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• Conditions for correct steering
• Davis Steering gear
• Ackermann's steering gear
• Hooke’s joint (Universal coupling) -Single and double
Hooke’s joint –– applications – Simple problems.
 Belt, Rope and Chain Drives :
• Introduction
• Belt and rope drives
• selection of belt drive
• types of belt drives
• materials used for belts and ropes
• velocity ratio of belt drives
• slip of belt
• creep of belt
• tensions for flat belt drive
• angle of contact
• centrifugal tension
• maximum tension of belt
• Chains- length, angular speed ratio, classification of chains
Steering mechanisms:
Condition for correct steering:
All the four wheels must turn about the same instantaneous
centre. For this, inner wheel must make a larger turning angle Ɵ
than the angle Ø made by the axis of outer wheel.

Cot Ø – cot Ɵ = w/l

Types of steering gears:
• Davis Steering Gear:

Tanα = w/2l

Usual value of w/l is b/n 0.4

To 0.5 & of α is from 11ᵒ to
• In a Davis steering gear mechanism, the length of the car
between axles is 2.4mts, and the steering pivots are 1.35mts
apart. Determine the inclination of the track arms to the
longitudinal axis of the car when the car moves in a straight
line path.
• Ackermann Steering Gear:

Tanα = (sinØ-sinƟ)/(cosƟ +cosØ -2)

• This steering gear does not fulfil fundamental eq. for correct
steering in all positions except in three positions.
• If PA & PQ & α are known, mechanism can be drawn. Angle
Ø can be noted for different positions and termed as Øa.
• If w,l and θ are given Ø can be calculated from Cot Ø – cot Ɵ
= w/l and termed as Øt.
• For small values of θ, Øa> Øt
• For large values of θ, Øa< Øt
• The instantaneous centre doesn’t lie on rear axis but at a
distance 0.3l above it
Hooke’s joint (or) Universal coupling:
• Used to connect two non-parallel and intersecting shafts & also
for shafts with angular misalignment.
• Used to transmit power from gear box to the rear axle
tanƟ = cosα tanØ
• The driving shaft of a Hooke’s joint runs at a uniform speed
of 240rpm and the angle α between the shafts is 20°. The
driven shaft with attached masses has a mass of 55kg at a
radius of gyration of 150mm.
(i) If a steady torque of 200N-m resists rotation of the driven
shaft, find the torque required at the driving shaft, when
(ii) At what value of ‘α’ will the total fluctuation of speed of
the driven shaft be limited to 24rpm.
• A Hooke’s Joint connects two shafts whose axes intersect at
18°. The driving shaft rotates at a speed of 210rpm. The
driven shaft with attached masses has a mass of 60kg and
the radius of gyration of 120mm. Determine:
(i) The torque required at the driving shaft if a steady torque
of 180N-m resists rotation of the driven shaft and the angle
of rotation is 45°.
(ii) The angle between the shafts at which the total fluctuation
of speed of the driven shaft is limited at 18rpm.
• Determine the maximum permissible angle between the shaft
axes of a universal joint if the driving shaft rotates at 800rpm and
the total fluctuation of speed does not exceed 60rpm. Also find
the maximum and minimum speeds of the driven shaft.
• A hooke’s joint connects two shafts whose axes intersect at 25ᵒ.
What will be the angle turned by the driving shaft when the
(i) Velocity ratio is maximum, minimum and unity?
(ii) Acceleration of the driven shaft is maximum,
minimum(negative) and zero?
Double Hooke’s Joint:
Belt drives:
• Used to transmit power from one shaft to another by means of
pulleys which rotate at the same speed or at different speeds.
• Amount of power transmission depends on:
– velocity of belt.
– tension under which belt is placed on the pulleys.
– arc of contact between belt and smaller pulley
– conditions under which belt is used
• Note:
– The shafts should be properly in line
– The pulleys should not be too close together
– The pulleys should not be so far apart
– A long belt tends to swing from side to side
– The tight side of the belt should be at the bottom
– The maximum distance between the shafts should not exceed 10
metres and the minimum should not be less than 3.5 times the
diameter of the larger pulley.
Selection of a belt drive:
• Speed of the driving and driven shafts
• Speed reduction ratio
• Power to be transmitted
• Centre distance between the shafts
• Positive drive requirements
• Shafts layout
• Space available
• Service conditions
Types of belt drives:
• Light drives: belt speeds upto about 10 m/s, as in agricultural
machines and small machine tools.
• Medium drives: over 10 m/s but up to 22 m/s, as in machine
• Heavy drives: belt speeds above 22 m/s, as in compressors and
Types of belts:
• Flat belt:
– mostly used in the factories and workshops
– moderate amount of power is to be transmitted
– two pulleys are not more than 8 metres apart
• V-belt:
– mostly used in the factories and workshops
– moderate amount of power is to be transmitted
– two pulleys are very near to each other
• Circular belt or rope:
– mostly used in the factories and workshops
– great amount of power is to be transmitted
– two pulleys are more than 8 meters apart
Material used for belts:
• Leather belts:
– Made from 1.2 m to 1.5 m long strips cut from either side of the back
bone of the top grade steer hides.
– The hair side is smoother and harder, the flesh side is stronger.
– The fibres on the hair side are perpendicular to the surface, while
those on the flesh side are interwoven and parallel to the surface.
– The leather may be either oak-tanned or mineral salt tanned e.g.
chrome tanned.
– In order to increase the thickness of belt, the strips are cemented
together. e.g. single, double or triple ply
– The leather belts must be periodically cleaned or treated with a
compound so that the belt will remain soft and flexible.
• Cotton or fabric belts:
– three or more layers and stitching together
– impregnated with some filler like linseed oil in order to make the belts water proof and to prevent
injury to the fibres.
– The cotton belts are cheaper and suitable in warm climates, in damp atmospheres.
– mostly used in farm machinery, belt conveyor etc.
• Rubber belt:
– layers of fabric impregnated with rubber composition and have a thin layer of rubber on the faces.
– very flexible
– quickly destroyed if allowed to come into contact with heat, oil or grease.
– may be easily made endless.
– suitable for saw mills, paper mills.
• Balata belts:
– similar to rubber belts except that balata gum is used in place of rubber.
– acid proof and water proof and not effected by animal oils or alkalies.
– should not be at temperatures above 40° C, at this temperature the balata begins to soften and
becomes sticky.
– The strength of balata belts is 25 per cent higher than rubber belts.
Types of flat belt drives:

1. Open belt drive

2. Crossed or Twist belt drive
• shafts should be placed at a
maximum distance of 20 b, where b
is the width of belt and the speed
of the belt should be less than 15
3. Quarter turn belt drive
• width of the face of the pulley should be greater or equal to 1.4 b, where b is the
width of belt
4. Belt drive with idler pulleys
5. Compound belt drive
6. Stepped or cone pulley drive
7. Fast and loose pulley drive
Law of Belting:
It states that the centre line of the belt when it
approaches a pulley must lie in the mid plane of that
Crowning of pulleys:
Velocity ratio of belt drive:

Velocity ratio of compound belt drive:

Slip of belt:
-there must be firm frictional grip between belt and
-sometimes, the frictional grip becomes insufficient. This
may cause some forward motion of the driver without
carrying the belt with it. This may also cause some forward
motion of the belt without carrying the driven pulley with
it. This is called slip of the belt and is generally expressed
as a percentage.
Creep of belt:
When the belt passes from the slack side to the
tight side, a certain portion of the belt extends
and it contracts again when the belt passes from
the tight side to slack side. Due to these changes
of length, there is a relative motion between the
belt and the pulley surfaces. This relative motion
is termed as creep.
• An engine, running at 150 r.p.m., drives a line shaft by means of a belt. The
engine pulley is 750 mm diameter and the pulley on the line shaft being
450 mm. A 900 mm diameter pulley on the line shaft drives a 150 mm
diameter pulley keyed to a dynamo shaft. Find the speed of the dynamo
shaft, when 1. there is no slip, and 2. there is a slip of 2% at each drive.
• The power is transmitted from a pulley 1 m diameter running at 200 r.p.m.
to a pulley 2.25 m diameter by means of a belt. Find the speed lost by the
driven pulley as a result of creep, if the stress on the tight and slack side of
the belt is 1.4 MPa and 0.5 MPa respectively. The Young’s modulus for the
material of the belt is 100 MPa.
• Length of open belt drive
• Length of cross belt drive
• Power transmitted by belts
• Ratio of tensions on tight and slack sides
• Centrifugal tension
• Angle of contact
• Maximum tension in the belt
• Condition for transmission of maximum power
• Initial tension
V-Belt Drives:
Adv of V-Belt drive over flat belt drive:
• Compact
• Positive drive
• Smooth drive
• Longer life (3 to 5 years)
• Can be installed and removed
• Quiet operation
• Ability to cushion shock when machines are started
• High velocity ratio (max 10)
• Tight side can be at top or bottom
Disadv of V-Belt drive over flat belt drive:
• Can’t be used with large centre distances
• Not so durable as flat belts
• Pulley construction is complicated
• Subjected to creep, not suitable for constant speed application
• Greatly influenced with temp changes
• Centrifugal tension prevents use of belt below 5m/s and above
50 m/s
Ratio of driving tensions:
Rope Drives:
• Used to transmit large amounts of power
• Distance between pulleys is more than 8 mts
• Frictional grip is more compared to V-belt drive
• Number of separate drives may be taken from on driving pulley
Types of ropes:
• The fibre ropes operate successfully when the pulleys are
about 60 metres apart, while the wire ropes are used when the
pulleys are upto 150 metres apart.
Types of rope drives:
Fibre ropes:

• Made from fibrous materials such as hemp, manila and cotton

• Hemp and manila fibres are rough-not very flexible and poor mechanical
• Hemp ropes have less strength than manila ropes
• Rope fibres are lubricated with graphite, also makes it moisture proof
• Cotton ropes are very soft and smooth- costlier
• Lubrication not necessary for cotton ropes
• Manila ropes are more durable than cotton ropes
Advantages of Fibre Rope Drives:
• smooth, steady and quiet service.
• little affected by out door conditions.
• shafts may be out of strict alignment.
• give high mechanical efficiency.
Sheave for Fibre Ropes:
Wire ropes:
• Widely used in elevators, mine hoists, cranes, conveyors, hauling
devices and suspension bridges
• The wire ropes have the following advantage over cotton ropes:
– lighter in weight
– silent operation
– withstand shock loads
– more reliable
– do not fail suddenly
– more durable
– efficiency is high
– cost is low.
Ratio of Driving Tensions for Rope Drive:
Chain drives:
Advantages of chain drives over belt or rope drives:
• As no slip takes place during chain drive, hence perfect velocity ratio is
• occupy less space in width than a belt or rope drive.
• used when the distance between the shafts is less.
• high transmission efficiency (upto 98 per cent).
• less load on the shafts.
• ability of transmitting motion to several shafts by one chain only.
• The production cost of chains is relatively high.
• needs accurate mounting and careful maintenance.
• velocity fluctuations especially when unduly stretched.
Terms Used in Chain Drive:
Relation Between Pitch and Pitch Circle Diameter:
Classification of Chains:
• Hoisting and hauling chains
• Conveyor chains
• Power transmitting chains
Hoisting and Hauling Chains:
Chain with oval links:
• LINKS are of oval
• used only at low speeds such as in chain hoists and in anchors for
marine works.
Chain with square links.
• links are of square shape
• used in hoists, cranes, dredges
• manufacturing cost of this type of chain is less than that of chain
with oval links, but in these chains, the kinking occurs easily on
Conveyor Chains:

• usually made of malleable cast iron

• These chains do not have smooth running qualities
• The conveyor chains run at slow speeds of about 3 to 12 km.p.h.
Power Transmitting Chains:
Block chain
• also known as bush chain
• used in the early stages of development in the power
• It produces noise when approaching or leaving the teeth of
the sprocket
Bush roller chain
• consists of outer plates or pin link plates, inner plates or roller link
plates, pins, bushes and rollers
• A pin passes through the bush which is secured in the holes of the roller
between the two sides of the chain
• The rollers are free to rotate on the bush which protect the sprocket
wheel teeth against wear.
• extremely strong and simple in construction
• It gives good service under severe conditions
• little noise with this chain which is due to impact of the rollers on the
sprocket wheel teeth
• When one of these chains elongates slightly due to wear and stretching
of the parts rollers then fit unequally into the cavities of the wheel
Inverted tooth or silent chain
• Designed to eliminate effects caused by stretching and to
produce noiseless running
• When chain stretches and pitch of chain increases, links ride
on the teeth of the sprocket wheel at a slightly increased
radius. This automatically corrects the small change in the
• no relative sliding between the teeth of the inverted tooth
chain and the sprocket wheel teeth
• durable service
• Runs smoothly and quietly.
Relation Between Chain Speed and Angular Velocity
of Sprocket:
Length of Chain
Angular velocity ratio:
• Two parallel shafts 12m apart are to be connected by a belt
running over pulleys of diameters 480cm and 80cm respectively.
Determine the length of the belt required if the belt is open.
• Find the power transmitted by a belt running over a pulley of 600
mm diameter at 200 r.p.m. The coefficient of friction between the
belt and the pulley is 0.25, angle of lap 160° and maximum
tension in the belt is 2500N. (Ans: 7.89kW)
• The maximum permissible stress in a belt is 1.4 N/mm2 and the
ratio of tensions is 2.0, find the maximum power transmitted by a
belt 150mm×10mm if the density of leather is 1Mg/m3.
• A pulley is driven by a flat belt, the angle of lap being 120°. The belt is
100mm wide by6mm thick and density 1000kg/m3. If the coefficient of
friction is 0.3 and the maximum stress in the belt is not to exceed 2MPa,
find the greatest power which the belt can transmit and the
corresponding speed of the belt.
• A flat belt is required to transmit 35kW from a pulley of 1.5m effective
diameter running at 300rpm. The angle of contact is spread over 11/24 of
the circumference and the coefficient of friction between belt and pulley
surface is 0.3. Determine the width of the belt required taking centrifugal
tension into account. It is given that the belt thickness is 9.5mm, density
of its material is 1.1×103kg/m3 and the permissible working stress for the
belt is 2.5N/mm2. (173mm)
o A leather belt is required to transmit 7.5 kW from a pulley 1.2 m in
diameter, running at 250 r.p.m. The angle embraced is 165° and the
coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley is 0.3. If the safe
working stress for the leather belt is 1.5 MPa, density of leather
1Mg/m3 and thickness of belt 10 mm, determine the width of the belt
taking centrifugal tension into account. (65.8 mm)
• An open flat belt drive connects two parallel shafts 1.2 metres apart.
The driving and the driven shafts rotate at 350 r.p.m. and 140 r.p.m.
respectively and the driven pulley is 400 mm in diameter. The belt is 5
mm thick and 80 mm wide. The coefficient of friction between the belt
and pulley is 0.3 and the maximum permissible tension in the belting is
1.4 MN/m2. Determine:
a) diameter of the driving pulley (0.16 m)
b) maximum power that may be transmitted by the belting, (963 W)
c) required initial belt tension. (395.7 N)
• The following data refer to an open belt drive :
Diameter of larger pulley = 400 mm ; Diameter of smaller pulley = 250
mm ; Distance between two pulleys = 2 m ; Coefficient of friction
between smaller pulley surface and belt = 0.4 ; Maximum tension when
the belt is on the point of slipping = 1200 N.
Find the power transmitted at speed of 10 m/s. It is desired to increase
the power. Which of the following two methods you will select ?
A) Increasing the initial tension in the belt by 10 per cent.
B) Increasing the coefficient of friction between the smaller pulley
surface and belt by 10 per cent by the application of suitable dressing
on the belt.
Find, also, the percentage increase in power possible in each case.
• A compressor, requiring 90 kW is to run at about 250 r.p.m. The
drive is by V-belts from an electric motor running at 750 r.p.m.
The diameter of the pulley on the compressor shaft must not be
greater than 1 m while the centre distance between the pulleys
is limited to 1.75metre. The belt speed should not exceed 1600
m/min. Determine the number of V-belts required to transmit
the power if each belt has a cross-sectional area of 375 mm2,
density 1000 kg/m3 and an allowable tensile stress of 2.5 MPa.
The groove angle of the pulley is 35°. The coefficient of friction
between the belt and the pulley is 0.25. Calculate also the length
required of each belt. (6, 5.664m)
• Following data is given for a rope pulley transmitting 24 kW
Diameter of pulley = 400 mm ; Speed = 110 r.p.m.; angle of
groove = 45° ; Angle of lap on smaller pulley = 160° ;
Coefficient of friction = 0.28 ; Number of ropes = 10 ; Mass in
kg/m length of ropes = 53 C2 ; and working tension is limited
to 122 C2 kN, where C is girth of rope in metres. Find initial
tension and diameter of each rope. (675.55 N, 31.57mm)