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MEKELLE

University
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND IT

Electrical Engineering
Department
By Zemenfes Abreha & Adisu Teshale
POWER SYSTEM I

Introduction
Simple Power System

Every power system has three major


components
generation: source of power, ideally with
a specified voltage and frequency
load: consumes power; ideally with a
constant resistive value
transmission and Distribution system:
transmits power; ideally as a perfect
conductor
Complications

No ideal voltage sources exist


Loads are seldom constant
Transmission system has resistance, inductance,
capacitance and flow limitations
Simple system has no redundancy so power system
will not work if any component fails
Notation – Power & Energy

Power: Instantaneous consumption of energy


Energy: Integration of power over time; energy is what people
really want from a power system
Power Units
Watts = voltage x current for dc (W)
kW – 1 x 103 Watt
MW – 1 x 106 Watt
GW – 1 x 109 Watt
Installed Ethiopian. generation capacity is about
2.18 GW
Energy Units
Joule = 1 Watt-second (J)
kWh – Kilo-watt-hour (3.6 x 106 J)
Btu – 1055 J; 1 MBtu=0.292 MWh
Power System Generation

Hydro
Geothermal
Nuclear
Thermal
Solar
Wind
Hydro-power

Hydroelectric power generation involves the storage of a


hydraulic fluid, water, conversion of the hydraulic (potential)
energy of the fluid into mechanical (kinetic) energy in a
hydraulic turbine, and conversion of the mechanical energy to
electrical energy in an electric generator.
The term hydro-power is usually restricted to the generation of
shaft power from falling water. The power is then used for
direct mechanical purposes to drive the turbine or, more
frequently, for generating electricity.
The early generation of electricity from about 1880 often
derived from hydro-turbines, and the capacity of total worldwide
installations has grown at about 5% per year since.
Hydro-power now accounts for about 20% of world’s electric
generation. Output depends on rainfall and the landscape.
Hydropower Generation
Hydro-power
Tekeze-300MW
Gilgel Gibe II
Thermal generating plant

Thermal generating plants are designed and


constructed to convert energy from fuel (coal, oil,
gas, or radiation) into electric power.
The actual conversion is accomplished by a turbine-
driven generator.
The plant will always produce electric energy. The
things that may change are the fuel used (coal, oil,
or gas) and environmental requirements.
Solar Energy
 The major source of renewable energy is the sun which is
converted into different forms, e.g., solar radiation, wind,
wave, etc.
 The solar energy is distributed over the earth atmosphere
through a number of complex processes.

Concentrator Systems
Wind Power

The wind is a free, clean, and inexhaustible


energy source.
Denmark was the first country to use wind for
generation of electricity.
One of the most critical features of wind
generation is the variability of wind.
Wind speeds vary with time of day, time of year,
height above ground, and location on the earth’s
surface.
Wind Power
The wind is solar power in mechanical form.
Wind energy is created by the uneven heating of the earth
by the sun;
Wind’s velocity and direction depend on the imposed
pressure gradients, plus certain other forces, plus the local
geography.
.
Geothermal
Geothermal energy originates from the inner core of the
earth and it is evident on the earth's surface in the forms of
volcanoes, geysers, and hot springs.

It is known that the largest geothermal resource in Africa (i.e


>1000 MW) is available in Ethiopia.
Geothermal Resource Map
Geothermal
Geothermal Aluto
EEPCO Total Generation power
HV-Substation
Future tie line connection to other control areas
which then require highly secured system.
World Population Trends

Country 2005 2015 2025 %


Japan 127.5 124.7 117.8 -7.6
Germany 82.4 81.9 80.6 -2.1
Russia 142.8 136.0 128.1 -10.3
USA 295.7 322.6 349.7 18.2
China 1306 1393 1453 11.2
India 1094 1274 1449 32.4
World 6449 7226 7959 23.4
Source: www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/summaries.html; values in
millions; percent change from 2005 to 2025
Energy Economics

 Electric generating technologies involve a tradeoff


between fixed costs (costs to build them) and
operating costs
Nuclear and solar high fixed costs, but low operating
costs
Natural gas/oil have low fixed costs but high operating
costs (dependent upon fuel prices)
Coal, wind, hydro are in between
 Also the units capacity factor is important to
determining ultimate cost of electricity
Global Energy Costs

Nuclear: $15/MWh
Coal: $22/MWh
Wind: $50/MWh
Hydro: varies but usually water constrained
Solar: $150 to 200/MWh
Natural Gas: 8 to 10 times fuel cost in $/Mbtu
Utility Restructuring

Goal of competition is to reduce rates through the introduction of


competition
Eventual goal is to allow consumers to choose their electricity
supplier

Customer Choice
Blackout power outages
A power outage (also blackout or power failure) is a short- or long-term loss
of the electric power to an area.
A blackout refers to the total loss of power to an area and is the most severe
form of power outage that can occur.
Blackouts which result from or result in power stations tripping are
particularly difficult to recover from quickly. Outages may last from a few
minutes to a few weeks depending on the nature of the blackout and the
configuration of the electrical network
Example: August 14th, 2003 Blackout
Course Syllabus
Course introduction
Fundamental concepts of power system, introduction
to power Equipment
Representation of power system components
Transmission line parameters (Inductance of the line,
Capacitance of the line.
Mechanical design of transmission lines.
Characteristic and performance of power transmission
lines
Short txn line, Medium and long txn line
Corona
Overhead line insulators & Underground cables
Vertical Monopolies

 Within a particular geographic market, the electric


utility had an exclusive franchise.

Generation In return for this exclusive


franchise, the utility had the
Transmission obligation to serve all
existing and future customers
Distribution at rates determined jointly
by utility and regulators
Customer Service
It was a “cost plus” business
Review of Phasors

Goal of phasor analysis is to simplify the analysis of


constant frequency ac systems
Single-Phase Power Consumption
Single-Phase Power Consumption
Advantages of Phasor Analysis

Device Time Analysis Phasor


Resistor v(t )  Ri (t ) V  RI
di (t )
Inductor v(t )  L V  j LI
dt
1t 1
Capacitor 
C0
i (t ) dt  v(0) V 
j C
I

Z = Impedance  R  jX  Z 
R = Resistance
(Note: Z is a
X = Reactance complex number but
X
Z = R2  X 2  =arctan( ) not a phasor)
R
Complex Power, cont’d
Complex Power

S  V I  cos(V   I )  j sin(V   I ) 
 P  jQ
(Note: S is a complex number but not a phasor)
 V I *

P = Real Power (W, kW, MW)


Q = Reactive Power (var, kvar, Mvar)
S = Complex power (VA, kVA, MVA)
Power Factor (pf) = cos
If current leads voltage then pf is leading
If current lags voltage then pf is lagging
Complex Power, cont’d

Relationships between real, reactive and complex power


P  S cos 

Q  S sin    S 1  pf 2

Example: A load draws 100 kW with a leading pf of 0.85.


What are  (power factor angle), Q and S ?
  -cos 1 0.85  31.8
100kW
S   117.6 kVA
0.85
Q  117.6sin(31.8)  62.0 kVar
Complex Power, cont’d

For a pure resistor: the impedance angle is zero, power


factor is unity apparent power and real power are equal
For a purely inductive circuit: the current lags the
voltage by 90°, average power is zero no transformation
of energy
For a purely capacitive circuit: the current leads the
voltage by 90°, average power is zero
Real Power, P RMS based - thermally equivalent to DC
power
Reactive Power, Q Oscillating power into and out of the
load because of its reactive element (L or C). Positive
value for inductive load (lagging pf)
Conservation of Power

Real power supplied by the source is equal to the sum of


the real powers absorbed by the load and the real losses
in the system
Reactive power must also be balanced: The balance is
between the sum of leading and the sum of lagging
reactive power producing elements
The total complex power delivered to the loads in
parallel is the sum of the complex powers delivered to
each
Conservation of Power

At every node (bus) in the system


 Sum of real power into node must equal zero
 Sum of reactive power into node must equal zero
This is a direct consequence of Kirchhoff’s current
law, which states that the total current into each
node must equal zero.
 Conservation of power follows since S = VI*
Conversation of Power Example

Earlier we found
I = 20-6.9 amps

S  V I  10030  206.9  200036.9 VA


*

  36.9 pf = 0.8 lagging


SR  VR I  4  20  6.9 206.9
*

2
PR  1600W  I R (Q R  0)
SL  VL I *  3 j  20  6.9 206.9
2
Q L  1200 var  I X (PL  0)
Power Consumption in Devices
Resistors only consume real power
2
PResistor  I Resistor R
Inductors only consume reactive power
2
Q Inductor  I Inductor X L
Capacitors only generate reactive power
2 1
QCapacitor   I Capacitor X C XC 
C
2
VCapacitor
QCapacitor   (Note-some define X C negative)
XC
Example

resolve V source
and S?

400000 V
I   4000 Amps
1000 
V  400000  (5  j 40) 4000
 42000  j16000  44.920.8 kV
S  V I *  44.9k20.8 4000
 17.9820.8 MVA  16.8  j 6.4 MVA
Example, cont’d

Now add additional


reactive power load
and resolve V source
and S?
Z Load  70.7 pf  0.7 lagging
I  564  45 Amps
V  59.713.6 kV
S  33.758.6 MVA  17.6  j 28.8 MVA
Power System
What is the disadvantage of reactive power???

Power system components are usually shown as


“one-line diagrams.” Previous circuit redrawn
17.6 MW 16.0 MW
28.8 MVR -16.0 MVR

59.7 kV 40.0 kV

17.6 MW
16.0 MW
28.8 MVR
16.0 MVR

Arrows are
Generators are Transmission lines
used to
shown as circles are shown as a
single line show loads
Reactive Compensation
Key idea of reactive compensation is to supply reactive
power locally. In the previous example this can
be done by adding a 16 Mvar capacitor at the load
16.8 MW 16.0 MW
6.4 MVR 0.0 MVR

44.94 kV 40.0 kV

16.8 MW
16.0 MW
6.4 MVR
16.0 MVR
16.0 MVR

Compensated circuit is identical to first example with


just real power load
Reactive Compensation, cont’d

Reactive compensation decreased the line flow from


564 Amps to 400 Amps. This has advantages
 Lines losses, which are equal to I2 R decrease
 Lower current allows utility to use small wires, or
alternatively, supply more load over the same wires
 Voltage drop on the line is less
Reactive compensation is used extensively by
utilities
Capacitors can be used to “correct” a load’s power
factor to an arbitrary value.
Power Factor Correction Example

Assume we have 100 kVA load with pf=0.8 lagging,


and would like to correct the pf to 0.95 lagging
1
S  80  j 60 kVA   cos 0.8  36.9
PF of 0.95 requires desired  cos 1 0.95  18.2
Snew  80  j (60  Qcap )
60 - Qcap
 tan18.2  60  Qcap  26.3 kvar
80
Qcap  33.7 kvar
Distribution System Capacitors
3 Phase () Systems

In a three-phase system, three circuit conductors


carry three alternating currents (of the same
frequency) which reach their instantaneous peak
values at different times.
Taking one conductor as the reference, the other
two currents are delayed in time by one-third and
two-thirds of one cycle of the electric current.
This delay between phases has the effect of giving
constant power transfer over each cycle of the
current and also makes it possible to produce a
rotating magnetic field in an electric motor.
Balanced 3 Phase () Systems

A balanced 3 phase () system has


 three voltage sources with equal magnitude, but with an
angle shift of 120
 equal loads on each phase
 equal impedance on the lines connecting the generators to
the loads
Bulk power systems are almost exclusively 3
Single phase is used primarily only in low voltage,
low power settings, such as residential and some
commercial.
Balanced 3 -- No Neutral Current

I n  I a  Ib  I c
V
In  (10  1    1  
Z
S  Van I an
*
 Vbn I bn
*
 Vcn I cn
*
 3 Van I an
*
Advantages of 3 Power

Can transmit more power for same amount of


wire.
Torque produced by 3 machines is constant
Three phase machines use less material for
same power rating
Three phase machines start more easily than
single phase machines
Three Phase - Wye Connection

 There are two ways to connect 3 systems


– Wye (Y)
– Delta ()

Wye Connection Voltages


Van  V  
Vbn  V   
Vcn  V   
Wye Connection Line Voltages

Vcn Vab
Vca
-Vbn
Van
Vbn
(α = 0 in this case)
Vbc
Vab  Van  Vbn  V (1  1  120
 3 V   30
Line to line
Vbc  3 V   90 voltages are
Vca  3 V   150 also balanced
Wye Connection, cont’d

 Define voltage/current across/through device to be


phase voltage/current
 Define voltage/current across/through lines to be
line voltage/current
j
VLine  3 VPhase 130  3 VPhase e 6

I Line  I Phase
S3  3 VPhase I Phase
*
Delta Connection
For the Delta
phase voltages equal
line voltages

For currents
Ica Ic Ia  I ab  I ca
 3 I ab   
Ib Iab I b  I bc  I ab
Ibc
Ic  I ca  I bc
Ia
S3  *
3 VPhase I Phase
Three Phase Example

Assume a -connected load is supplied from a 3


13.8 kV (L-L) source with Z = 10020
Vab  13.80 kV
Vbc  13.8 0 kV
Vca  13.80 kV

13.80 kV
I ab   138  20 amps
 
I bc  138  140 amps I ca  1380 amps
Three Phase Example, cont’d

I a  I ab  I ca  138  20  1380


 239  50 amps
I b  239  170 amps I c  2390 amps

S  3  Vab I ab
*
 3  13.80kV  138 amps
 5.7 MVA
 5.37  j1.95 MVA
pf  cos 20   lagging
Delta-Wye Transformation

To simplify analysis of balanced 3 systems:


1) Δ-connected loads can be replaced by
1
Y-connected loads with ZY  Z 
3
2) Δ-connected sources can be replaced by
VLine
Y-connected sources with Vphase 
330
Delta-Wye Transformation Proof

From the  side we get


Vab Vca Vab  Vca
Ia   
Z Z Z
Vab  Vca
Hence Z 
Ia
Delta-Wye Transformation, cont’d

From the Y side we get


Vab  ZY ( I a  I b ) Vca  ZY ( I c  I a )
Vab  Vca  ZY (2 I a  I b  I c )
Since Ia  I b  I c  0  I a   I b  I c
Hence Vab  Vca  3 ZY I a
Vab  Vca
3 ZY   Z
Ia
1
Therefore ZY  Z
3
Three Phase Transmission Line
Load dispatch center/ LDC
Major component of the power system

Power Transformer
Why step-up and step-down voltage necessary?

To transmit hundreds of megawatts of power


efficiently over long distances
Power at low voltages is also necessary to be used
at a safe level in home appliances and most
industrial equipment.
Power transformers can be classified as:

Step-up transformers to be connected between the


generator and the transmission line. They permit a
practical design voltage for generators, and at the same
time an efficient transmission line voltage.
Step-down transformers connected between the
transmission line and various electrical loads. They
permit the transmitted power to be used at a safe
utilization voltage.
The transformer consists of two or more insulated
windings wrapped around an iron core. By definition,
the primary winding is the input winding, and the
secondary winding is the output winding
Example 230/132 kV Transformer

230 kV surge 132 kV surge


arrestors arrestors

Oil Cooler
Oil
Radiators
pump
W/Fans
Power transformers
 Figure shown below, the output terminals of generators are
usually connected directly to a generator step-up unit (GSU) of
equal rating. The GSU steps the voltage of the generator up to the
desired transmission voltage. At the receiving ends of the
transmission system are substations, at each of which there are
one or more power transformers. They reduce the voltage to the
sub-transmission levels. The sub-transmission circuits fan out
from the substation to distribution substations located at load
centers. At the load centers, small power transformers further
reduce the voltage to distribution levels. Distribution circuits go
to industrial loads or residential districts where the voltage is
reduced to the final utilization voltage. The local transformers
performing the final voltage reduction are called distribution
transformers.
Power transformers
Some other types of transformers are used in measuring
voltage, current, and power flow in the power system.
The majorities are potential transformers and current
transformers.
Potential transformers (PT) are single-phase
transformers of special design, which step down the
voltage to be measured to a safe value.
Current transformers (CT) step down the currents and
have insulation adequate to isolate metering equipment
and personnel from the line voltage.
One terminal of the secondary of both potential and
current transformers is usually grounded for safety.
Power System Representation

A balanced three-phase system is solved as a single-


phase circuit made of one line and the neutral
return.
Standard symbols are used to indicate the various
components. The simplified one-line diagram is
called the single-line diagram.
A further advantage of the one-line diagram is in the
power flow studies.
From the one-line diagram the impedance, or
reactance, diagram can be conveniently developed,
as shown below.
Symbolic Representation of Elements of
a Power System.
A One-Line Diagram of a Portion of a Power System.

The components are: generators, transformers,


transmission lines, and loads.
Equivalent Circuit and Impedance Diagram
The equivalent circuit of the components Figure 1(a) based
on the following assumption
A generator can be represented by a voltage source in
series with an inductive reactance. The internal
resistance of the generator is negligible compared to the
reactance.
The motor load is inductive.
The static load has a lagging power factor.
A transformer is represented by a series impedance on a
per phase basis.
The transmission line is of medium length and can be
represented by a T section.
Equivalent Circuit and Impedance Diagram

Fig 1(a) Impedance Diagram


Equivalent Circuit and Reactance Diagram

Fig 1(b) Corresponding Reactance Diagram


Example

 Show the one-line diagram of a very simple power


system that has two generators, one grounded through
a reactor and one through a resistor, are connected to
a bus and through a step-up transformer to a
transmission line. Another generator, grounded
through a reactor, is connected to a bus and through a
transformer to the opposite end of the transmission
line. A load is connected to each bus. Show the
 One-line diagram
 Equivalent Circuit and Impedance Diagram
 Equivalent Circuit and Reactance Diagram
Equivalent One-line diagram
Equivalent Circuit and Impedance Diagram
Equivalent Circuit and Impedance Diagram
Per-Unit Representation
The impedance of individual generators and transformers,
as supplied by the manufacturer, are generally in terms of
percent or per-unit quantities based on their own rating.
The impedance of transmission lines are usually
expressed by their ohmic values.
In any electrical network, a minimum of four base
quantities is required to define completely a per-unit
system: voltage, current, power, and impedance (or
admittance); are often expressed as a per cent or per unit
of a elected base or reference value of each of these
quantities.
If any two of these quantities are chosen arbitrarily, the
other two become fixed.
Per-Unit Representation

For example,
selecting base values for
voltage and power fixes
the base values for
current and impedance.
Per Unit Solution Procedure

1. Convert to per unit (p.u.)


2. Solve
3. Convert back to actual as necessary

Example: Calculate the base impedance and base


current for a single-phase system if the base voltage
is 7.2 kV and the base apparent power is 10 MVA?
Per Unit Example
Solve for the current, load voltage and load power
in the circuit shown below using per unit analysis
with an SB of 100 MVA.

Original Circuit
Example

 A three-phase system delivers 18,000 kW to a pure


resistive wye-connected load. The line-to-line
voltage at the load terminals is 108 kV. Assuming
the three-phase power base is 30,000 kVA and the
voltage base is 120 kV, find the following per unit
quantities for the load:
a. the per unit voltage,
b. the per unit power,
c. the per unit current, and
d. the per unit impedance.
Example

 Consider the system in Figure below. Find the new


per-unit values for each element of the
system above based on a 2.0 MVA system base.
Draw the impedance diagrams of the system.
Transmission line parameters

Like any other industry, the electric power system


may be thought of as consisting of three main
divisions:
 manufacture, production or generation,
 delivery or transmission and distribution,
 consumption.
Conductor Supports

Conductors need supports to get from one place to


another. Supports may be towers, poles, or other
structures. The latter may be made of steel, concrete,
or wood. The choice of a type of support depends on
 The voltage level
 the land to be crossed
 the size of conductors and equipment to be carried.
 Availability and economy,
 atmospheric elements determine the choice of
material.
conductor
Conductor Supports
Conductors need supports to get from one place to another.
Supports may be towers, poles, or other structures.
The latter may be made of steel, concrete, or wood.
Insulators

 Line conductors are electrically insulated from each


other as well as from the pole or tower by
nonconductors which are called insulators
 Pin type
suspension insulator
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