Anda di halaman 1dari 41

4.

ORGANISME TANAH

Biologi Tanah = Biologi (organisme) tanah


+Lingkungan tanah
Lingkungan Tanah telah dibahas minggu lalu:
 Mohon ada mahasiswa yang menjelaskan ulang
untuk temannya yang tidak bisa hadir.
 Bagaimana keragaman bahan penyusun tanah
dan interaksinya yang menghasilkan keragaman
sifat-sifat tanah?
A. Pendahuluan
 Sebelumnya telah dibahas faktor fisik dan kimia yg
menyumbang beragamnya habitat tanah dan
menjelaskan heterogenitasnya dihubungkan dengan
distribusi dan fungsi biota tanah.
 Pd bagian ini akan menggambarkan scr ringkas
komponen utama biota tanah dan
mendemonstrasikan keragaman komunitas tanah
yang luar biasa.
 Virus yg panjangnya 0,1µm terlalu kecil utk
dimasukkan dan binatang tanah yg lb besar spt
kelinci tdk dibahas.
 Secara garis besar organisme tanah dibedakan atas
flora dan fauna tanah
MAKRO FLORA:
e.g. Akar tanaman

FLORA MESO FLORA

MIKRO FLORA
BIOTA
e.g. Bakteri, Aktinomisetes
TANAH
MAKRO FAUNAe.g. Insekta
besar, cacing, bekicot
FAUNA
MESO FAUNA
e.g. Columbella
MIKRO FAUNA
e.g. Protozoa
KLASIFIKASI BIOTA TANAH

 Yuliprianto (2010) menggolongkan biota tanah ke


dalam 3 kelompok, yaitu: flora, fauna dan
mikroorganisme tanah.

 Peneliti lain menggolongkan ke dalam 5 Kingdom


(kelompok), yaitu:
1). Hewan (animalia), 2) Tumbuhan (plantae), 3).
Fungi, 4) Protista (protozoa, nematoda), dan 5)
Monera (bakteri dan aktinomisetes).
B. AKAR TANAMAN
 Sistem akar tanaman sebagai komponen labil dan
beragam luar biasa dr biomas tanah.
 Volume tanah permukaan yg ditempati oleh sistem
akar tanaman beragam menurut vegetasi yg ada dan
lingkungan tanah utk eksploitasi akar, bisa mencapai
5% atau lb, wlp nilai 1% lebih tipikal.
 Perluasan sistem akar dalam tanah mll pembelahan
dan perpanjangan sel pd atau dekat ujung akar (root
tip). Root tip tdr dr tudung pelindung yg dikelilingi
lapisan mucilage, yg sebagian besar polisakarid yg
disekresikan sel bagian luar dr tudung akar.
SOIL FAUNA
• Understand the size, shape and roles of
some key flora and fauna
FAUNA AND FLORA SIZES
 Mega (>20mm) 􀃆
 Macro (2 to 20mm)􀃆

 Meso (100µm to 2mm) 􀃆

 Micro (1-100 μm) 􀃆

 Nano (<1 μm)


FAUNA SIZE
 Megafauna: 20 mm upwards
moles, rabbits, and rodents
 Macrofauna: 2-20 mm

woodlice, spiders, earthworms, beetles,


centipedes, slugs, snails, ants, and
harvestmen
FAUNA SIZE

 Mesofauna: >100 μm-2 mm (visible)


tardigrades, mites and springtails
 Microfauna and Microflora: 1-100 μm

yeasts, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, roundworms,


and rotifers.
 Nanoflora 1 to 100 nM

Virus
SOME TERM
Fauna is a collective term for animal life of
any particular region.
􀃆 Flora is a collective term for plant life of
any particular region (has been expanded to
include bacteria, fungi)
􀃆 e.g., gut flora
􀃆 Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as
fungi are collectively referred to as biota.
HABITAT

􀃆 Length and width limits habitat, food,


and web structure..
􀃆 Soil Fauna:
􀃆 Macrofauna – earthworms (>2 mm)
􀃆 Mesofauna – mites and nematodes (1-2 mm)
􀃆 Microfauna – protozoa (<1 mm)
􀃆 Microfauna: fit into micropores (2.5 um)
􀃆 Mesofauna: fit within macropores (> 100 um)..
MESO- AND MACRO-FAUNA
􀃆 >100 UM, METER RANGE
FOR SMALL MAMMALS
􀃆 MULTICELLULAR
􀃆 CELLS ARE AMPORHIC (LACK
CELL WALLS)
􀃆 SEXUAL
􀃆 BIOCHEMISTRY – LACK CELL
WALLS
􀃆 METABOLISM –
HETEROTROPHIC AND
OBLIGATE AEROBES
􀃆 ALL USE SOME FORM OF
MOTILITY
COMMON CHARACTERISTICS
SOIL FAUNA

􀃆 Eukaryotes
􀃆 Aerobic
􀃆 Some minor exceptions (nematodes and
protozoa)
 􀃆 Heterotrophs or organotrophs

 􀃆 Motile and travel appropriate distances

 proportional to their size


ANIMALIA
 Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic
eukaryotes that are capable of mobility at
some stage during their lives.
 They do not have cell walls

 Include:

cnidarians
annelids (soil)
arthropods (soil)
molluscs (soil)
echinoderms
vertebrates (soil)
ANNELIDA
Characteristics :
 Metamerically segmented
 3 germ layers with coelom (body cavity)
 Bilaterally symmetrically
 Organ system level of organization
 Segmentally arranged chaetae
Rugworm 沙

EARTHWORM

體環

環帶
What are these animals in common ?
They all have jointed limbs
They are arthropods
ARTHROPODA

Characteristics :
 segmented body

 chitinous exoskeleton

 jointed legs
CLASSES OF ARTHROPODA

Arthropoda

Insecta Crustacea Myriapoda Arachnida


INSECTA

 Body --- 3 parts : head, thorax & abdomen


 2 pairs of wings, 3 pairs of jointed legs on thorax

 1 pair of antennae

 Respiration by tracheal system, opens to exterior by


segmental spiracles
 1 pair of compound eyes
MYRIAPODA
 Terrestrial

 With tracheal breathing system


 1 pair of antennae and with mouthparts
 Each segment of the body has 1 or 2
pairs of jointed appendages
 E.g. centipede, millipede
ARACHNIDA

 Body divided into 2 parts


 4 pairs of walking legs, Lung books,
trachea or gill books for
respiration
 Feeds on liquids

 E.g. spiders, scorpions, mites &


ticks
Octopus Snail

What are these animals ?


They are molluscs
(soft bodied animals)
Mussel
Slug
VERTEBRATA

Characteristics :
 All vertebrates have a vertebral column
surrounding the nerve cord.
 There are two girdles associated with the
backbone.
vertebrates

Class
Pisces Aves
Amphibia Reptilia Mammalia
(fish) (bird)
Major groups of Soil Fauna

The Microfauna < 0.1 mm

Nematodes or roundworms

Protozoa
31
Major groups of Soil Fauna

The Mesofauna 0.1 - 2 mm

Mites

Featherwing beetle

Springtails

Protura
Pseudoscorpions Diplura
32
Major groups of Soil Fauna
The Macrofauna > 2 mm

Earthworms

Millipedes

Ants

Termites
Isopods Ground beetles
33
Invertebrate Effects on Soil Productivity
The Earthmovers!!

Ants Earthworms

Termites
34
Earthworms

- earthworms + earthworms

35
Termites: Termitidae

Queen

Workers and Soldiers 36


Termite
mound
Fungus
farming
Termitidae

37
Leaf Cutter Ants: Atta sp. 38
Leaf-cutter Ant Trail

Photos by Bob Gara

39
Leaf cutter Ant
Defoliation of Pine

40
Excavated
fungus garden

Vertical distribution of colony 41