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Presentation

on
Blow Moulding

DELHI INSTITUTE OF TOOL ENGINEERING


(Formely known as Tool Room & Training Center))
Govt of N.C.T. of Delhi

Submiited To:- Submiited By:-


Mr. R. S. Kalra Arun Sharma 1
What is Blow Moulding?

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Arun Sharma
16/10/2010 M.Tech(3rd Sem)
What is Blow Moulding?

Blow Moulding
 Polymer process that creates hollow plastic parts.
or
 Plastic Blow molding is a process used to produce
hollow component parts i.e. polyethylene,
polyvinylchloride, Polyethylene terephthalate and
engineering plastics such a as polycarbonate.

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Which Shape can be Blow molded?

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Shapes of component

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Basic Process of Blow
Moulding
The production Plant for a blow moulding process
consist of three stages:
 Melting and Plasticizing

 Parison formation

 Blowing and molding

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History of Blow Mould

 Process of blow molding originated from blowing of


glass then adapted to polymers
 Evidence of Egyptians and Babylonians using blow
molding for plastics
 Enoch Ferngren and William Koptike are the people
credited for the process of blow molding
 Sold the first blow molding machine to Hartford Empire
Company in 1937
 “In the United States soft drink industry the amount
of plastic containers went from zero in 1977 to ten
Billion in 1999.”

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Blow Mould

In general, there are three main types of blow molding:

 Extrusion blow molding

 Injection blow molding and

 Stretch blow molding.

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Extrusion blow molding(EBM)

 Begins with a parison/ pre-form and is then placed


into an enclosed cooled metal mold
 Then air is blown into this mold to shape the material
to the desired shape
 Once it is cooled the part is ejected from the mold
 Can be made continuously or intermittently

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Extrusion blow molding(EBM)

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EBM

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Basic Blow Molding
Extrusion Head

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What's the made by EBM

 Dairy containers (HDPE)


 Water Cooler Containers (PC)
 Medical Containers
 Gasoline tanks
 Playground Equipment
 Shampoo bottles
 Pipes
 Hoses
 Industrial parts and drums

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Advantages of EBM

 Low initial mold tooling costs.


 Flexibility of tooling. Molds can accommodate interchangeable
neck finishes and body sections.
 Flexibility in production: Neck inner diameters (I.D.) can be
easily controlled to varying requirements. Bottle weights are
adjustable.
 Container sizes can range from less than 1 oz. to 55 gallons and
up. (Custom Bottle's equipment is most efficient producing
containers up to 1 liter in capacity.)
 Container shape is not restricted by blow-up ratios. Bottles can
be long and flat or have handles.
 Wide selection of machine sizes: Molds can be geared to volume
requirements.

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Applications of EBM

 Bottles and containers


 Automotive fuel tanks
 Venting ducts
 Watering cans
 Boat fenders etc

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Properties of Blow Materials

Ability to be
Ability to be
Material Wear Resistance Ability to be cast Density/Lbs./Cum Machined and
Repaired
polished

Poor Fair Good 0.097 Excellent

Aluminium

Excellent Good Good .129-.319 Fair


beryllium
copper

Good Good Good 0.24 Good

Cast Iron

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Injection Blow Moulding(IEM)

• Polymer melt is supplied to mold halves from


injection molding machine
• Pre-form injection molded over a mandrel and
transferred to the blowing die
• Air is injected under pressure through the mandrel
blowing the polymer against the mold walls where it
cools and freezes as with extrusion blow molding

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IEM

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Injection Blow Molding cont.

• Gives much better control


over finished component
weight and wall thickness
than extrusion blow-
molding
 better precision in the
unblown, injection
molded neck areas,
lending itself to screw
closures, etc.
• Solid handles can be
molded in.
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Factor critical to Injection
Blow Molding

 Shear & temperature dependent viscosity


 Temperature-dependent tensile strength on the pin
 Tensile elongation during inflation
 Crystallization kinetics on the core pin
 Crystallization kinetics during blowing and cooling

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Advantages of IBM

 Injection molding is faster and produces multiple


units at one time.
 Efficiency requires material about 1/16". Anything
thicker requires too much cooling time.
 Extrusion blow molding can produce heavier gauge
material, and larger item

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Stretch Blow Molding
 Injection molded preformed top
 IR heaters raise the pre-form above the glass
transition temperature
 Core rod stretches polymer to the bottom of the
mold
 High pressure air expands the polymer to the walls
of the mold

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How to perform SBM Operation

 Preform is injection
molded
 Preform is placed in the
blow molding machine
 Preform is heated
 Preform is pressurized
 Part is removed

PET Preform

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SBM

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SBM

 Single stage
 Pre-form and blow molding process happen in the
same machine
 Convent for small batch production
 Two stage
 Pre-form is made in one machine
 Blow molding occurs in another
 Faster production for large batches

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Preforms Placed in Mold

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Formed Bottles

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Other Blow Molded Parts

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General Mold Considerations (for
the mold in which the part is blown)
 Blow molding is lower pressure that injection molding
 Blow molding molds don’t have the strength

requirements
 Aluminum molds are most common

 Machined or cast

 Venting
 Symmetry

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SBM
Advantages/Disadvantages
 Low tool and die cost
 Fast production rate
 Molds complex parts
 Stretching results in strain hardening
 Reduces product weight by 10% when compared to
similar methods
 Limited to hollow parts
 Wall thickness is hard to control

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SBM machine

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SBM Diagram

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Recommended blow Mould Tool material
and their properties
Hardness rockwell Tensile Strength Thermal Conductivity
"c" Brinell (psi) (Mpa) (BTU/in/ft2hoF) (W/MoK)
Aluminium
A356 BHN-80 36,975 255 1.047 151
6061 BHN-95 39,875 275 1.165 168
7075 BHN-150 66,700 460 905 130
Beryllium
Copper
25 RC-30 134,850 930 728 105

and (BHN-285)
165

Steel
0-1 RC-52-60 290,000 2,000 243 35

and (BHN-530-650)
A-2 RC-32 145,000 1,000 257 37
P-20 (BHN-298)

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Blow moulding temp and pressure
Blow Blowing
polymer Melt
Mould Pressure
Temp.(oC) Temp.(oC) (PaX10)5
Acetal 193-216 93-149 6.9-10.0
Acrylic 205-232 9.-104 5.5
ABS 199-204 93-104 2.7
polycarbonat
260-282 82-93 6.9
e
polyester(PE
270-300 2.0-54 5.5-6.9
T)
Polyethelene
LDPE 140-160 4.-21 3.4
HDPE 170-190 4.-21 5.5
LLDPE 170-199 4.-21 5.5
polypropylen
190-220 4.-21 5.2-6.9
e
Polystrene 185-230 66-93 2.7-6.9
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PVC 150-180 Arun Sharma 5.2-6.9
16/10/2010 M.Tech(3rd Sem)
Wall thickness Guidelines for
Common Material
Material Minimum maximum
mm mm
ABS 0.76 3.18
Acetal 0.38 3.18
Acrylic 0.64 6.35
Nylon(amorphous) 0.76 3.18
Nylon(crystalline) 0.38 3.18
Phenolic 1.14 25.4
polycarbonate 1.02 10.2
polyester(T/P) 0.64 3018
polyester(T/S) 1.02 12.7
Polyethylene(HD) 0.51 6.35
Polyethylene(LD) 0.76 6.35
Polypropylene 0.64 7.62
PPO(modified) 0.76 10.2
Polystyrene 0.76 6.35
PVC 1.02 10.2 38
Arun Sharma
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Limitation of Blow Molding

 Thermoplastics
• PET

• PC

• HDPE

• LDPE

• PP

• ABS

• some PVC

 Limited levels of reinforcement for composite


materials
 Thickness should be as uniform as possible to avoid
distortion
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Reference

 Blow molding Design Guide-Norman C.Lee


 www.wikipedia.org
 CES EduPack 2008 software, Granta Design
Limited, Cambridge, UK, 2008.
 www.blowmachines.com
 www.riken.go.jp/lab-www/mat-fab/blow/

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Thank You

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