Anda di halaman 1dari 283

ENGINEERING YOUR FUTURE

An Introduction to
Engineering:
A Comprehensive Approach
1
CHAPTER 1

The History of Engineering

2
1.1 Introduction
 Definition of Engineering
 The profession in which knowledge of the
mathematical and natural sciences, gained
by study, experience, and practice, is
applied with judgment to develop ways to
use, economically, the materials and forces
of nature for the benefit of mankind.

3
1.2 Getting Started
 Prehistoric Culture
 Our Computer Age
 The Speed of History
 Quick Overview

4
1.3 The Beginnings of
Engineering
 The Earliest Days
 Egypt and Mesopotamia (add picture)**

5
1.3 Pictures of Pyramids

6
1.4 The Overview Approach
 Engineering the Temples of Greece
 The Roman Roads and Aqueducts
 The Great Wall of China
 **FROM HERE MIGHT WANT TO ADD
PICTURES FROM BOOK

7
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages
 1200 B.C. – A.D. 1
 Quality of wrought iron is improved
 Swords are mass produced
 Siege towers are perfected
 Greeks develop manufacturing
 Archimedes introduces mathematics in
Greece
 Concrete is used for arched bridges, roads
and aqueducts in Rome.
8
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: A.D. 1-1000
 Chinese further develop the study of
mathematics
 Gunpowder is perfected
 Cotton and silk manufactured

9
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1000-1400
 Silk and glass industries continue to
grow
 Leonardo Fibinacci, a medieval
mathematician, writes the first Western
text on algebra

10
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1400-1700
 First toilet is invented in England
 Galileo constructs a series of telescopes, with
which he observes the rotation about the sun
 Otto von Guerick first demonstrates the
existence of a vacuum
 Issac Newton constructs first reflecting
telescopes
 Boyle’s Gas Law, stating pressure varies
inversely with volume, is first introduced.

11
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1700-1800
 Industrial Revolution begins in Europe
 James Watt patents his first steam
engine
 Society of Engineers, a professional
engineering society, is formed in
London
 First building made completely of cast
iron built in England
12
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1800-1825
 Machine automation is first introduced
in France
 First railroad locomotive is designed and
manufactured
 Chemical symbols are developed, the
same symbols used today (Au, He)
 Single wire telegraph line is developed

13
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1825-1875
 Reinforced concrete is first used
 First synthetic plastic material is created
 Bessemer develops his process to
create stronger steel in mass quantities
 First oil well drilled in Pennsylvania
 Typewriter is perfected

14
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1875-1900
 Telephone is patented in the US by
Alexander Graham Bell
 Thomas Edison invents the light bulb
and the phonograph
 Gasoline engine developed by Gottlieb
Daimler
 Automobile introduced by Karl Benz

15
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1900-1925
 Wright brothers complete first sustained
flight
 Ford develops first diesel engines in
tractors
 First commercial flight between Paris
and London begins
 Detroit becomes center of auto
production industry
16
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1925-1950
 John Logie Baird invents a primitive
form of television
 The VW Beetle goes into production
 First atomic bomb is used
 The transistor is invented

17
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1950-1975
 Computers first introduced into the
market, and are common by 1960
 Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite, put
into space by USSR
 First communication satellite—Telstar—
is put into space
 The U.S. completes the first ever moon
landing

18
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1975-1990
 The Concord is first used for supersonic
flight between Europe and the U.S.
 Columbia space shuttle is reused for
space travel
 First artificial heart is successfully
implanted

19
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1990-Present
 Robots travel on Mars
 The “Chunnel” between England and
France is finished
 GPS is used to predict and report
weather conditions, as well as many
other consumer applications

20
1.6 Case Study of Two Historic
Engineers
 Leonardo Da Vinci
 Gutenberg and His Printing Press

21
1.7 The History of the
Disciplines
 Aerospace Eng.  Computer Eng.

 Agricultural Eng.  Electrical Eng.

 Chemical Eng.  Industrial Eng.

 Civil Eng.  Mechanical Eng.

22
1.7 History: Aerospace
Engineering
 “Aerospace engineering is concerned
with engineering applications in the
areas of aeronautics (the science of air
flight) and astronautics (the science of
space flight).

23
1.7 History: Agricultural
Engineering
 Agricultural engineering focuses on:
 Soil and water
 Structures and environment
 Electrical power and processing
 Food engineering
 Power and machinery

24
1.7 History: Chemical
Engineering
 Chemical engineering applies chemistry
to industrial processes, such as the
manufacture of drugs, cements, paints,
lubricants, and the like.

25
1.7 History: Civil Engineering
 Civil engineering focuses on structural
issues, such as:
 Bridges and Highways
 Skyscrapers
 Industrial Plants and Power Plants
 Shipping Facilities and Railroad Lines
 Pipelines, Gas Facilities, Canals

26
1.7 History: Computer and
Electrical Engineering
 The world’s business is centered
around computers, and their uses are
only increasing
 Electrical is the largest branch of
engineering
 Involved in:
 Communication Systems
 Computers and Automatic Controls
 Power Generation and Transmission
 Industrial Applications 27
1.7 History: Industrial
Engineering
 Industrial engineers design, install, and
improve systems that integrate people,
materials, and machines to improve
efficiency.

28
1.7 History: Mechanical
Engineering

 Deals with power, the generation of


power, and the application of power to
a variety of machines, ranging from
HVAC to space vehicles.

29
CHAPTER 2

Engineering Majors

30
2.1 Introduction
 Several characteristics of students that
might have an interest in engineering
are:
 Proficient skills in math and physical science
 An urging from a high school counselor
 Knows someone who is an engineer
 Knows that engineering offers literally dozens, if
not hundreds of job opportunities
 Is aware that a degree in engineering is quite
lucrative

31
2.1 Engineers and Scientists
 Scientists seek technical answers to
understand natural phenomenon
 Engineers study technical problems with
a practical application always in mind
 For example
 “Scientists study atomic structure to
understand the nature of matter; engineers
study atomic structure to make smaller and
faster microchips”
32
2.1 The Engineer and the
Engineering Technologist
 Main difference between the two is:
 Engineers design and manufacture
machines and systems, while engineering
technologists have the technical know-how
to use and install the machines properly
 An example:
 “The technologist identifies the equipment
necessary to assemble a new CD player;
the engineer designs said CD player”

33
2.1 What Do Engineers Do?
 Ways to get information about careers:
 Visit job fairs
 Attend seminars on campus by various
employers
 Contact faculty with knowledge of
engineering fields
 Get an intern or co-op position
 Enroll in an engineering elective course

34
2.1 What Engineers Do

35
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Research
 Research engineers are knowledgeable
in principles of chemistry, biology,
physics, and mathematics
 Computer know-how is also
recommended
 A Masters Degree is almost always
required, and a Ph. D is often strongly
recommended
36
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Development
 Development engineers bridge the gap
between the laboratory and the
production facility
 They also identify problems in a
potential product
 An example is the development of
concept cars for companies like Ford
and GM
37
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Testing
 Testing engineers are responsible for
testing the durability and reliability of a
product, making sure that it performs
how it is supposed to, every time. T.E.s
simulate instances and environments in
which a product would be used
 Crash testing of a vehicle to observe
effects of an air bag and crumple zone
are examples of a testing engineer’s
duties 38
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Design
 Design aspect is where largest number
of engineers are employed
 Design engineers often work on
components of a product, providing all
the necessary specifics needed to
successfully manufacture the product
 Design engineers regularly use
computer design software as well as
computer aided drafting software in
their jobs 39
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Design
 Design engineers must also verify that
the part meets reliability and safety
standards required for the product
 A concern always on the mind of design
engineers is how to keep the
development of a part cost effective,
which is taken into account during a
design process
40
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Analysis
 Analysis engineers use computational
tools and mathematic models to enrich
the work of design and research
engineers
 Analysis engineers typically have a
mastery of: heat transfer, fluid flow,
vibrations, dynamics, acoustics, and
many other system characteristics
41
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Systems
 Responsible on a larger scale for
bringing together components of parts
from design engineers to make a
complete product
 Responsible for making sure all
components of a product work together
as was intended by design engineers

42
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Manufacturing & Construction
 Work individually or in teams
 Responsible for “molding” raw materials
into finished product
 Maintain and keep records on
equipment in plant
 Help with design process to keep costs
low

43
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Operations & Maintenance
 Responsible for maintaining production
line
 Must have technical know-how to deal
w/ problems
 Responsible for inspecting facility and
equipment, must be certified in various
inspection methods

44
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Technical Support
 Works between consumers and
producers
 Not necessarily have in depth
knowledge of technical aspects of
product
 Must have good interpersonal skills

45
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Customer Support
 Often have more of a technical
knowledge than Tech. Support, because
they must be able to work with basic
customers
 Evaluate whether or not a current
practice is cost effective via feedback
from customers

46
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Sales
 Sales engineers have technical
background, but are also able to
communicate effectively w/ customers
 Job market for sales engineers is
growing, due to the fact that products
are becoming more and more
technically complex

47
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Consulting
 Are either self-employed, or work for a
firm that does not directly manufacture
products
 Consulting engineers might be involved
in design, installation, and upkeep of a
product
 Sometimes required to be a registered
professional engineer in the state where
he/she works 48
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Aerospace Engineering
 Previously known as aeronautical and
astronautical engineering
 First space flight Oct. 4, 1957 (Sputnik
I)
 KEY WORDS:
 Aerodynamics: The study of the flow of air over
a streamlined surface or body.
 Propulsion engineers: develop quieter, more
efficient, and cleaner burning engines.
49
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Aerospace Engineering
 KEY WORDS:
 Structural engineers: use of new alloys,
composites, and other new materials to
meet design requirements of new
spacecraft
 Control systems: systems used to
operate crafts
 Orbital mechanics: calculation of where
to place satellites using GPS
50
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Agricultural Engineering
 Concerned with finding ways to produce
food more efficiently
 KEY WORDS
 Harvesting Equip. - removes crops from
field, and begins processing of food
 Structures: used to hold crops, feed, and
livestock; Agricultural engineers develop
and design the structures that hold crops

51
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Agricultural Engineering
 Food process engineers: concerned
with making healthier processed food
products
 Soil/Water Resources: working to
develop efficient ways to use limited
resources

52
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Architectural Engineering
 Structural: primarily concerned with
the integrity of the building structure.
Evaluates loads placed on buildings,
and makes sure the building is
structurally sound
 Mechanical systems: control climate
of building, as well as humidity and air
quality
(HVAC) 53
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Biomedical
 First recognized in 1940’s
 Three basic categories: Bioengineering,
Medical, and Clinical
 Bioengineering is application of engineering
principles to biological systems
 Medical engineers develop instrumentation
for medical uses
 Clinical engineers develop systems that help
serve the needs of hospitals and clinics

54
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Chemical
 Emphasizes the use of chemistry and
chemical processes in engineering
 Chemical engineers develop processes
to extract and refine crude oil and gas
resources
 Chemical engineers also develop circuit
boards, and work in the pharmaceutical
industry, where processes are designed
to create new, affordable drugs
55
2.3 Engineering Majors
Civil Engineering
 First seen in pyramids of Egypt
 Structural engineers most common type
of civil engineer
 Transportation engineers concerned
w/ design and construction of
highways, railroads, and mass transit
systems
 Surveyors start construction process by
locating property lines and property
areas 56
2.3 Engineering Majors
Computer Engineering
 Focuses primarily on computer
hardware, not software
 Work w/ electrical engineers to develop
faster ways to transfer information, and
to run the computer
 Responsible for the “architecture” of the
computer system

57
2.3 Engineering Majors
Electrical Engineering
 More engineers are electrical than any
other discipline
 With an ever growing technological
society, electrical engineers will ALWAYS
have a job
 Work in communications,
microelectronics, signal processing,
bioengineering, etc
58
2.3 Engineering Majors
Environmental Engineering
 Often coupled with Civil Engineering
 3 aspects of environmental engineering:
 Disposal: disposing of industrial/residential
waste products
 Remediation: clean up of a contaminated
site
 Prevention: working with corporations to
reduce and/or prevent emissions and work
to find ways to “recycle” products to be
used again to reduce waste
59
2.3 Engineering Majors
Industrial Engineering
 “Design, improvement, and installation
of integrated systems of people,
material, and energy”
 Emphasis placed on: Production,
Manufacturing, Human Factors Area, and
Operations Research
 Production focuses on plant layout,
scheduling, and quality control
 Human Factors focuses on the efficient
placement of human resources within a
plant/facility 60
2.3 Engineering Majors
Marine and Ocean Engineering
 Concerned with the design, development, and
operation of ships and boats
 Marine engineer designs and maintains the
systems that operate ships, I.e. propulsion,
communication, steering and navigation
 Ocean engineer design and operates marine
equipment other than ships, such as
submersibles. O.E.s might also work on
submarine pipelines and/or cables and drilling
platforms
61
2.3 Engineering Majors
Materials Engineering
 Study the structure, as well as other
important properties of materials, I.e.
strength, hardness, and durability
 Run tests to ensure the quality of the
performance of the material
 Material Engineers also study
metallurgy, and the development of
composites and alloys

62
2.3 Engineering Majors
Mechanical Engineering
 Concerned with machines and
mechanical devices
 Work in design, development,
production, control, and operation of
machines/devices
 Requires a strong math and physics
background. Often 4 or more math
classes required for graduation
63
2.3 Engineering Majors
Mining Engineering
 Work to maintain constant levels of raw
minerals used every day in industrial
and commercial settings
 Must discover, remove, process, and
refine such minerals

64
2.3 Engineering Minerals
Nuclear Engineering
 Most concerned with producing and
harnessing energy from nuclear sources
 Propulsion and electricity are the main
uses of nuclear power
 Engineers also responsible for disposal
of the nuclear waste byproduct, and
how to keep people safe from harmful
nuclear products
65
2.3 Engineering Majors
Petroleum Engineering
 Discover, remove, refine, and transport
crude and refined oil around the world
 PE’s design and operate the machinery
used to refine crude oil into its many
forms

66
Chapter 3

Profiles of Engineers

67
3.1 Introduction
 Diversity of the engineering work force
 Wide range of engineering careers that
are possible

68
3.1 Profile of a Biomedical
Engineer
 Sue H. Abreu, Ft. Bragg, North Carolina
 Occupation:
 Lieutenant Colonel, Medical Corps, United States
Army
 Medical Director, Quality Assurance, Womack Army
Medical Center
 Education:
 IDE (BSE, Biomedical Engineering), 1978
 MD, Uniformed Services University of the Health
Sciences, 1982

69
3.1 Profile of an Aerospace
Engineer
 Patrick Rivera Anthony
 Occupation:
 Project Manager, Boeing Space Beach
 Education:
 BS, Aerospace Engineering

70
3.1 Profile of a Civil Engineer
 Sandra Begay-Campbell, Boulder,
Colorado
 Occupation:
 AISES Executive Director
 Education:
 BSCE, 1987; MS, Structural Engineering,
1991

71
3.1 Profile of an Electrical
Engineer
 Ryan Maibach, Farmington, Michigan
 Occupation:
 Project Engineer at Barton Malow Company
 Education:
 BS-CEM (Construction Engineering and
Management), 1996

72
3.1 Profile of an Agricultural
Engineer
 Mary E. Maley, Battle Creek, Michigan
 Occupation:
 Project Manager, Kellogg Company
 Education:
 BS, Agricultural Engineering (food
engineering)

73
Chapter 4

A Statistical Profile of the


Engineering Profession

74
4.1 Statistical Overview
 How many people study engineering?
 What are the most common majors?
 What kind of job market is there for
engineers?
 How much do engineers earn?
 How many women and minorities study
engineering?

75
4.2 College Enrollment Trends
of Engineering Students
 1950s-1960s: 60,000-80,000
engineering students
 1970s marked the lowest number of
students, at 43,000
 Engineering peaked in 1980s, with
around 118,000 students

76
4.3 College Majors of Recent
Engineering Students
 Of approximately 350,000 full-time
undergrad engineering students, just
less than 1/3 (124,000) were majoring
in computer and electrical engineering
 Just over 32,000 were “undecided”

77
4.4 Degrees in Engineering
 Steady decline in Engineering degrees
awarded between 1986 and 1995.
Since then, there have been many
fluctuations, but as of data of 2000,
there were 63,300 engineering degrees
awarded
 For a long time, electrical awarded the
highest number of degrees, but that
was eventually replaced by mechanical
engineering 78
4.5 Job Placement Trends
 1999-2000 was the hottest year for
engineering majors to find jobs
 As the number of engineering students
declines, employers must “fight” harder
to get whatever students they can get
their hands on to fill vacant positions.
This has led to a very promising job
placement ratio
79
4.6 Salaries of Engineers
 On the whole, engineers make more money
than any other graduate with another degree
 Electrical, computer, and computer science
recently have led the way, with average
salaries from a Bachelor degree starting at
around $52,000
 A Ph.D. in computer science will earn a
starting average of around $84,000

80
4.7 Diversity in the Profession
 For a long time, white males dominated
engineering
 Recently, women, foreign nationals, and
various minority students have entered
colleges and universities with an
engineering diploma in mind

81
4.8 Distribution of Engineers
by Field of Study
 Electrical engineering employs the
highest number of engineers, nearly
25%, numbering close to 375,000
 Mechanical employs almost 250,000
 Civil is the next highest “populated”,
with 200,000 workers

82
4.11 Words of Advice from
Employers
 Looking for graduates who possess:
 Excellent communication skills
 Teamwork
 Leadership
 Computer/Technical proficiency
 Hard working attitude

83
Chapter 5

Global and International


Engineering

84
5.1 Introduction
 After WWII, engineering became a
more “global” business.
 Taking a few foreign language classes in
college cannot hurt, but only help your
chances at getting a job after college.

85
5.2 The Evolving Global
Market: Changing World Maps &
Alliances
 Breakup of former USSR
 New laws, regulations, policies have
affected the spread of international
engineering

86
5.2 NAFTA
 1994 North American Free Trade
Agreement (US, Mexico, Canada)
 Designed to reduce tariffs, and increase
international competition
 Manufacturing trade has increased by
128% between Canada, US, and Mexico
since 1994

87
5.3 International Opportunities
For Engineers
 Engineers are employed internationally in:
 Automobile Industry
 Manufacturing
 Construction
 Pharmaceuticals
 Food Industry
 Petroleum and Chemical Industry
 Computer and Electronics Industry
 Telecommunications

88
5.4 Preparing for a Global
Career
 Students who look to work
internationally should:
 Be language and culturally proficient
 Should participate in study abroad
programs
 Look into work international work
experience
and Co-Op opportunities

89
Chapter 6

Future Challenges

90
6.1 Expanding World
Population
 1900-2000, world population climbs
from 1.6 billion to 6 billion people
 Places new stress on conservation of
resources, and gives engineers new
challenges to compensate for high population

91
6.2 Pollution
 Engineers concerned with management
and the control of pollution, especially:
 Air pollution
 Water pollution and the depletion of
freshwater resources
 Management of solid waste

92
6.3 Energy
 It is predicted that energy usage in the
Developing Countries will more than
double in the next 30 years
 Engineers must find new ways to
generate power in an effort to conserve
natural resources (fossil fuels)

93
6.5 Infrastructure
 With mass transportation an ever-
present problem, engineers will be
responsible in the future for designing
and maintaining a system by which the
transportation of raw materials, as well
as the human capital that process them,
can easily and efficiently move from
place to place
94
CHAPTER 7

Succeeding in the Classroom

95
7.2 Attitude
 Success in an engineering curriculum
depends largely on a student’s attitude
and work ethic
 If the student’s attitude is one of
failure, the student will most likely fail
 Keep an open mind, and be willing to
“work” with the professor in order to
best understand the material

96
7.3 Goals
 Set goals that will be difficult to attain,
but not impossible
 This will motivate the student to work
hard, not just hard enough to do the
minimum, but to reach their higher
standard/goal
 Set short, intermediate, and long term
goals
 GPA for a semester, grade on an upcoming
exam, GPA for a year/college career 97
7.4 Keys to effectiveness
 GO TO CLASS
 Allow 2 hrs. of study time outside of class for
every hour in class
 Re-read sections of book covered in class
 Keep up with class and reading
 Take good notes
 Work lots of problems, not just the minimum
amount for homework
 Study in groups
98
7.5 Test Taking
 Obtain past exams
 Ask professor for practice exams
 Work problems in book
 Start with problems you know how to
do, then work on the harder problems
 Skim test first, to see what will basically
be covered

99
7.6 Making the Most of Your
Professor
 Don’t wait until the end of the semester
to go for help
 If you make yourself visible in class and
during office hours, the professor may
remember you while grading
 Teaching is not professors only
responsibility, often the are researchers
and advisors as well, so give them the
benefit of the doubt
100
7.7 Learning Styles
 Each person’s brain is unique to him or
her
 Proper nutrition, stress, drugs and
alcohol are some of the factors that can
affect a developing brain
 Each person is born with all the brain
cells, or neurons, they will ever have
(estimated at 180 billion neurons)

101
7.7 Learning Styles
 None of us is ever too old or too dumb
to learn something new!
 People think and memorize in several
different ways

102
7.7 Learning Styles
 Memorizing:
 Refers to how people assimilate new
material to existing knowledge and
experience
 How we accommodate, or change our
previous way of organizing material

103
7.7 Learning Styles
 Thinking:
 Refers to how we see the world, approach
problems and use the different parts of our
brain.

104
7.7 Learning Styles
 We all have different learning styles
 Memory Languages:
 Auditory
 Visual
 Kinesthetic

105
7.7 Learning Styles
 Auditory Learner:
 Buy a small tape recorder and record
lectures
 Sit where you can hear the professor well
 Focus on what is said in class, take notes
from the tape recorder later
 Ask the professor questions
 Read out loud to yourself
 Keep visual distractions to a minimum

106
7.7 Learning Styles
 Visual Learner:
 Sit where you can see the professor and
board or screen clearly
 Write notes during lecture with lots of
pictures and meaningful doodles
 Rewrite notes later in a more organized
fashion and highlight main ideas
 Write out questions to ask the professor

 Highlight and take notes in your book

107
7.7 Learning Styles
 Kinesthetic Learners:
 TAKE Labs!
 Make connections between what is being
said and what you’ve done in the past
 Talk to professor about ways to gain more
hands-on experience, such as volunteering
in his/her lab
 Use models or experiments at home

108
7.7 Learning Styles
 Thinking Skills:
 Refers to how we see the world, approach
problems and use the different parts of our
brain
 Different people think differently
 Two hemispheres in our brain, and four
quadrants generally categorize how we
think

109
7.7 Learning Styles

110
7.8 Well Rounded Equals
Effective
 Make sure to balance social, intellectual,
and physical activities in your schedule
 Well rounded students are generally
more effective than students with a
“one-track” mind

111
7.9 Your Effective Use of Time
 Decide in advance what to study and when
 Make schedules
 Use calendars effectively
 Organize tasks by priority level
 Stay focused on task
 **Remember, everyone will “fail” at some
point, it’s how you respond to a failure that
determines your future success or failure

112
Chapter 8

Problem Solving

113
8.1 Introduction
 Problem solving requires many “tools”
and skills. Make sure that you have
them, or at least know where to find
them and how to use them

114
8.2 Analytic and Creative
Problem Solving
 Two basic types of problem solving
involved in design process: creative
and analytic
 More students familiar with analytic,
where there is one right answer
 Creative problem solving has no right
answers

115
8.2 Analytic and Creative
Problem Solving
 Steps that typically help w/ problem
solving
 Make a model/figure
 Identify necessary, desired and given info
 Work backwards from answers
 Restate problem in one’s own words
 Check the solution and validate it

116
8.3 Analytic Problem Solving
 Six steps to analytic problem solving:
 Define the problem and create a problem
statement
 Diagram and describe the problem
 Apply theory and any known equations
 Simplify assumptions
 Solve necessary problems
 Verify accuracy of answer to desired level
117
8.4 Creative Problem Solving
 Use divergence and convergence to gather
and analyze ideas. Divergence is
brainstorming. Convergence is analyzing and
evaluating the ideas, seeking out the best
possible solutions
 What is wrong?
 What do we know?
 What is the real problem?
 What is the best solution?
 How do we implement the solution?

118
Chapter 9

Visualization and Graphics

119
9.1-9.2 Visualization
 Visualization is often used as a mode of
communication between engineers
 Sketches, tables, graphs, computer
generated drawings, blueprints are
various ways in which engineers
communicate via visual mediums

120
9.3 Sketching
 Although most final drawings are computer
generated, initial and freehand sketches are
vital to the design process
 Freehand does not mean messy. Sketches
should display an adequate amount of detail,
and any pertinent notes/comments pertaining
to the drawing
 For instance, if a line is supposed to be straight,
make it as straight as possible. A square will not
pass for a circle.

121
9.7 Graphical Communication
 Oblique and isometric drawings are 3D
and general
 Orthographic drawings are 2D, more
detailed, and often have dimensions for
the part
 Object, Hidden, Centerline, and
Construction are 4 common types of
lines used in engineering graphics
122
Chapter 10

Computer Tools

123
10.1-10.6 Computer Tools for
Engineers
 There are many aspects to the design process
of a product
 Engineers must be competent in basic
computer tools such as the internet, word
processing, and basic spreadsheets
 Engineers will most likely be required to have
some knowledge of mathematical software,
such as MatLab
 Engineers also make computer presentations
using most commonly, Microsoft PowerPoint
124
10.7-10.8 Operating Systems
and Programming Language
 Engineers may be required to have
experience or be expected to be able to
work in UNIX, MS-DOS, or a Microsoft
Windows System
 Computers work on series of 1’s and
0’s, called binary code
 FORTRAN, BASIC, C, and C++ are all
programming languages used by
engineers to communicate with the
computer 125
Chapter 11

Teamwork Skills

126
11.1 Teamwork
 Corporations develop teams for many
reasons
 Projects are becoming increasingly complex
 Projects often span international borders,
and require workers all over
 Projects are requiring more speed, which
require more workers

127
11.2 What Makes a Successful
Team?
 A common goal
 Leadership
 Each member makes unique
contributions
 Effective communication
 Creativity
 Good planning and use of resources
128
11.4 Team Leadership
Structures
 Traditional: One leader, who directs
subordinates. Leader typically is the
only one who “speaks”.
 Participative: Leader is closer to
individual workers.
 Flat: There is no “leader”. All members
are equal. The leadership “moves” with
the situation to the worker with the
most expertise in a given subject
129
11.5 Decisions within a Team
 Consensus: All team members agree
on a decision
 Majority Rule
 Minority/Committee decision
 Expert input

130
11.7 Grading a Team Effort
 Did the team accomplish its goal?
 Were results of a high quality? If not, why?
 Did the team grow throughout the process?
 Evaluate the team leader
 Evaluate the other members of the team
 Evaluate your own contribution to the project

131
Chapter 12

Project Management

132
12.1 Introduction
 “Failure to plan is planning to fail.”
 A good plan is one of the most
important attributes of successful teams
and projects.
 Projects should be organized
systematically.

133
12.1 Eight Questions that can
be Addressed with a Plan
 What to do first?
 Next?
 How many people?
 What resources?
 How long?
 Time table?
 Deadlines?
 Objectives?
134
12.2 Creating a Project
Charter
 A project summary
 Defining what your project is and when
you will know when it is done
 Elements include
 Deliverables
 Duration
 Stakeholders
 Team members

135
12.3 Task Definitions
 Identify the completion tasks to achieve
the objectives and outcomes
 Plan
 Design
 Build
 Deliver

136
12.3 Plans
 Plans should include:
 Who to hold accountable for progress
 Needed materials, resources, etc.
 How to determine if the project is on
schedule
 Manage people and resources
 Determine the end!

137
12.4 Milestones
 Monitoring of your plans progress
 Deadlines for deliverables
 Completion of subcomponents

138
12.5 Defining Times
 Include the full time needed for tasks
 As a student, you don’t have a full
eight-hour work day every day
 Break tasks into week segments
 Weekday and/or weekend
 Class periods
 Break tasks into short time periods
 No more than a week or two

139
12.6 Organizing the Tasks
 Determine task relationships and
sequencing
 Relate the task groups from your
outline

140
12.7 PERT Charts

141
12.7 PERT Charts
 Each task is represented by a box
containing a brief description of and
duration for the task
 The boxes can be laid out just as the
project plan is laid out
 Useful as a “what if” tool during
planning stages

142
12.8 Critical Paths
 The longest string of dependant project
tasks
 Ex. – prerequisites such as the math
curriculum for engineering
 Some tasks can be accelerated by using
more people, others cannot
 Ex. – nine people cannot have the same
baby in one month
143
12.9 Gantt Charts
 Popular project management charting
method
 Horizontal bar chart
 Tasks vs. dates

144
12.9 Gantt Charts

145
12.10 Details, Details
 Remember Murphy’s Law - “Anything
that can go wrong, will.”
 Leave time to fix debug or fix errors

146
12.10 Details, Details
 Don’t assume things will fit together the
first time
 Order parts well in advance to leave
time for shipping, errors, or backorders
 Leave time for parts malfunction
 Push delivery times back to a week
before they’re actually due – this will
help to avoid panic if things go badly

147
12.11 Personnel Distribution
 Get the right people on the right tasks
 Assign people after developing a draft
of the plan
 Balance the work between everyone
 Weekly updates – does everyone
understand what they’re doing and is
everyone still on task?

148
12.12 Money and Resources
 Develop a budget
 Estimate with high, middle, and lower quality
products – offer a range of solutions
 Extra costs
 Shipping
 Travel
 Extra parts such as nails, screws, resistors
 Material costs and labor
 Have someone be responsible for managing
the budgets and financial aspects

149
12.13 Document As You Go
 Document milestones as they occur
 Leave time at the end for reviewing, not
writing

150
12.14 Team Roles
 Roles
 Project Leader or Monitor
 Procurement
 Financial Officer
 Liaison
 Project Management Software

151
12.14 – Project Leader or
Monitor
 Designate a leader, or rotate leaders
 Monitor and track progress of
milestones
 Maintains timelines
 Increases likelihood of meeting goals

152
12.14 – Procurement
 Learns purchasing system
 Tracks team orders

153
12.14 – Financial Officer
 Manages teams expenses
 Creates original budget
 Makes identifying budgetary problems
easier

154
12.14 – Liaison
 Responsible for keeping everyone
informed about the progress of the plan
and any changes
 This includes outside customers,
management, professors, etc.

155
Chapter 13

Engineering Design

156
13.1 Engineering Design
 Engineering design is the process of devising
a system, component, or process to meet
desired needs. It is a decision making
process in which the basic sciences and
mathematics and engineering sciences are
applied to convert resources optimally to
meet a stated objective. Among the
fundamental elements of the design process
are the establishment of objectives and
criteria, synthesis, analysis, construction, and
testing….

157
13.2 The Design Process
1. Identify the problem
2. Define the working criteria/goals
3. Research and gather data
4. Brainstorm ideas
5. Analyze potential solutions
6. Develop and test models
7. Make decision
8. Communicate decision
9. Implement and commercialize decision
10. Perform post-implementation review

158
Chapter 14

Communication Skills

159
14.1 Why do we
Communicate?
 Transfers important information
 Provides basis for judging one’s knowledge
 Conveys interest and competence
 Identifies gaps in your own knowledge

160
14.2-14.3 Oral and Written
Communication Skills
 Present communication on a level that
you believe will be easily understood by
whomever is to be receiving your
communication
 Don’t use big words if a smaller, easier-to-
understand word will suffice.

161
14.5 Power of Language
 Be as clear as possible
 Avoid clichés
 Avoid redundancy
 Avoid using jargon specific to a certain
group of people
 Don’t make sexual generalizations, I.e.
his, hers, he, she

162
14.6 Technical Writing
 Identify thesis early
 Follows a specific format
 Follows a problem solving approach
 Uses specialized vocabulary
 Often incorporates visual aids
 Complete set of references
 Be objective, not biased either way
163
14.9 Formal Reports
 Should include:
 Title; short and  Analysis
concise  Procedure and
 Summary of what Results
will be discussed  Discussion of results
 Table of Contents  Conclusions
(not including  References
abstract)
 Appendices
 Introduction

164
14.10 Other forms of
Communication
 E-mail
 Progress reports
 Problem statements
 Cover letters
 Resumes

165
Chapter 15

Ethics

166
15. The Nature of Ethics
 Ethics is generally concerned with rules
or guidelines for morals and/or socially
approved conduct
 Ethical standards generally apply to
conduct that can or does have a
substantial effect on people’s lives

167
Chapter 16

Units

168
16.1 History of Units
 A common denomination of units is essential
for the development of trade and economics
around the world
 National Bureau of Standards, established by
Congress, adopted the English system of
measurement (12 inches, etc)
 Majority of nations in the world today operate
on the metric system because of its simplicity
(multiples of 10)
169
16.1 History of Units - SI Units
 Le Systeme International d’Unites,
French for the International System of
Units
 Improvements in the definitions of the
base units continue to be made by the
General Conference of Weights and
Measures as science dictates

170
16.2 The SI System of Units
 Modernized metric system adopted by
the General Conference, a multi-
national organization which includes the
United States
 Built on a foundation of seven base
units, plus two supplementary ones
 All other SI units are derived from these
nine units

171
16.2 The SI System of Units
 Multiples and sub-multiples are
expressed using a decimal system
 Generally, the first letter of a symbol is
capitalized if the name of the symbol is
derived from a person’s name,
otherwise it is lowercase

172
16.2 The SI System of Units
 Base Units in the SI system
 Meter = m
 Kilogram = kg
 Seconds = s
 Ampere = A
 Kelvin = K
 Mole = mol
 Candela = cd

173
16.3 Derived Units
 Expressed algebraically in terms of base
and supplementary units
 Several derived units have been given
special names and symbols, such as the
newton (N).

174
16.3 Derived Units
 Quantities whose units are expressed in
terms of base and supplementary units
Quantity SI Unit SI Symbol
Area Square m2
meter
Speed, Meter per m/s
velocity second
Density Kilogram per Kg/m3
cubic meter
175
16.3 Derived Units
 Quantities whose units have special
names
Quantity SI Name SI Symbol Other SI
Units
Frequency hertz Hz cycle/s
Force newton N kg*m/s2
Electrical ohm W V/A
Resistance
176
16.3 Derived Units
 Units used with the SI System
Name Symbol Value in SI Units

Minute min 1 min = 60 s

Hour h 1 h = 3600 s

Degree ° 1° = p/180 rad

177
16.4 Prefixes
 Defined for the SI system
 Used instead of writing extremely large
or very small numbers
 All items in a given context should use
the same prefix, for example in a table
 Notation in powers of 10 is often used
in place of a prefix

178
16.4 Prefixes
Multiplication Prefix Symbol Term (USA)
Factor
1000000 = 106 mega M One million

1000 = 103 kilo k One thousand

.001 = 10-3 milli m One thousandth

.000001 = 10-6 micro m One millionth

179
16.5 Numerals
 A space is always left between the numeral
and the unit name or symbol, except when
we write a degree symbol
 3 m = 3 meters; 8 ms = 8 milliseconds
 SI units a space is used to separate groups of
three in a long number
 3,000,000 = 3 000 000
 .000005 = .000 005
 This is optional when there are four digits in a
number (3456 = 3 456; .3867 = .386 7)

180
16.5 Numerals
 A zero is used for numbers between -1
and 1 to prevent a faint decimal point
from being missed
 Rounding
 Significant Digits

181
16.6 Conversions
To convert To: Multiply by:
from:
Degrees Radians 0.017 453

Inches Centimeters 2.54

Newtons Pounds 0.224 81

182
Chapter 17

Mathematics Review

183
17.1 Algebra
 Three basic laws
 Commutative: a + b = b + a
 Distributive: a ( b + c ) = a b + a c
 Associative: a + ( b + c ) = ( a + b ) + c

184
17.1 Algebra
 Exponents
 Used for many manipulations
 Examples
 xa xb=xa+b
 xab=(xa)b
 Logarithms
 Related to exponents
 bx = y then x = logby
 Table 17.1.5

185
17.1 Algebra
 Quadratic Formula
 Solves ax2 + bx + c = 0
 Formula 17.1.6
 Binomial Theorem
 Used to expand (a+x)n
 Formula 17.1.7
 Partial Fractions
 Used for simplifying rational fractions
 Formulas 17.1.8, 17.1.9, 17.1.10, 17.1.11
 Examples

186
17.2 Trigonometry
 Involves the ratios between sides of a right triangle
 sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and
cosecant are the primary functions
 Trigonometry identities are often used
 17.2.3, 17.2.4, 17.2.5, 17.2.6, 17.2.7
 For all triangle we can also use the laws of sines and
cosines
 Some other equations that can be found in your book
are
 Pythagorean Theorem 17.2.10
 Hyperbolic Trig Functions 17.2.11
 Examples

187
17.3 Geometry
 Used to analyze a variety of shapes and lines
 The equation for a straight line
 Ax + By + C = 0
 This equation can also be written in Pint-slope, Slope-
intercept, and Two-intercept forms
 Distance between a line and a point is given
in Formula 17.3.5
 The general equation of the second degree is
Ax 2  2Bxy  Cy 2  2Dx  2Ey  F  0
188
17.3 Geometry
 This equation is used to represent conic
sections
 Classified on page 473
 Ellipse, Parabola, Hyperbola
 More information on pages 474-475
 Examples

189
17.4 Complex Numbers
 Complex numbers consist of a real (x) and imaginary
(y) part
 x+iy where i=
 In electrical engineering j is used instead of i because i is
used for current
 Useful to express in polar form x  iy  re i
 Euler’s equation is also commonly used
ei  cos   i sin 
 Other useful equations can be found on page 477
 Examples

190
17.5 Linear Algebra
 Used to solve n linear equations for n unknowns
 Uses m x n matrices
 Many manipulations of this basic equation are shown on page
479
 Determinants of matrices are often used in
calculations
 Illustrated on page 480
 Eigenvalues are used to solve first-order differential
equations
 Examples
n
c    a b  aij   aij Aij ( A  I ) x  0
n

ij ik kj
k 1 j 1
191
17.6 Calculus
 We first write derivatives using limits
 Some basic derivatives are shown on pages
484-485
 Used to indicate points of inflection,
maxima, and minima
 L’Hospial’s rule when f(x)/g(x) is 0 or
infinity 17.6.6

192
17.6 Calculus
 Inversely we have integration
 Used for finding the area under a curve
 Equation 17.6.7
 Can be used to find the length of a curve
 Used to find volumes
 Definite when there are limits
 When indefinite a constant is added to the
solution
 Basic Integrals on page 486
 Examples
193
17.7 Probability and Statistics
 The probability of one events’ occurrence
effects the probability of another event
 Probabilities
n! (n  1)! n!
P(n, r )  P(n, r )  C (n, r ) 
(n  r )! (n  r )! r!(n  r )!
 Many combinations can occur
 P(A or B) = P(A)+P(B)
 P(A and B)=P(A)P(B)
 P(not A) = 1-P(A)
 P(either A or B)=P(A)+P(B)-P(A)P(B)

194
17.7 Probability and Statistics
 Probability ranges from 0 to 1
 Additional equations on page 490
 Arithmetic Mean
 Median
 Mode
 Standard Deviation
 Variance
 Examples
195
Chapter 18

Engineering Fundamentals

196
18.1 Statics
 Concerned with equilibrium of bodies
subjected to force systems
 The two entities that are of the most
interest in statics are forces and
moments.

197
18.1 Statics
 Force:
 The manifestation of the action of one
body upon another.
 Arise from the direct action of two bodies
in contact with one another, or from the
“action at a distance” of one body upon
another.
 Represented by vectors

198
18.1 Statics
 Moment:
 Can be thought of as a tendency to rotate
the body upon which it acts about a certain
axis.
 Equilibrium:
 The system of forces acting on a body is
one whose resultant is absolutely zero

199
18.1 Statics
 Free Body Diagrams
(FBD):
 Neat sketch of the
body showing all
forces and moments
acting on the body,
together with all
important linear and
angular dimensions.

200
18.2 Dynamics
 Separated into two sections:
 Kinematics
 Study of motion without reference to the forces
causing the motion
 Kinetics
 Relates the forces on bodies to their resulting
motions

201
18.2 Dynamics
 Newton’s laws of motion:
 1st Law – The Law of Inertia
 2nd Law – F=ma
 3rd Law – Fab=-Fba
 Law of Gravitation

202
18.3 Thermodynamics
 Involves the storage, transformation
and transfer of energy.
 Stored as internal energy, kinetic energy,
and potential energy
 Transformed between these various forms
 Transferred as work or heat transfer

203
18.3 Thermodynamics
 There are many definitions, laws, and
other terms that are useful to know
when studying thermodynamics.

204
18.3 Thermodynamics
 A few useful definitions:
 System
 A fixed quantity of matter
 Control Volume (open system)
 A volume into which and/or from which a
substance flows
 Universe
 A system and its surrounding

205
18.3 Thermodynamics
 Some Laws of ideal gases:
 Boyle’s Law
 Volume varies inversely with pressure
 Charles’ Law
 Volume varies directly with temperature
 Avagadro’s Law
 Equal volumes of different ideal gasses with the
same temperature and pressure contain an
equal number of molecules

206
18.4 Electrical Circuits
 Interconnection of electrical
components for the purpose of:
 Generating and distributing electrical
power
 Converting electrical power to some other
useful form
 Processing information contained in an
electrical form

207
18.4 Electrical Circuits
 Direct Current (DC)
 Alternating Current (AC)
 Steady State
 Transient circuit

208
18.4 Electrical Circuits
Quantity Symbol Unit
Charge Q coulomb
Current I ampere
Voltage V volt
Energy W joule
Power P watt

209
18.4 Electrical Circuits
 Circuit Components:
 Resistors
 Inductors
 Capacitors
 Sources of Electrical Energy
 Voltage
 Current

210
18.4 Electrical Circuits
 Kirchhoff’s Laws
 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)
 Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL)
 Ohm’s Law
 V=IR

211
18.4 Electrical Circuits
 Reference Voltage Polarity and Current
Direction
 Circuit Equations
 Using Branch Currents
 Using Mesh Currents
 Circuit Simplification
 DC Circuits

212
18.5 Economics
 Value and Interest
 The value of a dollar given to you today is
of greater value than that of a dollar given
to you one year from today
 Cash Flow Diagrams
 Cash Flow Patterns
 Equivalence of Cash Flow Patterns

213
Chapter 19

The Campus Experience

214
19.1 Orienting Yourself to Your
Campus
 Introduction to Campus Life
 Tools to assist students to adjusting to
the college lifestyle

215
19.2 Exploring
 Begin by becoming familiar with some
different locations on campus
 Offices
 Dorms
 Classroom Buildings
 Engineering Building
 Sample map of Michigan State
University Campus
216
19.3 Determining and
planning your Major
 Narrow down to a few different majors
 Ask questions of insightful people
 Look for any opportunity to learn more
about each field

217
19.4 Get into the Habit of
Asking Questions
 Active questioners learn the most
 Questions help students understand
and complete tasks
 Communication skills are vital to
engineers
 Understanding information given
 Giving information that is understandable

218
19.5 The ‘People Issue’
 Meeting People
 Make friends of other engineers
 Helpful as study partners
 Offer perspective on engineering
 Academic Advisor
 Advisors are an excellent resource
 Discuss problems
 Information about the school, classes, and instructors
 Offer guidance for graduating and careers

219
19.5 The ‘People Issue’
 Instructors
 Ask other students about an Instructor
before signing up for the class
 Sit in on a class to see their teaching style
 Networking
 Keep in contact with friends and
acquaintances
 Useful for assistance and support in and
out of the classroom
220
19.6 Searching for Campus
Resources
 Every school has a document or website that
lists activities and opportunities
 Examples
 Things to Do, Places to Go
 Planetarium, Gardens, Museum, Union
 What’s Happening
 Academic calendar, calendar of events
 Library locations and hours
 Services
 Legal aid, counseling, financial aid
 Extracurricular Activities

221
19.7 Other Important Issues
 Managing Time
 Control time to achieve success
 Recommended Reading
 The Usefulness of Reading
 Engineering requires the extensive use of
technical and non-technical materials
 Read each paragraph for its central point
 Create outlines for each reading assignment

222
19.7 Other Important Issues
 Fulfilling Duties
 Engineers have a responsibility to society
 Contributing to Society brings its own reward
 Using the Web
 Use the internet to look up more information on
topics of interest outside the classroom
 Sending e-mail
 Most contacts use email for some part of their
interaction

223
19.7 Other Important Issues
 Test-taking Skills
 Preparing outlines as subject matter is
presented will make studying easier
 Form study groups
 Ask questions
 Taking Notes
 Organize information
 Highlight essential information

224
19.7 Other Important Issues
 Study Skills
 Should be calm, structured, and routine
 Remember to get up and move a few times in an
hour
 Reward yourself for studying
 Teaching Styles
 Variety of Instructors including graduate students
 Fully engage professors and ask questions
 Learning Styles
 Discover your Learning Style and use it to your
advantage

225
19.7 Other Important Issues
 Perspectives of others
 Learn to listen to others respectfully
 Be open to discussion of a variety of topics
 Listening Skills
 Dialogue does not need to be
confrontational
 Allow others to express their opinions
 Listen carefully to what other people say

226
19.7 Other Important Issues
 Handling Stress
 Include time to relax in your schedule
 Take classes for the right reason
 Do not resent required classes
 Approach weak points with a positive attitude
 Focus on learning instead of grades
 Be patient for results of increased studying
 Stress can not be avoided
 Talking out problems can help

227
19.8 Final Thoughts
 Use the concepts from this chapter to
make the college experience all it can
be.
 Don’t forget to ask questions!!!

228
Chapter 20

Financial Aid

229
20.1 Intro
 What costs are involved in going to
college?
 Tuition
 Other college or university fees
 Cost-of-living expenses
 Other “extras”

230
20.2 Parental Assistance
 Some parents are able and willing to
cover all of your college expenses
 On average, nine million students must
find ways to fund their college
education every fall

231
20.3 Is Financial Assistance for
You?
 Applying for Financial Aid
 Three areas:
 Grants and scholarships
 Loans
 Work
 Need vs. Non-need
 Academic qualifications
 Why apply?
232
20.3 Is Financial Assistance for
You?
 Budgeting
 Advisors available to assist with personal
budgeting
 Help estimate costs and income and
develop a plan
 How to apply
 Free Application for Federal Student Aid
(FAFSA)

233
20.3 Is Financial Assistance for
You?
 FAFSA
 http://www.fafsa.gov
 First thing to complete to become eligible
for aid
 Can apply as early as January for the
following fall semester
 Look up the information required before
starting to fill out the form

234
20.4 Scholarships
 Educational funds that do not need to
be repaid
 Public, private, or university sources
 Local high school, professional groups,
corporations, service organizations,
government, college, etc.
 It is your responsibility to seek out
private scholarships/grants
235
20.5 Loans
 May be secured from lending institutions and
state and federal loan programs
 Students who apply for financial aid will be
notified of their eligibility for both student and
parent federal loans
 Loans can be obtained from parents or
relative who feel that you should repay the
money that is required to put you through
school
236
20.6 Work-Study
 “Earning money the old-fashioned way”
 On- or off-campus employment during
school
 Summer jobs
 Internships
 Co-ops
 Requires careful management of time

237
20.6 Work-Study
 Work-Study:
 Employment subsidized by the federal or
state government
 Will be listed on your financial aid award
letter is you are eligible
 “Just Plain Work”
 Volunteering
 Full Semester Off-Campus Employment

238
20.6 Work-Study
 Cooperative Education
 Academic program in which college
students are employed in positions directly
related to their major field of study
 Alternating, Parallel, and Back-to-back
semesters

239
20.7 Scams to Beware
 Do your own homework to avoid
scholarship service rip-offs
 Check with the Federal Trade
Commission (FTC)
 http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/menu-jobs.htm

240
20.8 The Road Ahead Awaits
 Examine the many different sources
available to you for obtaining the funds
needed for your college expenses
 How much do you actually need?
 Correct forms and deadlines

241
Chapter 21

Engineering Work Experience

242
21.1 A Job and Experience
 “How do you get experience without a job, and how do you get
a job without experience?”
 Graduate schools and employers look for experiences outside
the classroom
 Incorporating career experience is a worthwhile consideration
 May extend college to 6 years
 Many Economic shifts have happened in a college students
lifetime
 1980-1983: Major Recession
 1983-1986: Revival of U.S. Economy
 1988-1994: Restructuring of Corporate America
 1994-2001: Vigorous Rebound of Economy
 2001-2003: Recession
 2004- : Signs of improvement in the labor market for engineers

243
21.1 A Job and Experience
 In good and bad times employers look
for Engineers with job-related
experience
 Engineers require less training
 Faster results
 Many different Experiences are available

244
21.2 Summer Jobs
 Even jobs such as baby-sitting and mowing
lawns is a place to start
 All jobs help develop basic employable skills
 Provide stepping stone to better, more career
related jobs
 Skills include teamwork, communication, and
problem solving
 Help you discover what working environments
you like

245
21.3 Volunteer
 Especially useful to freshmen and
sophomores to gain experience
 Generally volunteer positions are with
non-profit organizations
 Not a paid experience
 Useful in developing skills
 Able to experiment with different career
related fields
246
21.4 Supervised Independent
Study
 Designed for the advanced undergraduate
 Preparatory for grad school or a career in
Research
 Some are paid and others award credit
 Provides a unique experience
 Challenging in many different areas
 To learn more
 Talk to professors that share similar interests

247
21.5 Internships
 Paid or unpaid experience for a set period of time
 Usually during the summer
 No obligations for future employment
 Sometimes they support other engineers
 Other times they are given individual projects
 No official evaluation or credit given
 Short term projects
 Obtain a description of these projects prior to employment
to assure it is of interest
 Great for students with time, curriculum, and location
constraints

248
21.6 Co-operative Education
 Cooperative Education is often the preferred form of
experimental Learning
 Co-ops are considered to be academic and are
administered by the college
 Assignments are directly related to field of study
 Detailed job descriptions are used to create the best possible
matches
 School and work are closely integrated
 Alternating terms of school with work at the same company
 Projects become more extensive throughout the experience
 Term in school followed by a term at work followed by a term
at school and so on

249
21.6 Co-operative Education
 Parallel co-ops is an alternative
 Students are partially enrolled in classes and spend 20 to
25 hours at work
 Difficulties arise in allowing ample time for both areas
 Sometimes a longer alternating approach is used
 Students work two consecutive semesters then attend
class for a semester or two
 Allows for longer projects
 Some schools use all three methods
 Co-ops are rarely summer only
 Break between work assignments is too long
 Requires a three or four semester commitment

250
21.6 Co-operative Education
 Advantages for Students
 Consideration for employment and grad school
 Improved technical skills
 Helps determine career path
 Excellent pay
 Advantages for Employers
 Recruiting Co-op students is more cost efficient
 Many students accept full time positions with their employer
 More diverse and dedicated students
 Students free up other engineers and bring in fresh
approaches

251
21.6 Co-operative Education
 Advantages for Schools
 Integrates theory and practice
 Keeps faculty informed of trends in industry
 Creates relationships between schools and businesses
 Improves a schools reputation
 Other Benefits
 Communication Skills
 Networking
 Self-discipline
 Management Experience
 Interactions with a variety of people

252
21.7 Which is Best for You?
 Some Questions to help determine which is
best for you
 Am I willing to sacrifice convenience for the best
experience?
 How flexible can I be?
 How committed do I want to be?
 Seek out advice from professors, academic
advisors, and campus placement officers

253
Chapter 22

Connections: Liberal Arts and


Engineering

254
22.1 What are Connections?
 Connections exist between engineering
and liberal arts
 Literature
 History
 Music
 Art
 Social studies
 Philosophy

255
22.1 What are Connections?
 Look closely at what engineers really are and
what they really do
 “liberal” comes from liberty, so that liberal
arts means “works befitting a free man”
 Need for a general education
 Developed because people have a need for a
strong, open mind in addition to a specialty in
order to be well-rounded
 Not trapped by cultural blind-spots

256
22.2 Why Study Liberal Arts?
 Liberal arts help improve your
broadness
 Look in many directions at once
 Questions about areas that do not have
pre-set answers
 Expected to be a leader

257
22.2 Why Study Liberal Arts?
 The Arts Improve:
 Your Perspective
 See the “big picture”
 Your Balance
 Practice dealing with a variety of diverse ideas
 Your People Skills
 Be aware of things that modern tendencies
avoid or neglect

258
22.2 Why Study Liberal Arts?
 The Arts Improve:
 Your Sense of Duty and Responsibility
 Elevate, integrate, and unify the standards of
the profession
 Fulfill your duty in life, so society respects you
more

259
Appendix A:

The Basics of Power Point

260
A.1 Introduction
 The purpose of this section is to
introduce a user to PowerPoint
 Learn 20 key procedures
 Be able to do 80% of everything you will
ever need to do
 To learn more experiment with the
software

261
A.2 The Basics of PowerPoint
 To begin open a blank presentation
 Activate the standard, formatting, drawing,
picture, and WordArt toolbars
 Select a slide type for the first slide
 Select a background
 Enter text into given text blocks
 Edit the text and box sizes and shapes
 Add additional text boxes selecting Insert-TextBox
 Insert WordArt as necessary

262
A.2 The Basics of PowerPoint
 Insert any pictures
 Click Insert-Picture-From File
 Format the picture using the Picture toolbar
 Insert Clip Art
 Click Insert-Picture-Clip Art
 Picture Toolbar is used for formatting
 Change visibility of an object by right clicking on an
object and then selecting Order from the menu
 To Delete objects click on it and press backspace or
delete

263
A.2 The Basics of PowerPoint
 To begin a new slide click the new slide button
 Repeat from the beginning to format
 View slides by thumbnails in the Slide Sorter View
 Useful for arranging or hiding slides for presentations
 Can be used when copying or deleting whole slides
 Save your work when finished
 Change slide transitions and animations
 View the entire Show

264
Appendix B:

Introduction to MATLAB

265
B.1 Introduction
 MATRIX LABORATORY
 Powerful tool in performing engineering
computations
 Many engineering curricula have moved to
making MATLAB the primary computing tool
in its undergraduate program
 Can be run on many different platforms,
including UNIX, PC, and Macintosh.

266
B.2 MATLAB Environment
 Command window
 Use to run your programs and see the results
 Command History window
 Shows a history of the commands that have been
entered into the command window
 Launch Pad window
 Allows you to start applications and
demonstrations by clicking the icons in the
window

267
B.2 MATLAB Environment
 Demonstration Programs
 >>demo
 Help Files
 >>help <command name>
 >>lookfor topic
 >>helpwin
 MATLAB is case sensitive
 Apple ≠ apple ≠ APPLE ≠ aPPle

268
B.2 MATLAB Environment
 Helpful commands
 >>who
 Allows the user to see the variables currently in
memory
 >>clear
 Erase the memory
 >>clear <variable>
 Clears just that variable

269
B.2 MATLAB Environment
 MATLAB has some predefined functions that
should not be used to name variables
 A few variable names to avoid:
 ans
 Inf
 NaN
 i
 j
 realmin

270
B.3 Symbolic Manipulations
 To declare variables as a symbol
 >> syms x y
 Algebraic expressions
 >>solve (x^2-4)
 Symbolic derivatives
 >>diff (y^3)
 Symbolic integrals
 >>int (sin(x))
271
B.4 Saving and Loading Files
 To find out the identity of your working
directory, type pwd (print working
directory)
 Use cd to change the working directory
 >>cd c:\matlab\mystuff
 The file can be saved using save at the
MATLAB prompt

272
B.4 Saving and Loading Files
 Use the command load followed by the
file name to retrieve your file.
 >>load my_workspace
 path lists the directories that MATLA
will search for files
 addpath <pathname> will add the
location to the path listing

273
B.5 Vectors
 A vector is simply a row or column of
numbers
 Vectors are enclosed in square brackets
 >>row_vector = [1 2 6 9 12]
 >>col_vector = [2;4;6;8;10]
 To change a column vector into a row
vector and vice versa, use transpose

274
B.5 Vectors
 For vectors to be added and subtracted,
they must be of the same type and size
 To multiply or divide vectors, special
MATLAB symbols must be used
 “.*” is used for multiplication
 “./” is used for division

275
B.6 Matrices
 A matrix is a group of numbers
arranged in columns and rows
 Each element in a matrix is identified by
the use of two numbers or indices
 The first index is the row number
 The second index is the column number
 MATLAB can extract an entire row or
column, or specific elements

276
B.7 Simultaneous Equations
 Put the equations to be solved into
standard form
 To solve for matrix x from Ax=b
 X=A\b

277
B.9 Plotting
 To generate linear xy plots use plot
 >>plot(x axis values, y axis values, ‘symbol
or line type’)
 Use hold on to plot multiple data sets
 The axes can be labeled using the
commands xlabel, ylabel, and title
 To generate multiple plots on a single
figure use subplot

278
B.9 Plotting
 Semi-log and log plots
 semilogx
 semilogy
 loglog

279
B.9 Plotting

280
B.10 Programming
 Programs, called scripts, consist of a
series of MATLAB commands that can
be saved to run later
 Select new, M-file to open the
programming editor
 Enter MATLAB commands just like you
would type them into the workspace
 Add comments by using the % symbol

281
B.10 Programming
 Save the file with a .m extension
 Remember to avoid file names that
MATLAB already uses
 The file can then be executed by typing
the file name at the MATLAB prompt

282
B.10 Programming
 Input commands
 To ask the user to input a number
 >>W=input(‘Enter a number to be used by the
program’)
 To ask the user to enter a string
 >>my_word=input(‘Enter a word:’,’s’)
 The function disp can be used to
display data
283