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FI-4241

Topik Khusus Fisika Reaktor

Mengenal Reaktor Nuklir


Abdul Waris, Ph.D

Physics Study Program


Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
Institut Teknologi Bandung
Basics of a Power Plant
 The basic premises for the majority of
power plants is to:
 1) Create heat
 2) Boil Water
 3) Use steam to turn a turbine
 4) Use turbine to turn generator
 5) Produce Electricity

 Some other power producing technologies


work differently (e.g., solar, wind,
hydroelectric, …)
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Nuclear Power Plants use the
Rankine Cycle

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Create Heat
 Heat may be created
by:
 Burning coal
 Burning oil
 Other combustion
 Nuclear fission

1) oil, coal or gas


2) heat
3) steam
4) turbine
5) generator
6) electricity
7) cold water
8) waste heat water
Physics Study Program - FMIPA | Institut Teknologi Bandung9) condenser

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Boil Water
 The next process it to
create steam.
 The steam is
necessary to turn the
turbine.

Physics Study Program - FMIPA | Institut Teknologi Bandung

PHYSI S Westinghouse Steam Generator


Turbine
 Steam turns the turbine.

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Generator
 As the generator is
turned, it creates
electricity.

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Heat From Fission

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Fission Chain Reaction

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Nuclear History
 1939. Nuclear fission discovered.
 1942. The world´s first nuclear chain reaction takes place in
Chicago as part of the wartime Manhattan Project.
 1945. The first nuclear weapons test at Alamagordo, New Mexico.
 1951. Electricity was first generated from a nuclear reactor, from
EBR-I (Experimental Breeder Reactor-I) at the National Reactor
Testing Station in Idaho, USA. EBR-I produced about 100 kilowatts of
electricity (kW(e)), enough to power the equipment in the small
reactor building.
 1970s. Nuclear power grows rapidly. From 1970 to 1975 growth
averaged 30% per year, the same as wind power recently (1998-
2001).
 1987. Nuclear power now generates slightly more than 16% of all
electricity in the world.
 1980s. Nuclear expansion slows because of environmentalist
opposition, high interest rates, energy conservation prompted by the
1973 and 1979 oil shocks, and the accidents at Three Mile Island
(1979, USA) and Chernobyl (1986, Ukraine, USSR).
Physics Study Program - FMIPA | Institut Teknologi Bandung
 2004. Nuclear power´s share of global electricity generation holds
steady
PHYSI S around 16% in the 17 years since 1987.
Reaksi fisi nuklir

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Contoh reaksi fisi

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Neutron induced fission
Inti berat dapat pecah jika
ditumbuk
 Tumbukan menyebabkan nucleon
kehilangan keadaan
setimbangannya
 Tumbukan yang keras merupakan
kondisi terbaik untuk menginduksi
fisi
 Neutrons merupakan proyektil
ideal untuk menginduksi fisi

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Klasifikasi Reaktor Nuklir
 Berdasarkan perbedaan spektrum energi neutron
(reaktor cepat, reaktor termal)
 Berdasarkan jenis material yang digunakan
sebagai moderator dan pendingin (Magnox, AGR,
LWR, HWR, RBMK, HTGR)
 Bardasarkan fungsi (reaktor riset, converter,
reaktor daya)

Physics Study Program - FMIPA | Institut Teknologi Bandung

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Klasifikasi Reaktor Nuklir …
 Berdasarkan perbedaan spektrum energi neutron
(reaktor cepat, reaktor termal)
 Berdasarkan jenis material yang digunakan
sebagai moderator dan pendingin (Magnox, AGR,
LWR, HWR, RBMK, HTGR)
 Bardasarkan fungsi (reaktor riset, converter,
reaktor daya)

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Klasifikasi Reaktor Daya
Reactor types Reactor names Moderator Coolant
Thermal Magnox GCR Graphite CO2
reactors AGR Graphite CO2
PWR H2O H2O
BWR H2O H2O
BLWR(FUGEN) D2O H2O
PHWR(CANDU) D2O D2O
HTR Graphite He
THTR Graphite He
RBMK Graphite H2O
Fast reactor LMFBRs None Na or
Physics Study Program - FMIPA | Institut Teknologi Bandung Pb/Pb-Bi
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Evolusi Reaktor Daya

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Diagram Skematik dari PLTN

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Reaktor Nuklir di Jepang
 Nuclear power plants
generate a significant
portion of Japan’s
electricity. Japan has
pursued nuclear power as
a source of energy in
part to limit imports of
petroleum. More than 50
nuclear power plants are
scattered throughout the
country, such as this
plant in Fukui
Prefecture, Honshū
Island.Physics Study Program - FMIPA | Institut Teknologi Bandung
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Kapal Induk Bertenaga Nuklir

 Nuclear power propels the huge bulk of the Abraham Lincoln


through the water. Part of the fleet of the U.S. Navy, the Abraham
Lincoln provides a flight deck for high-performance planes. By
naval standards the ship is very long, but its runway is still shorter
than most air strips on land. To compensate for this, incoming
planes use hooks
Physics on their
Study Program undersides
- FMIPA toBandung
| Institut Teknologi catch arresting cables on
the ship’s deck.
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Kapal Selam nuklir

 Nuclear submarines consume a relatively small amount of energy and make very little noise. Because they carry
their energy source with them, nuclear submarines are able to travel at least 640,000 km (400,000 mi) without
refueling. The nuclear reactor provides energy in the form of heat, which is converted to electricity by the
generators in the engine compartment. A propeller is used to send the submarine through the water, whereas
rudders (horizontal rudders are also called diving planes) guide the submarine through maneuvers. The
periscope and other monitors mounted on the sail give the crew information about the surface while the
submarine stays safelyStudy
Physics beneath. A modern
Program submarine
- FMIPA is capable
| Institut ofBandung
Teknologi carrying several missiles, torpedos, or
nuclear warheads that may be fired from beneath the water to strike targets sometimes thousands of miles
away (launching tubes not shown here).
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Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

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Vendor PWR
 Awal, Westinghouse Bettis Atomic Power Lab. Untuk
kapal perang
 Westinghouse Nuclear Power Div. U/ komersial,
Shippingport NPP (Duquesne Light, sampai 1982)
 Vendor yg menyusul Westinghouse :
Asea Brown Boveri Combution Eng. (ABB-CE),
Framatome, Kraftwerk Union, Siemens, Mitsubishi
 Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) dengan vertical once-
through SG
 Lebih 60% PLTN di dunia menggunakan PWR

Physics Study Program - FMIPA | Institut Teknologi Bandung

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NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System)

Blok utama dari


sebuah PLTN
adalah apa yang
disebut sebagai
sistem penyuplai
uap bertenaga
nuklir, yaitu sebuah
teras reaktor nuklir
dan sistem
pendingin primer

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Hubungan antara suhu & tekanan air

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PWR Core (Teras PWR

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PWR Fuel Assembly

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Cooling Tower

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Evolution of PWR Core

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PWR Steam
Generator
(Heat
Exchanger)

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PWR
Primary
Coolant
Pump

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PWR
Schematic
Size

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PWR Size (Review, Oconee (South Carolina U.S.A.).)

Keluaran kalor (MWt) 2568


Suhu air masuk teras (oC) 290
Suhu keluar (oC) 319
Suhu elemen bakar maks (oC) 2343
Tekanan operasi (Pa) 1,5 x 107
Jumlah fuel Assembly 177
Batang elemen bakar tiap assembly 208
Assembly batang kendali 69
Massa UO2 (kg) 94100
Laju alir pendingin (kg/s) 16546

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Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)

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Vendor BWR
 Awal, Allis-Chambers & General Electric (GE)
 Selanjutnya hanya GE yang bertahan.
 Vendor yang menyusul GE : Asea Atom,
Kraftwerk Union, Hitachi,
 20 % PLTN di dunia adalah BWR

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BWR

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BWR Schematic Diagram

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BWR Fuel Assembly

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CANadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU, PHWR)

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VVER (Russian PWR)

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RBMK (Chernobyl type reactor)

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RBMK (Schematic diagram)

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RBMK Core

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Future Reactor Designs
 Research is currently being conducted
for design of the next generation of
nuclear reactor designs.
 The next generation designs focus on:
 Proliferation resistance of fuel
 Passive safety systems

 Improved fuel efficiency (includes


breeding)
 Minimizing nuclear waste
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 Improved plant efficiency (e.g., Brayton


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Advanced Reactor

Dasar pemikiran:

 One-step license

 Standardization

 Passive or inherent safety

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Jenis –jenis advanced reactor

Yang telah mendapat sertifikat dari NRC


 ABWR
 APWR
 AP600
 System 80+

Advanced reactor yang lain


 EPR
 GT-MHR
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Generation IV

 At the beginning of 2002, 438 nuclear power


reactors were in operation in 31 countries around
the world, generating electricity for nearly 1 billion
people. They account for approximately 17 percent
of worldwide installed base load capacity for
electricity generation and provide half or more of
the electricity in a number of countries. These
reactors are generating electricity in a reliable,
environmentally safe and affordable manner
without emitting noxious gases into the
atmosphere.
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Generation IV…

 Concerns over energy resource availability,


climate change, air quality, and energy
security suggest an important role for nuclear
power in future energy supplies. While the
current Generation II and III nuclear power
plant designs provide an economically,
technically, and publicly acceptable electricity
supply in many markets, further advances in
nuclear energy system design can broaden
the opportunities for the use of nuclear energy.

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Generation IV…

 To explore these opportunities, the U.S. Department of


Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology
has engaged governments, industry, and the research
community worldwide in a wide-ranging discussion on the
development of next-generation nuclear energy systems
known as "Generation IV". This has resulted in the formation
of the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF), a group whose
member countries are interested in jointly defining the future of
nuclear energy research and development.

 In short, "Generation IV" refers to the development and


demonstration of one or more Generation IV nuclear energy
systems that offer advantages in the areas of economics,
safety and reliability, sustainability, and could be deployed
Physics Study by
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2030.
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Goal for
Generation
IV

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Generation IV International
Forum (GIF)

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Selected Six Systems

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Very High Temperature Reactor
(VHTR)
 Thermal neutron
spectrum
 Once-through uranium
cycle
 Helium-cooled core
 Potential H
production

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Supercritical Water-Cooled
Reactor (SCWR)
 Operates above the
thermodynamic
critical point of water
 Two fuel cycle
options:
 Open cycle with a
thermal neutron
spectrum.
 Closed cycle with a
fast-neutron spectrum
reactor with full
actinide recycle.
 Thermal efficiency
Physics Study Program - FMIPA | Institut Teknologi Bandung

approaching
PHYSI S 44%
Supercritical Water Cooled
Reactor

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Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR)

 Ability to seal core


 Refueling 15-20 years

 Relative small capacity

 Use of MoX fuel

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Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor

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Molten Salt Reactor (MSR)

 Thorough fuel burnup


 Fuel cycle variability

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Molten Salt Reactor

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Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR)

 Actinide burning
 Capable of burning
weapons grade fuel
capable (to get rid
of nuclear
stockpile)

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Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

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Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor

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Membuat A-BOMB

1. Initial neutron source


2. Fissionable material (allowing induced
fission)
3. Fissions must release additional
neutrons
4. Material must use fissions efficiently
(critical mass)
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Fissionable Materials

 235U and 239Pu are fissionable materials


 235U is rare and must be separated from
238U

 239Pu is made by exposing 238U to


neutrons

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Gadget & Fat Man

 239Pu sphere below critical


mass (6 kg)
 Crushed by explosives to
above critical mass
 Shell of 238U assisted
implosion

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Little Boy

 235U hollow sphere


below critical mass
(60 kg)
 Cannon fired plug
through sphere to
exceed critical mass
 Tungsten-carbide
shell contained
explosion initially
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