introduction to power

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introduction to power

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University

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND IT

Electrical Engineering

Department

By Zemenfes Abreha & Adisu Teshale

POWER SYSTEM I

Introduction

Simple Power System

components

generation: source of power, ideally with

a specified voltage and frequency

load: consumes power; ideally with a

constant resistive value

transmission and Distribution system:

transmits power; ideally as a perfect

conductor

Complications

Loads are seldom constant

Transmission system has resistance, inductance,

capacitance and flow limitations

Simple system has no redundancy so power system

will not work if any component fails

Notation – Power & Energy

Energy: Integration of power over time; energy is what people

really want from a power system

Power Units

Watts = voltage x current for dc (W)

kW – 1 x 103 Watt

MW – 1 x 106 Watt

GW – 1 x 109 Watt

Installed Ethiopian. generation capacity is about

2.18 GW

Energy Units

Joule = 1 Watt-second (J)

kWh – Kilo-watt-hour (3.6 x 106 J)

Btu – 1055 J; 1 MBtu=0.292 MWh

Power System Generation

Hydro

Geothermal

Nuclear

Thermal

Solar

Wind

Hydro-power

hydraulic fluid, water, conversion of the hydraulic (potential)

energy of the fluid into mechanical (kinetic) energy in a

hydraulic turbine, and conversion of the mechanical energy to

electrical energy in an electric generator.

The term hydro-power is usually restricted to the generation of

shaft power from falling water. The power is then used for

direct mechanical purposes to drive the turbine or, more

frequently, for generating electricity.

The early generation of electricity from about 1880 often

derived from hydro-turbines, and the capacity of total worldwide

installations has grown at about 5% per year since.

Hydro-power now accounts for about 20% of world’s electric

generation. Output depends on rainfall and the landscape.

Hydropower Generation

Hydro-power

Tekeze-300MW

Gilgel Gibe II

Thermal generating plant

constructed to convert energy from fuel (coal, oil,

gas, or radiation) into electric power.

The actual conversion is accomplished by a turbine-

driven generator.

The plant will always produce electric energy. The

things that may change are the fuel used (coal, oil,

or gas) and environmental requirements.

Solar Energy

The major source of renewable energy is the sun which is

converted into different forms, e.g., solar radiation, wind,

wave, etc.

The solar energy is distributed over the earth atmosphere

through a number of complex processes.

Concentrator Systems

Wind Power

energy source.

Denmark was the first country to use wind for

generation of electricity.

One of the most critical features of wind

generation is the variability of wind.

Wind speeds vary with time of day, time of year,

height above ground, and location on the earth’s

surface.

Wind Power

The wind is solar power in mechanical form.

Wind energy is created by the uneven heating of the earth

by the sun;

Wind’s velocity and direction depend on the imposed

pressure gradients, plus certain other forces, plus the local

geography.

.

Geothermal

Geothermal energy originates from the inner core of the

earth and it is evident on the earth's surface in the forms of

volcanoes, geysers, and hot springs.

>1000 MW) is available in Ethiopia.

Geothermal Resource Map

Geothermal

Geothermal Aluto

EEPCO Total Generation power

HV-Substation

Future tie line connection to other control areas

which then require highly secured system.

World Population Trends

Japan 127.5 124.7 117.8 -7.6

Germany 82.4 81.9 80.6 -2.1

Russia 142.8 136.0 128.1 -10.3

USA 295.7 322.6 349.7 18.2

China 1306 1393 1453 11.2

India 1094 1274 1449 32.4

World 6449 7226 7959 23.4

Source: www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/summaries.html; values in

millions; percent change from 2005 to 2025

Energy Economics

between fixed costs (costs to build them) and

operating costs

Nuclear and solar high fixed costs, but low operating

costs

Natural gas/oil have low fixed costs but high operating

costs (dependent upon fuel prices)

Coal, wind, hydro are in between

Also the units capacity factor is important to

determining ultimate cost of electricity

Global Energy Costs

Nuclear: $15/MWh

Coal: $22/MWh

Wind: $50/MWh

Hydro: varies but usually water constrained

Solar: $150 to 200/MWh

Natural Gas: 8 to 10 times fuel cost in $/Mbtu

Utility Restructuring

competition

Eventual goal is to allow consumers to choose their electricity

supplier

Customer Choice

Blackout power outages

A power outage (also blackout or power failure) is a short- or long-term loss

of the electric power to an area.

A blackout refers to the total loss of power to an area and is the most severe

form of power outage that can occur.

Blackouts which result from or result in power stations tripping are

particularly difficult to recover from quickly. Outages may last from a few

minutes to a few weeks depending on the nature of the blackout and the

configuration of the electrical network

Example: August 14th, 2003 Blackout

Course Syllabus

Course introduction

Fundamental concepts of power system, introduction

to power Equipment

Representation of power system components

Transmission line parameters (Inductance of the line,

Capacitance of the line.

Mechanical design of transmission lines.

Characteristic and performance of power transmission

lines

Short txn line, Medium and long txn line

Corona

Overhead line insulators & Underground cables

Vertical Monopolies

utility had an exclusive franchise.

franchise, the utility had the

Transmission obligation to serve all

existing and future customers

Distribution at rates determined jointly

by utility and regulators

Customer Service

It was a “cost plus” business

Review of Phasors

constant frequency ac systems

Single-Phase Power Consumption

Single-Phase Power Consumption

Advantages of Phasor Analysis

Resistor v(t ) Ri (t ) V RI

di (t )

Inductor v(t ) L V j LI

dt

1t 1

Capacitor

C0

i (t ) dt v(0) V

j C

I

Z = Impedance R jX Z

R = Resistance

(Note: Z is a

X = Reactance complex number but

X

Z = R2 X 2 =arctan( ) not a phasor)

R

Complex Power, cont’d

Complex Power

S V I cos(V I ) j sin(V I )

P jQ

(Note: S is a complex number but not a phasor)

V I *

Q = Reactive Power (var, kvar, Mvar)

S = Complex power (VA, kVA, MVA)

Power Factor (pf) = cos

If current leads voltage then pf is leading

If current lags voltage then pf is lagging

Complex Power, cont’d

P S cos

Q S sin S 1 pf 2

What are (power factor angle), Q and S ?

-cos 1 0.85 31.8

100kW

S 117.6 kVA

0.85

Q 117.6sin(31.8) 62.0 kVar

Complex Power, cont’d

factor is unity apparent power and real power are equal

For a purely inductive circuit: the current lags the

voltage by 90°, average power is zero no transformation

of energy

For a purely capacitive circuit: the current leads the

voltage by 90°, average power is zero

Real Power, P RMS based - thermally equivalent to DC

power

Reactive Power, Q Oscillating power into and out of the

load because of its reactive element (L or C). Positive

value for inductive load (lagging pf)

Conservation of Power

the real powers absorbed by the load and the real losses

in the system

Reactive power must also be balanced: The balance is

between the sum of leading and the sum of lagging

reactive power producing elements

The total complex power delivered to the loads in

parallel is the sum of the complex powers delivered to

each

Conservation of Power

Sum of real power into node must equal zero

Sum of reactive power into node must equal zero

This is a direct consequence of Kirchhoff’s current

law, which states that the total current into each

node must equal zero.

Conservation of power follows since S = VI*

Conversation of Power Example

Earlier we found

I = 20-6.9 amps

*

SR VR I 4 20 6.9 206.9

*

2

PR 1600W I R (Q R 0)

SL VL I * 3 j 20 6.9 206.9

2

Q L 1200 var I X (PL 0)

Power Consumption in Devices

Resistors only consume real power

2

PResistor I Resistor R

Inductors only consume reactive power

2

Q Inductor I Inductor X L

Capacitors only generate reactive power

2 1

QCapacitor I Capacitor X C XC

C

2

VCapacitor

QCapacitor (Note-some define X C negative)

XC

Example

resolve V source

and S?

400000 V

I 4000 Amps

1000

V 400000 (5 j 40) 4000

42000 j16000 44.920.8 kV

S V I * 44.9k20.8 4000

17.9820.8 MVA 16.8 j 6.4 MVA

Example, cont’d

reactive power load

and resolve V source

and S?

Z Load 70.7 pf 0.7 lagging

I 564 45 Amps

V 59.713.6 kV

S 33.758.6 MVA 17.6 j 28.8 MVA

Power System

What is the disadvantage of reactive power???

“one-line diagrams.” Previous circuit redrawn

17.6 MW 16.0 MW

28.8 MVR -16.0 MVR

59.7 kV 40.0 kV

17.6 MW

16.0 MW

28.8 MVR

16.0 MVR

Arrows are

Generators are Transmission lines

used to

shown as circles are shown as a

single line show loads

Reactive Compensation

Key idea of reactive compensation is to supply reactive

power locally. In the previous example this can

be done by adding a 16 Mvar capacitor at the load

16.8 MW 16.0 MW

6.4 MVR 0.0 MVR

44.94 kV 40.0 kV

16.8 MW

16.0 MW

6.4 MVR

16.0 MVR

16.0 MVR

just real power load

Reactive Compensation, cont’d

564 Amps to 400 Amps. This has advantages

Lines losses, which are equal to I2 R decrease

Lower current allows utility to use small wires, or

alternatively, supply more load over the same wires

Voltage drop on the line is less

Reactive compensation is used extensively by

utilities

Capacitors can be used to “correct” a load’s power

factor to an arbitrary value.

Power Factor Correction Example

and would like to correct the pf to 0.95 lagging

1

S 80 j 60 kVA cos 0.8 36.9

PF of 0.95 requires desired cos 1 0.95 18.2

Snew 80 j (60 Qcap )

60 - Qcap

tan18.2 60 Qcap 26.3 kvar

80

Qcap 33.7 kvar

Distribution System Capacitors

3 Phase () Systems

carry three alternating currents (of the same

frequency) which reach their instantaneous peak

values at different times.

Taking one conductor as the reference, the other

two currents are delayed in time by one-third and

two-thirds of one cycle of the electric current.

This delay between phases has the effect of giving

constant power transfer over each cycle of the

current and also makes it possible to produce a

rotating magnetic field in an electric motor.

Balanced 3 Phase () Systems

three voltage sources with equal magnitude, but with an

angle shift of 120

equal loads on each phase

equal impedance on the lines connecting the generators to

the loads

Bulk power systems are almost exclusively 3

Single phase is used primarily only in low voltage,

low power settings, such as residential and some

commercial.

Balanced 3 -- No Neutral Current

I n I a Ib I c

V

In (10 1 1

Z

S Van I an

*

Vbn I bn

*

Vcn I cn

*

3 Van I an

*

Advantages of 3 Power

wire.

Torque produced by 3 machines is constant

Three phase machines use less material for

same power rating

Three phase machines start more easily than

single phase machines

Three Phase - Wye Connection

– Wye (Y)

– Delta ()

Van V

Vbn V

Vcn V

Wye Connection Line Voltages

Vcn Vab

Vca

-Vbn

Van

Vbn

(α = 0 in this case)

Vbc

Vab Van Vbn V (1 1 120

3 V 30

Line to line

Vbc 3 V 90 voltages are

Vca 3 V 150 also balanced

Wye Connection, cont’d

phase voltage/current

Define voltage/current across/through lines to be

line voltage/current

j

VLine 3 VPhase 130 3 VPhase e 6

I Line I Phase

S3 3 VPhase I Phase

*

Delta Connection

For the Delta

phase voltages equal

line voltages

For currents

Ica Ic Ia I ab I ca

3 I ab

Ib Iab I b I bc I ab

Ibc

Ic I ca I bc

Ia

S3 *

3 VPhase I Phase

Three Phase Example

13.8 kV (L-L) source with Z = 10020

Vab 13.80 kV

Vbc 13.8 0 kV

Vca 13.80 kV

13.80 kV

I ab 138 20 amps

I bc 138 140 amps I ca 1380 amps

Three Phase Example, cont’d

239 50 amps

I b 239 170 amps I c 2390 amps

S 3 Vab I ab

*

3 13.80kV 138 amps

5.7 MVA

5.37 j1.95 MVA

pf cos 20 lagging

Delta-Wye Transformation

1) Δ-connected loads can be replaced by

1

Y-connected loads with ZY Z

3

2) Δ-connected sources can be replaced by

VLine

Y-connected sources with Vphase

330

Delta-Wye Transformation Proof

Vab Vca Vab Vca

Ia

Z Z Z

Vab Vca

Hence Z

Ia

Delta-Wye Transformation, cont’d

Vab ZY ( I a I b ) Vca ZY ( I c I a )

Vab Vca ZY (2 I a I b I c )

Since Ia I b I c 0 I a I b I c

Hence Vab Vca 3 ZY I a

Vab Vca

3 ZY Z

Ia

1

Therefore ZY Z

3

Three Phase Transmission Line

Load dispatch center/ LDC

Major component of the power system

Power Transformer

Why step-up and step-down voltage necessary?

efficiently over long distances

Power at low voltages is also necessary to be used

at a safe level in home appliances and most

industrial equipment.

Power transformers can be classified as:

generator and the transmission line. They permit a

practical design voltage for generators, and at the same

time an efficient transmission line voltage.

Step-down transformers connected between the

transmission line and various electrical loads. They

permit the transmitted power to be used at a safe

utilization voltage.

The transformer consists of two or more insulated

windings wrapped around an iron core. By definition,

the primary winding is the input winding, and the

secondary winding is the output winding

Example 230/132 kV Transformer

arrestors arrestors

Oil Cooler

Oil

Radiators

pump

W/Fans

Power transformers

Figure shown below, the output terminals of generators are

usually connected directly to a generator step-up unit (GSU) of

equal rating. The GSU steps the voltage of the generator up to the

desired transmission voltage. At the receiving ends of the

transmission system are substations, at each of which there are

one or more power transformers. They reduce the voltage to the

sub-transmission levels. The sub-transmission circuits fan out

from the substation to distribution substations located at load

centers. At the load centers, small power transformers further

reduce the voltage to distribution levels. Distribution circuits go

to industrial loads or residential districts where the voltage is

reduced to the final utilization voltage. The local transformers

performing the final voltage reduction are called distribution

transformers.

Power transformers

Some other types of transformers are used in measuring

voltage, current, and power flow in the power system.

The majorities are potential transformers and current

transformers.

Potential transformers (PT) are single-phase

transformers of special design, which step down the

voltage to be measured to a safe value.

Current transformers (CT) step down the currents and

have insulation adequate to isolate metering equipment

and personnel from the line voltage.

One terminal of the secondary of both potential and

current transformers is usually grounded for safety.

Power System Representation

phase circuit made of one line and the neutral

return.

Standard symbols are used to indicate the various

components. The simplified one-line diagram is

called the single-line diagram.

A further advantage of the one-line diagram is in the

power flow studies.

From the one-line diagram the impedance, or

reactance, diagram can be conveniently developed,

as shown below.

Symbolic Representation of Elements of

a Power System.

A One-Line Diagram of a Portion of a Power System.

transmission lines, and loads.

Equivalent Circuit and Impedance Diagram

The equivalent circuit of the components Figure 1(a) based

on the following assumption

A generator can be represented by a voltage source in

series with an inductive reactance. The internal

resistance of the generator is negligible compared to the

reactance.

The motor load is inductive.

The static load has a lagging power factor.

A transformer is represented by a series impedance on a

per phase basis.

The transmission line is of medium length and can be

represented by a T section.

Equivalent Circuit and Impedance Diagram

Equivalent Circuit and Reactance Diagram

Example

system that has two generators, one grounded through

a reactor and one through a resistor, are connected to

a bus and through a step-up transformer to a

transmission line. Another generator, grounded

through a reactor, is connected to a bus and through a

transformer to the opposite end of the transmission

line. A load is connected to each bus. Show the

One-line diagram

Equivalent Circuit and Impedance Diagram

Equivalent Circuit and Reactance Diagram

Equivalent One-line diagram

Equivalent Circuit and Impedance Diagram

Equivalent Circuit and Impedance Diagram

Per-Unit Representation

The impedance of individual generators and transformers,

as supplied by the manufacturer, are generally in terms of

percent or per-unit quantities based on their own rating.

The impedance of transmission lines are usually

expressed by their ohmic values.

In any electrical network, a minimum of four base

quantities is required to define completely a per-unit

system: voltage, current, power, and impedance (or

admittance); are often expressed as a per cent or per unit

of a elected base or reference value of each of these

quantities.

If any two of these quantities are chosen arbitrarily, the

other two become fixed.

Per-Unit Representation

For example,

selecting base values for

voltage and power fixes

the base values for

current and impedance.

Per Unit Solution Procedure

2. Solve

3. Convert back to actual as necessary

current for a single-phase system if the base voltage

is 7.2 kV and the base apparent power is 10 MVA?

Per Unit Example

Solve for the current, load voltage and load power

in the circuit shown below using per unit analysis

with an SB of 100 MVA.

Original Circuit

Example

resistive wye-connected load. The line-to-line

voltage at the load terminals is 108 kV. Assuming

the three-phase power base is 30,000 kVA and the

voltage base is 120 kV, find the following per unit

quantities for the load:

a. the per unit voltage,

b. the per unit power,

c. the per unit current, and

d. the per unit impedance.

Example

per-unit values for each element of the

system above based on a 2.0 MVA system base.

Draw the impedance diagrams of the system.

Transmission line parameters

may be thought of as consisting of three main

divisions:

manufacture, production or generation,

delivery or transmission and distribution,

consumption.

Conductor Supports

another. Supports may be towers, poles, or other

structures. The latter may be made of steel, concrete,

or wood. The choice of a type of support depends on

The voltage level

the land to be crossed

the size of conductors and equipment to be carried.

Availability and economy,

atmospheric elements determine the choice of

material.

conductor

Conductor Supports

Conductors need supports to get from one place to another.

Supports may be towers, poles, or other structures.

The latter may be made of steel, concrete, or wood.

Insulators

other as well as from the pole or tower by

nonconductors which are called insulators

Pin type

suspension insulator

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