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SIRKUIT 1

MENGEMBANGKAN ALAT UNTUK ANALISIS DAN


DESAIN DASAR SIRKUIT ELEKTRIK LINEAR
BEBERAPA KATA TENTANG ANALISIS
MENGGUNAKAN MODEL-MODEL MATEMATIKA
STRATEGI DASAR YANG DIGUNAKAN DALAM ANALISIS
MATEMATIKA KELAS - LINEAR ALJABAR, PERSAMAAN
DIFERENSIAL - MENYEDIAKAN ALAT UNTUK
ANALISIS MATEMATIKA MEMECAHKAN MODEL MATEMATIKA

MENGEMBANGKAN SEPERANGKAT PERSAMAAN


MATEMATIKA YANG MEWAKILI SIRKUIT UNTUK BAGIAN PERTAMA KITA AKAN DIHARAPKAN UNTUK
- MATEMATICAL MODEL- MEMECAHKAN SISTEM PERSAMAAN ALJABAR

BELAJAR BAGAIMANA MEMECAHKAN MODEL 12V1  9V2  4V3  8


UNTUK MENENTUKAN BAGAIMANA SIRKUIT AKAN
BERPERILAKU DALAM SITUASI TERTENTU  4V1  16V2  V3  0
 2V1  4V2  6V3  20
KURSUS INI MENGAJARKAN TEKNIK DASAR
UNTUK MENGEMBANGKAN MODEL-MODEL
MATEMATIK UNTUK SIRKUIT LISTRIK KEMUDIAN MODEL AKAN PERSAMAAN
DIFERENSIAL BENTUK

MODEL YANG AKAN BERKEMBANG MEMILIKI SIFAT dy


MATEMATIS BAGUS. KHUSUSNYA MEREKA AKAN 3 y f
LINIER YANG BERARTI BAHWA MEREKA MEMENUHI dt
PRINSIP SUPERPOSISI
d2y dy df
 4  8 y  3 4f
dt 2 dt dt
Model
y  Tu
Principle of Superposition
T (1 u1   2 u2 )  1T ( u1 )   2T ( u2 )
SIRKUIT LISTRIK ADALAH INTERKONEKSI KOMPONEN LISTRIK
2 TERMINALS COMPONENT Konsep node sangat penting. Kita
a b harus belajar untuk
mengidentifikasi sebuah node di
characterized by the NODE
apapun bentuk atau bentuk
current through it and
the voltage difference
between terminals
NODE

L
SIRKUIT
R1 LINIER KHAS

R2 vO
vS +
- 
C
DISTORSI RENDAH POWER AMPLIFIER
KONSEP DASAR
TUJUAN BELAJAR

•Sistem Satuan: sistem standar SI; awalan

•Jumlah dasar: Biaya, arus, tegangan, power dan energi

•Unsur-unsur sirkuit: Aktif dan pasif


http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/index.html
Information at the foundation of
modern science and technology
from the Physics Laboratoryof NIST

Detailed contents

Values of the constantsand related information


Searchable bibliographyon the constants

In-depth information on the SI, the modern


metric system

Guidelinesfor the expression


of uncertainty in measurement

About this reference . Feedback.

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DASAR LISTRIK SATUAN SI
SATU AMPERE SAAT INI MEMBAWA SATU COULOMB BIAYA SETIAP DETIK.
ACs
1 COULOMB  6.28 1018 (e)
(e) BIAYA SATU ELEKTRON

VOLT ADALAH UKURAN DARI ENERGI PER CHARGE. DUA POIN MEMILIKI PERBEDAAN TEGANGAN VOLT SATU
JIKA SATU COULOMB BIAYA KEUNTUNGAN SATU JOULE BIAYA KETIKA DIPINDAHKAN DARI SATU TITIK KE YANG
LAIN.

J
V
C
OHM ADALAH UKURAN PERLAWANAN KE ALIRAN BIAYA. ADA SATU OHM PERLAWANAN JIKA
DIPERLUKAN SATU VOLT KEKUATAN GAYA GERAK LISTRIK UNTUK MELEWATI SATU AMPERE SAAT INI

V

A
DIPERLUKAN 1 WATT KEKUASAAN UNTUK MENGEMUDI SATU AMPER ARUS TERHADAP
PERBEDAAN ELECTROMOTIVE SATU VOLT

W V  A
CURRENT AND VOLTAGE RANGES
Source : Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis (ebook)

Gambar 1.1
Standar Awalan SI.
Tegasnya saat ini adalah dasar kuantitas dan biaya berasal. Namun, secara fisik arus listrik
dibuat oleh pergerakan partikel bermuatan.

Apakah arti dari nilai negatif untuk q(t)?

 
PROBLEM SOLVING TIP
IF THE CHARGE IS GIVEN DETERMINE THE CURRENT BY
DIFFERENTIATION
 IF THE CURRENT IS KNOWN DETERMINE THE CHARGE BY
 INTEGRATION

A PHYSICAL ANALOGY THAT HELPS VISUALIZE ELECTRIC


q(t ) CURRENTS IS THAT OF WATER FLOW.
CHARGES ARE VISUALIZED AS WATER PARTICLES
EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

q(t )  4 103 sin(120 t )[C ]  0 t 0


i (t )   2 t
  i (t )  4 103 120 cos(120 t ) [ A] e mA t  0
 FIND THE CHARGE THAT PASSES
i (t )  0.480 cos(120 t ) [mA ] DURING IN THE INTERVAL 0<t<1

1 1
2 x 1 1 1
q  e dx   e 2 x   e 2  ( e 0 )
q(t ) 0 2 0 2 2
1
q  (1  e 2 ) Units?
2
FIND THE CHARGE AS A FUNCTION OF TIME
t t
2 x
q(t )   i ( x)dx   e dx
 

t  0  q(t )  0
t
1
t  0  q(t )   e 2 x dx  (1  e 2t )
0 2
And the units for the charge?...
DETERMINE THE Charge(pC)
CURRENT  10  1012  10  1012 C 9
m 3
 10  10 (C / s)
Here we are given the 2  10  0 s
charge flow as function 30
of time. 20
10

 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time(ms)

Current(nA )
To determine current we
must take derivatives. 40
PAY ATTENTION TO 30
UNITS
20
10

10 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time(ms)
 20
CONVENTION FOR CURRENTS THE DOUBLE INDEX NOTATION
IT IS ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY TO INDICATE IF THE INITIAL AND TERMINAL NODE ARE
THE DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT OF CHARGED LABELED ONE CAN INDICATE THEM AS
PARTICLES. SUBINDICES FOR THE CURRENT NAME
THE UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTED CONVENTION IN
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IS THAT CURRENT IS a 5A I ab  5 A
FLOW OF POSITIVE CHARGES. b
AND WE INDICATE THE DIRECTION OF FLOW
FOR POSITIVE CHARGES
-THE REFERENCE DIRECTION-

A POSITIVE VALUE FOR


a 3A b a  3A b
THE CURRENT INDICATES
FLOW IN THE DIRECTION I ab  3 A I ab  3 A
OF THE ARROW (THE
REFERENCE DIRECTION)

a  3A b a 3A b
A NEGATIVE VALUE FOR
THE CURRENT INDICATES Iba  3 A I ba  3 A
FLOW IN THE OPPOSITE
DIRECTION THAN THE POSITIVE CHARGES POSITIVE CHARGES
REFERENCE DIRECTION FLOW LEFT-RIGHT FLOW RIGHT-LEFT

Iab   Iba
Figure 1.3 Source : Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis (ebook)
Two common types of current:
(a) alternating current (ac);
(b) direct current (dc).

Figure 1.4
Typical current magnitudes

Work or energy, w(t) or W, is measured in


joules (J); 1 joule is 1 newton meter (N . m).
Hence, voltage [υ (t) or V] is measured in
volts (V) and 1 volt is 1 joule per coulomb;
that is,
1 volt = 1 joule per coulomb = 1 newton
meter per coulomb. If a unit positive
charge is
moved between two points, the energy
required to move it is the difference in
energy level
between the two points and is the defined
voltage. It is extremely important that the
variables
a I  2 A
I cb  4 A
2A
I ab 
I
b c
3A

This example illustrates the various ways


in which the current notation can be used
CONVENTIONS FOR VOLTAGES
ONE DEFINITION FOR VOLT
TWO POINTS HAVE A VOLTAGE DIFFERENTIAL OF
ONE VOLT IF ONE COULOMB OF CHARGE GAINS
(OR LOSES) ONE JOULE OF ENERGY WHEN IT
MOVES FROM ONE POINT TO THE OTHER
b IF THE CHARGE GAINS
ENERGY MOVING FROM
a TO b THEN b HAS HIGHER
VOLTAGE THAN a.
IF IT LOSES ENERGY THEN
b HAS LOWER VOLTAGE
 a THAN a
1C
DIMENSIONALLY VOLT IS A DERIVED UNIT
JOULE N m
VOLT  
COULOMB A  s
VOLTAGE IS ALWAYS MEASURED IN A RELATIVE FORM AS THE VOLTAGE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN TWO POINTS

IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT OUR NOTATION ALLOWS US TO DETERMINE WHICH POINT


HAS THE HIGHER VOLTAGE
THE + AND - SIGNS
DEFINE THE REFERENCE
POLARITY

V IF THE NUMBER V IS POSITIVE POINT A HAS V


VOLTS MORE THAN POINT B.
IF THE NUMBER V IS NEGATIVE POINT A HAS
|V| LESS THAN POINT B

POINT A HAS 2V MORE POINT A HAS 5V LESS


THAN POINT B THAN POINT B
THE TWO-INDEX NOTATION FOR VOLTAGES
INSTEAD OF SHOWING THE REFERENCE POLARITY
WE AGREE THAT THE FIRST SUBINDEX DENOTES
THE POINT WITH POSITIVE REFERENCE POLARITY

VAB  2V

VAB  VBA
VAB  5V VBA  5V
ENERGY
VOLTAGE IS A MEASURE OF ENERGY PER UNIT CHARGE…
CHARGES MOVING BETWEEN POINTS WITH DIFFERENT VOLTAGE ABSORB OR
RELEASE ENERGY – THEY MAY TRANSFER ENERGY FROM ONE POINT TO ANOTHER

BASIC FLASHLIGHT Converts energy stored in battery


to thermal energy in lamp filament
which turns incandescent and glow

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT The battery supplies energy to charge


Lamp absorbs energy from charges.
The net effect is an energy transfer

Charges gain
Charges supply
energy here
Energy here
ENERGY
VOLTAGE IS A MEASURE OF ENERGY PER UNIT CHARGE…
CHARGES MOVING BETWEEN POINTS WITH DIFFERENT VOLTAGE ABSORB OR
RELEASE ENERGY

WHAT ENERGY IS REQUIRED TO MOVE 120[C] FROM


POINT B TO POINT A IN THE CIRCUIT?

THE CHARGES MOVE TO A POINT WITH HIGHER


VOLTAGE -THEY GAINED (OR ABSORBED) ENERGY
THE CIRCUIT SUPPLIED ENERGY TO THE CHARGES

VAB  2V

W
V  W  VQ  240J
Q
THE VOLTAGE
DIFFERENCE
IS 5V

WHICH POINT
HAS THE HIGHER
VOLTAGE?

5V VAB  5V

EXAMPLE ENERGY AND POWER
A CAMCODER BATTERY PLATE CLAIMS THAT
THE UNIT STORES 2700mAHr AT 7.2V.
WHAT IS THE TOTAL CHARGE AND ENERGY
2[C/s] PASS
STORED?
THROUGH
CHARGE THE ELEMENT
THE NOTATION 2700mAHr INDICATES THAT
THE UNIT CAN DELIVER 2700mA FOR ONE
FULL HOUR

C  s
Q  2700  103    3600  1Hr
S Hr
 9.72  103[C ] EACH COULOMB OF CHARGE LOSES 3[J]
OR SUPPLIES 3[J] OF ENERGY TO THE
ELEMENT
TOTAL ENERGY STORED
THE CHARGES ARE MOVED THROUGH A 7.2V THE ELEMENT RECEIVES ENERGY AT A
VOLTAGE DIFFERENTIAL RATE OF 6[J/s]

J  THE ELECTRIC POWER RECEIVED BY THE


W  Q[C ]  V    9.72  103  7.2[ J ] ELEMENT IS 6[W]
C 
t2
 6.998  10 [ J ] IN GENERAL
w (t 2 , t1 )   p( x )dx
4

P  VI t1

HOW DO WE RECOGNIZE IF AN ELEMENT


SUPPLIES OR RECEIVES POWER?
PASSIVE SIGN CONVENTION
THIS IS THE REFERENCE FOR POLARITY
POWER RECEIVED IS POSITIVE WHILE POWER
SUPPLIED IS CONSIDERED NEGATIVE  

 Vab  P  Vab I ab a b
IF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT I ab
ARE BOTH POSITIVE THE
a b CHARGES MOVE FROM IF THE REFERENCE DIRECTION FOR CURRENT
I ab HIGH TO LOW VOLTAGE IS GIVEN
AND THE COMPONENT
RECEIVES ENERGY --IT IS
A PASSIVE ELEMENT
EXAMPLE
A CONSEQUENCE OF THIS CONVENTION IS THAT
THE REFERENCE DIRECTIONS FOR CURRENT AND
 Vab  2A
VOLTAGE ARE NOT INDEPENDENT -- IF WE
ASSUME PASSIVE ELEMENTS
a b
I ab
Vab  10V
GIVEN THE REFERENCE POLARITY
THE ELEMENT RECEIVES 20W OF POWER.
 Vab  WHAT IS THE CURRENT?
SELECT REFERENCE DIRECTION BASED ON
PASSIVE SIGN CONVENTION
a b 20[W ]  Vab Iab  (10V ) Iab
REFERENCE DIRECTION FOR CURRENT I ab  2[ A]
UNDERSTANDING PASSIVE SIGN CONVENTION
We must examine the voltage across the component
and the current through it

I
A A’

 PS1  VAB I AB
S1 V S2 PS 2  VA'B ' I A'B '
B
 B’

Current A - A'
Voltage(V) S1 S2 ON S1 ON S2
positive positive supplies receives VAB  0, I AB  0 VA B  0, I A B  0
' ' ' '

positive negative receives supplies


ON S2
negative positive receives supplies V A'B '  0, I A'B '  0
negative negative supplies receives
CHARGES RECEIVE ENERGY. CHARGES LOSE ENERGY.
THIS BATTERY SUPPLIES ENERGY THIS BATTERY RECEIVES THE ENERGY

WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF THE CONNECTIONS ARE REVERSED


IN ONE OF THE BATTERIES?
Source : Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis (ebook)

We have defined voltage in joules per coulomb as


the energy required to move a positive
charge of 1 C through an element. If we assume
that we are dealing with a differential amount
of charge and energy, then

Multiplying this quantity by the current in the element yields

which is the time rate of change of energy or power measured in joules per second, or watts (W).
Since, in general, both υ and i are functions of time, p is also a time-varying quantity. Therefore,
the change in energy from time t₁ to time t₂ can be found by integrating Eq. (1.3); that is,
DETERMINE WHETHER THE ELEMENTS ARE SUPPLYING OR RECEIVING POWER
AND HOW MUCH

a a
I ab  4 A Vab  2V
2A

Vab  2V I ab  2 A

P  8W SUPPLIES POWER b b


P  4W RECEIVES POWER

WHEN IN DOUBT LABEL THE TERMINALS


OF THE COMPONENT

1 1

2 2

V12  12V , I12  4 A V12  4V , I12  2 A


I  8[ A]

 

VAB  4[V ]  

SELECT VOLTAGE REFERENCE POLARITY


 20[W ]  VAB  (5 A) BASED ON CURRENT REFERENCE DIRECTION
40[W ]  (5V )  I

WHICH TERMINAL HAS HIGHER VOLTAGE AND WHICH IS THE CURRENT FLOW DIRECTION

V1  20[V ]  2A I  5[ A]

40[W ]  V1  (2 A) SELECT HERE THE CURRENT REFERENCE DIRECTION


BASED ON VOLTAGE REFERENCE POLARITY  50[W ]  (10[V ])  I
COMPUTE POWER ABDORBED OR SUPPLIED BY EACH ELEMENT

P1  (6V )(2 A)

2 A  6V  P1 = 12W
P2 = 36W
  P3 = -48W
1
24V +
- 3 2 18V
P2  (18V )(2 A)
 2A 
P3  (24V )(2 A)  (24V )(2 A)

IMPORTANT: NOTICE THE POWER BALANCE IN THE CIRCUIT


CIRCUIT ELEMENTS

PASSIVE ELEMENTS

VOLTAGE
DEPENDENT
SOURCES

UNITS FOR  , g , r ,  ?

INDEPENDENT SOURCES

CURRENT
DEPENDENT
SOURCES
Source : Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis (ebook)

Determine the power absorbed or supplied by the elements in the network in Fig. 1.15

Figure 1.15
Network for Example 1.4

The current flow is out of the positive terminal of the 24-V source, and therefore this element
is supplying (2)(24) = 48 W of power. The current is into the positive terminals of elements
1 and 2, and therefore elements 1 and 2 are absorbing (2)(6) = 12 W and (2)(18) = 36 W,
respectively. Note that the power supplied is equal to the power absorbed
Source : Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis (ebook)

Figure 1.16
Four different types of dependent
sources.

Fig. 1.16 illustrates the four types of dependent


sources. The input terminals on the left represent the voltage or current that controls
the dependent source, and the output terminals on the right represent the output current or
voltage of the controlled source. Note that in Figs. 1.16a and d, the quantities μ and β are
dimensionless constants because we are transforming voltage to voltage and current to current.
This is not the case in Figs. 1.16b and c; hence, when we employ these elements a
short time later, we must describe the units of the factors r and g.
EXERCISES WITH DEPENDENT SOURCES

FIND VO VO  40[V ] FIND IO IO  50mA

DETERMINE THE POWER SUPPLIED BY THE DEPENDENT SOURCES

40[V ]

P  (40[V ])( 2[ A])  80[W ]


P  (10[V ])(4  4[ A])  160[W ]

TAKE VOLTAGE POLARITY REFERENCE TAKE CURRENT REFERENCE DIRECTION


POWER ABSORBED OR SUPPLIED BY EACH USE POWER BALANCE TO COMPUTE Io
ELEMENT

 12W

(6)( IO ) (12)(9)

(10)(3)

(4)(8) (8  2)(11)

P1  (12V )(4 A)  48[W ]


P2  (24V )(2 A)  48[W ]
P3  (28V )(2 A)  56[W ]
PDS  (1I x )(2 A)  (4V )(2 A)  8[W ]
P36V  (36V )(4 A)  144[W ]

NOTICE THE POWER BALANCE


POWER BALANCE

IO  1[ A]
Source : Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis (ebook)

E1.5 Find the power that is absorbed or supplied by the circuit elements in the network in
Fig. E1.5.

ANSWER:
P24 V = 96 W supplied;
P1 = 32 W absorbed;
P4 I x = 64 W absorbed

E1.6 Find the power that is absorbed or supplied by the network elements in Fig. E1.6.

ANSWER:
P24 V = 36 W supplied;
P12 V = 18 W absorbed;
P 21 x = 4.5 W supplied;
P1 = 9 W absorbed;
P2 = 13.5 W absorbed.

E1.7 Find I x in Fig. E1.7 using Tellegen’s theorem.

ANSWER:
I x = −2 A.
Source : Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis (ebook)

The charge that enters the BOX is shown in Fig. 1.20. Calculate and sketch the current
flowing into and the power absorbed by the BOX between 0 and 10 milliseconds.

Figure 1.20
Diagrams for Example 1.8.

Figure 1.21
Charge and current
waveforms for Example 1.8.
SOLUTION
Source : Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis (ebook)

SOLUTION

The current is plotted with the charge


waveform in Fig. 1.21. Note that the
current is zero
during times when the charge is a
constant value. When the charge is
increasing, the current
is positive, and when the charge is
decreasing, the current is negative.

The power absorbed by the BOX is 12 × i(t).

The power absorbed by the BOX is plotted in Fig.


1.22. For the time intervals, 1 ≤ t ≤ 2 ms
and 6 ≤ t ≤ 9 ms, the BOX is absorbing power.
During the time interval 3 ≤ t ≤ 5 ms, the
power absorbed by the BOX is negative, which
indicates that the BOX is supplying power to
the 12-V source.
Source : Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis (ebook)

Figure 1.22
Power waveform for
Example 1.8.

LEARNING ASSESSMENTS
E1.8 The power absorbed by the BOX in Fig. E1.8 is p(t) = 2.5e−4t W. Compute the energy and
charge delivered to the BOX in the time interval 0 < t < 250 ms.

ANSWER:
395.1 mJ; 8.8 mC
Source : Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis (ebook)

E1.9 The energy absorbed by the BOX in Fig. E1.9 is given below. Calculate and sketch the
current flowing into the BOX. Also calculate the charge that enters the BOX between 0
and 12 seconds.

ANSWER:
Q = 0.
Source : Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis (ebook)

EXAMPLE

According to the USB 2.0 standard, a device is classified as low power if it draws 100 mA or
less and high power if it draws between 100 and 500 mA.
1. A 1000 mAh lithium-ion battery has been fully discharged (i.e., 0 mAh). How long will it
take to recharge it from a USB port supplying a constant current of 250 mA? How much
charge is stored in the battery when it is fully charged?
2. A fully charged 1000 mAh lithium-ion battery supplies a load, which draws a constant
current of 200 mA for 4 hours. How much charge is left in the battery at the end of the
4 hours? Assuming that the load remains constant at 3.6 V, how much energy is absorbed
by the load in joules?

Figure 1.23
Charging an Apple
iPhone® using a USB
port.
Source : Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis (ebook)

SOLUTION

1. With a constant current of 250 mA, the time required to recharge the battery is 1000 mAh
/250 mA = 4 h. The battery has a capacity of 1000 mAh. The charge stored in the battery
when fully charged is 1000 mAh × 1 A/1000 mA × 3600 s/h = 3600 As = 3600 C.
2. A constant current of 200 mA is drawn from the battery for 4 hours, so 800 mAh ×
1 A/1000 mA × 3600 s/h = 2880 C removed from the battery. The charge left in the
battery is 3600 – 2880 = 720 C. The power absorbed by the load is 3.6 V × 0.2 A = 0.72 W.
The energy absorbed by the load is 0.72 W × 4 h × 3600 s/h = 10,368 J.