk adalah kemungkinan yang diderita seseorang terhadap/


atas paparan yang dihadapinya

Risk
Assessment
Assessment is a judgment about something based on an understanding
of the situation

[Assessment adalah proses penilaian terhadap sesuatu berdasarkan


pemahaman dari situasi tersebut.]

Assessment= Evaluation
WHAT IS HIRA
A HIRA is a technique that focuses on job tasks as a
way to identify hazards before they occur. It focuses on
the relationship between the worker, the task, the tools,
and the work environment.
Ideally, after you identify uncontrolled hazards, you will
take steps to eliminate or reduce them to an acceptable
risk level.
HIRA adalah suatu cara yang terfokus pada
pekerjaan untuk mengidentifikasi bahaya-
bahaya yang mungkin timbul. Fokusnya adalah
korelasi antara pekerja, tugas yang dikerjakan, alat
kerja dan lingkungan. Idealnya, setelah
mengidentifikasi bahaya-bahaya yang mungkin
timbul, kemudian diambil langkah-langkah untuk
mengurangi/menghilangkannya.
MENGAPA
“HIRA”
DIANGGAP PENTING?
ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR

• Human Error [Manusia) :80%


• Environment (Lingkungan) : 15%
• Material/ Equipment Failure : 5%
Pengendalian Bahaya
Elimination [Dihilangkan/ dikurangi]
Substitution [Penggantian]
Engineering Control
Administrative Control. [Tanda, peringatan, dan prosedur].
Personal Protective Equipment/ APD
Engineering Control

• Redesign - Jobs and processes can be reworked to


make them safer.
Engineering Control
• Isolation - If a hazard cannot be eliminated or
replaced, it can sometimes be isolated, contained or
otherwise kept away from workers.
For example, an insulated and air-conditioned
control room can protect operators from a toxic
chemical.
[Jika bahaya tidak dapat dieliminasi atau diganti, dapat
diisolasi atau tempat dijauhkan dari pekerja].
Misalnya membuat ruang Air condition [chilling room] dapat
mencegah orang dari bahaya racun kimia].
Engineering Control
• Automation - Dangerous processes can be
automated or mechanized.
For example, computer-controlled robots can handle
spot welding operations in car plants.

[Melakukan proses kegiatan dengan cara otomatis dan digital]


Engineering Control

• Barriers - A hazard can be blocked before it reaches


workers.

For example, special curtains can prevent eye


injuries from welding arc radiation. Proper equipment
guarding will protect workers from contacting moving
parts.
Engineering Control

• Absorption – Baffles (menghalangi) can block or


absorb noise. Lockout systems can isolate energy
sources during repair and maintenance. Usually, the
further a control keeps a hazard away from workers,
the more effective it is.
Engineering Control
• Dilution - Some hazards can be diluted or
dissipated. (dikurangi dan “dihamburkan?”)

For example, ventilation systems can dilute


toxic gasses before they reach operators.
Administrative Control
• Safe Work Procedures - Workers can be required to
use standardized safety practices. The employer is
expected to ensure that workers follow these
practices. Work procedures must be periodically
reviewed with workers and updated.
Administrative Control
• Supervision and training – Initial training on safe
work procedures and refresher training should be
offered. Appropriate supervision to assist workers in
identifying possible hazards and evaluating work
procedures.
Administrative Control
• Job rotations and other procedures can reduce the
time that workers are exposed to a hazard. For
example, workers can be rotated through jobs
requiring repetitive tendon and muscle movements to
prevent cumulative trauma injuries. Noisy processes
can be scheduled when no one is in the workplace.
Administrative Control
• Housekeeping, repair and maintenance programs -
Housekeeping includes cleaning, waste disposal and
spill cleanup. Tools, equipment and machinery are less
likely to cause injury if they are kept clean and well
maintained.
Administrative Control
• Hygiene - Hygiene practices can reduce the
risk of toxic materials being absorbed by
workers or carried home to their families.
Street clothing should be kept in separate
lockers to avoid being contaminated by work
clothing. Eating areas must be segregated
from toxic hazards. Eating should be forbidden
in toxic work areas. Where applicable, workers
should be required to shower and change
clothes at the end of the shift.
Personal Protective Equipment
• Personal protective equipment (PPE) and clothing is
used when other controls measures are not feasible
and where additional protection is needed. Workers
must be trained to use and maintain equipment
properly.
• The employer and workers must understand the
limitations of the personal protective equipment. The
employer is expected to require workers to use their
equipment whenever it is needed. Care must be taken
to ensure that equipment is working properly.
Otherwise, PPE may endanger a workers health by
providing an illusion of protection.
• How do I Begin
(Bagaimana cara memulainya)

?...?...?
Basic Steps
• Select the job
• Break down the job into successive steps
• Identify hazards
• Assess the hazard
- Frequency of Exposure
- Probability
- Consequence
• Develop ways to eliminate the hazards identified
• Person In-charge
5 Steps to Risk Assessment
• What are the hazards? [Apa bahayanya]
• Who might be harmed? [Siapa yang mungkin terluka]
• Is the risk adequately controlled? [Dapatkah resiko itu
dikendalikan]
• What further action is needed to control the risk? [Apa
yang akan dilakukan]
• How will the controls be monitored and reviewed?
[Bagaimana cara mengontrol/memonitornya]
Hazards can be divided into three
groups;
[Bahaya dapat dibagi 3 grup]

• Health hazards, [Bahaya kesehatan]


• Safety hazards and [Bahaya keselamatan]
• Environmental hazards. [Bahaya lingkungan]
Hazard Categories
1. Chemical Hazards [Bahaya kimia]-skin contact, digestive system via lungs
if air contaminated with chemical, vapor, mist or dust]
2. Noise Hazards [Bahaya kebisingan]- disrupt concentration, permanent
loss of hearing
3. Radiation Hazards [Bahaya radiasi] - Ionizing radiation, radiographic, infra
red, lasers, ultraviolet.
4. Electrical Hazards [Bahaya Listrik]- Electrical energy
5. Lighting Hazards [Pencahayaan]- Brightly lit to a darker environment
6. Vibration Hazards [Bahaya getaran]- Forklift Drivers, pneumatic hammers
7. Temperature Hazards [Bahaya temperatur]- Cold or heat temperature
8. Biological Hazards [Bahaya biologi]- Insect, bacteria, fungi, viruses
9. Ergonomic Hazards [Bahaya ergonomik]- Manual Handling (Repetitive
work)
10.Physical Hazards [Bahaya pisik]- Caught in or by machinery, Falling from
height,
11.Miscellaneous Hazards [Bahaya lain-lain]- Stress, Fatigue, Assault from
other people (Fight)
SAMPLE OF RISK ASSESSMENT
Example of table to determine the level of risk from the Probability and
consequence

RISK MATRIX/RATING TABLE


(Qualitative)
SR
LL
1 2 3 4 5
L L M H H
1
L L M H E
2
L M H E E
3
M H H E E
4
H H E E E
5
Probability
1. Almost certain ; Event expected to occur in most
circumstances (Hampir Selalu terjadi)
2. Likely; Event will probably occur in most
circumstances. (Kemungkinan besar terjadi)
3. Possible; Event should occur at some time. (Mungkin
terjadi)
4. Unlikely; Event could occur at some time. (Boleh jadi
terjadi )
5. Rare; Event may occur, but only under exceptional
circumstances. (Jarang terjadi)
Consequence Scores
• Low [1] : Minor injury. No medical treatment e.g., cuts,
bruises, no measurable physical effects.
• Minor [2]: MTI. Medically Treated Injuries from which recovery
is likely. e.g., burns, broken bones, severe bruises, cuts.
• Moderate [3] LTI : Moderate permanent effects from injury or
exposure. e.g., serious burns, serious internal and/or head
injuries, gassings that require hospitalisation.
• Major [4] Single fatality :and/or, Severe permanent injury,
paralysis, brain damage, life threatening exposure to a health risk
• Critical [5] A Multiple fatality and/or, Significant irreversible
exposure to a health risk that effects greater than 10 people
Risk Categories
• Extreme : Hazard should be avoided (or the level of
risk reduced significantly and reliably by controls)
• High : Risk to be controlled as far as reasonably
practicable
• Moderate : Risk is controlled as far as reasonably
practicable
• Low : No further control measures necessary.
Other Example of table to determine the level of risk from the Frequency,
Probability and consequence (Quantitative)

Frequency A Probability B Consequen C Risk


ce
H M L

Continuously 10 Most Likely 1.0 Catastrophic 20

Frequently 6 Possible 0.6 Fatal 10

Occasionally 3 Conceivable 0.3 Serious 5

Infrequently 2 Remote 0.1 Minor 2

Rarely 1 Inconceivabl 0.0 Negligible 1


e 5

Risk Assessment : A x B x C =
Risk
Prioritization : >10 High Risk 3-10 : Medium Risk 0-3 :
Low Risk
Prioritization : >10 High Risk 3-10 : Medium Risk 0-3 :
Low Risk

Risk Rating Urgency of Remedial Action By whom

0~3 Within 1 (one) week


3-10 This day
>10 Immediate

Risk Rating MPL (Maximum Possible Remarks


Loss)
0~3 First Aid
3-10 Medical Treatment
>10 Fatality/LTI
Who should do the Process HIRA/JSA
[Siapa yang membuat HIRA/JSA]

• OR- OSHA believes that a team approach is the best


approach for performing a process hazard analysis, because
no one person will possess all of the necessary knowledge
and experience.

• [Menurut Oregon-OHSA, yang membuat HIRA/JSA


adalah team yang akan melakukan pekerjaan tersebut,
karena orang lain tidak memiliki pengetahuan dan
keahlian untuk pekerjaan tersebut].
SELECT THE
JOB
BREAKDOWN
THE JOB

REVIEW Identify hazard

Consultation
SUPERVISE AND should be Assess Hazard
EVALUATE carried out at
each step of
this process Frequency,
IMPLEMENT Probability,
CONTROL Consequence

DEVELOP CONTROL Risk Rating LMH


Definition of safewhere risks have
• A condition
been controlled to the level
required by specific Regulations
or ‘so far as is reasonably
practicable’
Acceptable Risk
• Acceptable Risk : Risk that has been reduced to a
level that can be tolerated by the organization having
regards to its legal obligations and its own OH & S
Policy
IMMEDIATE
CAUSES
Kecelakaan di WC Duduk

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TERIMA KASIH