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REFERAT GANGGUAN BIPOLAR

PEMBIMBING:
PENYUSUN:
PENDAHULUAN
Gangguan bipolar (GB) merupakan gangguan
A jiwa yang bersifat episodik

Ditandai oleh gejala-gejala manik, hipomanik,


B depresi, dan campuran

Cenderung mengenai semua ras, rerata usia


C yang terkena adalah usia 30 tahun

Prevalensi bipolar I seumur hidup sekitar 0,4-1,6%.


D Sedangkan gangguan bipolar II sekitar 0,5%.
PENDAHULUAN
A Penyebab bersifat multifaktor.

Sampai saat ini masih belum ada pengobatan


B untuk bipolar yang sudah tuntas

Penyakit bipolar dapat menyebabkan rekurensi sehingga


C memerlukan pengobatan jangka masa panjang

Perawatan primer yang dapat dilakukan yaitu berupa


D psikofarmaka, konseling, edukasi, dan support group
Tinjauan Pustaka
D
D
DEFINISI
Menurut Diagnostik and Statiscal Manual of
Mental Disorder edisi keepat (DSM IV)

Gangguan Bipolar I adalah gangguan pada pasien dengan


episode manik dan depresif atau pasien dengan episode manik
saja.

Gangguan Bipolar II ditandai oleh adanya episode depresif berat


yang berganti-ganti dengan episode hipomanik.
Berdasarkan Pedoman Penggolongan
dan Diagnosis Gangguan Jiwa (PPDGJ) III

• Gangguan ini bersifat episode berulang


yang menunjukkan suasana perasaan
pasien dan tingkat aktivitasnya jelas
terganggu
• Gangguan ini pada waktu tertentu terdiri 45%
dari peninggian suasana perasaan serta
peningkatan energi dan aktivitas (mania
atau hipomania)
• Pada waktu lain berupa penurunan
suasana perasaan serta pengurangan
energi dan aktivitas (depresi)
Berdasarkan Pedoman Penggolongan
dan Diagnosis Gangguan Jiwa (PPDGJ) III

• Yang khas adalah terdapat penyembuhan


sempurna antar episode
• Episode manik biasanya mulai dengan
45%
tiba-tiba dan berlangsung antara 2
minggu sampai 4-5 bulan
• Sedangkan depresi cenderung
berlangsung lebih lama.
Epidemiologi

• Prevalensi antara laki-laki


dan wanita sama besar
• Awitan gangguan bipolar I
adalah dari masa anak-anak
Bipolar II
(usia 5-6 tahun) sampai 50 Bipolar I
tahun atau lebih
0,5%
0,4-1,6%
• Rerata usia yang terkena
adalah usia 30 tahun
• Gangguan bipolar umumnya
juga terdapat pada orang
dengan status
sosioekonomi lebih tinggi
ETIOLOGI

Faktor Biologi Faktor Genetik Faktor Psikososial

Norepinefrin, Serotonin, Stress dari lingkungan


Dopamine dan peristiwa hidup,
faktor kepribadian
PATOFISIOLOGI
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