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# Jaakko Leskinen, ABB Medium Voltage Products, Distribution Automation, November 2018

## REF 615 Protection Applications

Part 1
Short Circuit and Earth Fault Protection
Content

## Short circuit protection

 CT selection, saturation considerations
- Accuracy limit factor
- What a REF 615 relay measures when a CT
saturates
 Directional overcurrent protection

## Earth fault protection

 System grounding
 Directional earth fault protection
 Other earth fault protection functions

Fault location

January 24, 2019 | Slide 2
Short Circuit Protection
Current transformers
 IEC terminal markings and polarity
I1
P1 S1 I2 P1 1S1
Measuring core
A and winding
A
1S2
P2 S2 2S1
Protection core
and winding
One core current transformer rel 1
2S2
C1 C2 3S1
Protection core
P2
rel 2 and winding
P1
3S2
P2
Three core current transformer
S1 S2
Two primary windings
January 24, 2019 | Slide 3
Short Circuit Protection
Current transformers, (IEC) ratings
 Current transformer (CT) Rated burden
- the sum of the burdens of all devices connected to
P=Protection the
load of the current transformer plus the load of the
conductors must not be greater than the rated burden
300/5 A 5P20 10VA

## Rated primary current Accuracy limit factor Fn

- it is the multiple of the primary rated current at
which the total error at rated CT burden does not
Rated secondary current exceed 5% for a class 5P CT, respectively 10%
- one protection winding for a class 10P CT
- one instrumentation winding

Accuracy class
- typical values for current
transformers 5P (5%) and 10P (10%)

When dimensioning the CT´s and when making the relay settings the possible
saturation has to be
taken into account
January 24, 2019 | Slide 4
Short Circuit Protection
Current transformers, saturation

 Saturation of CT
Primary current
(reduced to the
• CT will saturate, when the magnetic secondary)
flux density reaches the saturation

Current
Saturated
limit for the magnetic flux: secondary
current

## Sinusoidal current with rated

burdenaccuracy limit factor x
rated nominal current

Time
ISaturate  Fa x IN
(=total error exceeds 5% at
class 5P,
respectively 10% at 10P)

January 24, 2019 | Slide 5
Short Circuit Protection
Current transformers, saturation
 Saturation of CT
• DC component, remanence flux or large burden may
cause CT’s to saturate even with minor currents
• When the CT is saturated the magnetizing current of the
CT will grow rapidly and therefore the secondary current
will reduced
• Current transformer saturation may cause false
operations of relays or prolong the operation time

January 24, 2019 | Slide 6
Short Circuit Protection
Current transformers, accuracy limit factor
 Calculating the accuracy limit factor ALF
• The approximate value of the effective accuracy limit
factor Fa corresponding to the actual CT burden can be
calculated on the basis of the next equation:
300/5A 5P20 10VA
Where,
Fn = nominal accuracy limit factor
Sin = internal burden of the CT
Sn = nominal burden of the CT
Sa = actual burden of the CT
Sin  Sn
Fa  Fn 
Sin  Sa
S = I2 x R

January 24, 2019 | Slide 7
Short Circuit Protection
Current measuring

CT data: 300 / 5
5P20 10VA
Rin = 0.07 

## Length of wire between CT and relay: 40m

Area of wire: 4mm2

Calculate the actual over current limit factor ALF (Fa) for a
three phase connection with common return conductor.

January 24, 2019 | Slide 8
Short Circuit Protection
Current transformers, accuracy limit factor
 Calculating the accuracy current limit factor ALF
• Burden caused by the k, when the CT is only in one phase and
conductor between CT return conductor included
and relay I2n/A k ( k = x 2 x I2)
1A 0.0352 r =resistivity for copper
2A 0.1408
5A 0.88

SCu  k 
l [m ]
2
VA k, when the CT´s are in three phase and
A[mm ] common return conductor.
I2n/A k
( k = x 1.1 x I2)
1A 0.0192 r =resistivity for copper
2A 0.0768
5A 0.48

January 24, 2019 | Slide 9
Short Circuit Protection
Current transformers, accuracy limit factor
 CT data 300 / 5 5P20 10VA
Nominal current In = 5 A
Nominal accuracy limit factor Fn = 20
Nominal burden of the CT Sn = 10 VA

## Internal burden of the CT Sin = In² x Rin =

(5A)² x 0.07  = 1.75 VA

## Actuall burden of the CT Sa = (5A)² x 0.02  

0.48 x 40m / 4mm² 
0.5 VA + 4.8 VA = 5.3 VA

## Result Fa = 20 x (1.75 + 10) / (1.75 + 5.3) =

33.3
I.E The CT will saturate with at fault current = 33.3 x 300A =10 kA,
when there is no DC component and no remanence.
January 24, 2019 | Slide 10
Short Circuit Protection
Current transformers, simulation
300 / 5 5P20 10VA, Actual ALF 33.3
 What will the CT secondary current be, when primary fault current is
10 kA?
- CT simulator –tool

January 24, 2019 | Slide 11
Short Circuit Protection
Current transformers, simulation
300 / 5 5P20 10VA , Actual ALF 33.3
 What will the CT secondary current be, when primary fault current is
10 kA?
 No DC-component, no remanence.

January 24, 2019 | Slide 12
Short Circuit Protection
Current transformers, simulation
300 / 5 5P20 10VA , Actual ALF 33.3
 What will the CT secondary current be, when primary fault current is
10 kA?
 100% DC-component, time constant L/R =60ms, no remanence.

##  CT saturates, even though the ALF is not exceeded.

January 24, 2019 | Slide 13
Short Circuit Protection
Current transformers, simulation
300 / 5 5P20 10VA , Actual ALF 33.3
 What will the CT secondary current be, when primary fault current is
10 kA?
 100% DC-component, time constant L/R =60ms, remanence in the
favourable direction.

##  The first peak value is higher.

January 24, 2019 | Slide 14
Short Circuit Protection
Current transformers, simulation
300 / 5 5P20 10VA , Actual ALF 33.3
 What will the CT secondary current be, when primary fault current is
10 kA?
 100% DC-component, time constant L/R =60ms, remanence in the
unfavourable direction.

##  The first half-wave is lost completely.

January 24, 2019 | Slide 15
Short Circuit Protection
Current measurement
 What current will the REF615 relay measure during CT saturation?
 Depends on the Measurement mode.
 DFT
 ‘Discrete Fourier Transform’
 Represents the magnitude and angle of the fundamental wave
(50Hz) component
 Insensitive to DC-component
 RMS
 ‘Root mean Square’
 Represents the effective value of the current
 Important for thermal protection
 No angle measurement.
 Measured value affected by the DC-component
 Peak-To-Peak
 Measured difference between positive and negative peak values
 No angle measurement
 Insensitive to DC-component
January 24, 2019 | Slide 16
Short Circuit Protection
Current measurement
DFT
 What will the REF 615 relay measure, when primary fault current is
10 kA?
 Example:100% DC-component, time constant L/R =60ms, no
remanence.

##  @ t= 10 ms, I~3000 A, @ t= 30 ms, I~1100 A, @ t= 140 ms,

I~8500A.
January 24, 2019 | Slide 17
Short Circuit Protection
Current measurement
DFT
 Overcurrent protection set to start value I>> 7000A.
 When will the protection start?

 The 7000A start value is exceeded when approx 110 ms time has
elapsed => the protection trip will also be delayed for the same
amount.
January 24, 2019 | Slide 18
Short Circuit Protection
Current measurement
DFT
 Overcurrent protect set to start value I>> 7000A.
 ‘worst case’ scenario: full DC –offset, long DC time constant (160 ms
X/R=50), unfavourable remanence.

 The 7000A start value is exceeded when approx 250 ms time has
elapsed. => Can cause problems with selectivity , if upstream relay
does not have similar delay due to CT saturation. Prolonged operation
January 24, 2019 | Slide 19
time means also increased damage due to fault current.
Short Circuit Protection
Current measurement
RMS
 What will the REF 615 relay measure, when primary fault current is
10 kA?
 Example:100% DC-component, time constant L/R =60ms, no
remanence.

 Values are generally higher than those of DFT. Start value of 7kA
exceeded @ 82 ms (vs 110 ms with DFT).
January 24, 2019 | Slide 20
Short Circuit Protection
Current measurement
RMS
 Effect of the DC component can cause overreach.
 Example:100% DC-component, time constant L/R =60ms, favourable
remanence, a better CT (ALF =60)

 During the first cycle, a value of 13kA is measured, which is too big (correct
value 10kA)
 This can cause problems with selectivity with downstream protection when
January 24, 2019 | Slide 21
instantaneous OC protection is used.
 Also inrush currents and motor start-up currents can be seen too big.
Short Circuit Protection
Current measurement
Peak-To-Peak
 What will the REF 615 relay measure, when primary fault current is
10 kA?
 Example:100% DC-component, time constant L/R =60ms, no
remanence.

##  Superiority over DFT and RMS modes during CT saturation is clear.

January 24, 2019 | Slide 22
Short Circuit Protection
Current measurement
Peak-To-Peak
 A closer look

##  Start value of 7KA is exceeded already @ 21 ms. If an high-set stage with

minimum time delay is used, the protection would trip already then.
 If a longer operate time delay is used, the protection would drop off and then
start againg @ 46 ms (vs 82ms with RMS or 110 ms with DFT)
January 24, 2019 | Slide 23
 Not affected by th DC component like RMS.
Short Circuit Protection
Setting of the high-set current stage

##  Why the Fa factor is important ?

 The maximum current setting (high-set) for the protection relay (rule of
thumb)
Peak-to-Peak
measurement mode I K min
has to be used!  0.7  or 0.7  Fa whichever is smaller
I1n
Where Ikmin is the minimum primary
current, at which protection
must operate

## I1n is primary rated current of CT I.e. when selecting CT

Fa is the accuracy limit factor
for protection
High  set current
Fa 
0 .7
January 24, 2019 | Slide 24
Short Circuit Protection
Current measurement, what about the angle?
 Angle of current exists only for a phasor for given frequency.
 Therefore angle measurement is available only for DFT values.

##  Maximum angle error in this example ~-90 degrees.

 Apparent shift to ahead in time, i.e resistive current is seen to become
capacitive.
January 24, 2019 | Slide 25
 Important to consider with directional protection functions.
Short Circuit Protection
Directional Overcurrent Protection

IFAULT
• Directionally selecitive over current protection ILOAD
operates when both
• current exceeds the setting value
3I>
• direction of fault current agrees the setting R1

## of operation area (base angle) IFAULT

I fault

U
3I>
R2

operation I fault

January 24, 2019 | Slide 26
Short Circuit Protection
Directional Overcurrent Protection
 Example
Station A Station B

3I> 3 3I>
Infeed 250ms
100ms

3I> 3I> 1
400ms 100ms

3I> 4 3I>
250ms
5 100ms 2

January 24, 2019 | Slide 27
Short Circuit Protection
Directional Overcurrent Protection

3

## 2. 250ms Station A, both feeders 1

(Direction opposite in Station B relays) 4
5 2
3. 100 ms Station B, upper feeder, directed relay
(Lower feeder have opposite direction)
=> no fault current at lower feeder
250 ms Station A, upper feeder

## 4. 100 ms Station B, lower feeder, directed relay 250

ms Station A, lower feeder

## 5. 400 ms Station A, relay behind the transformer

January 24, 2019 | Slide 28
Short Circuit Protection
Directional Overcurrent Protection 1 2

1000 ms 1000 ms

• Selective protection to meshed
850 ms 850 ms
networks
• Solution with normal directional
relays 100 ms 100 ms

## • No auxiliary connections 850 ms 850 ms

250 ms 250 ms
• Cheapest way to protect the 700 ms 700 ms
meshed networks 250 ms 250 ms
700 ms 700 ms

400 ms 400 ms
Disadvantages: 550 ms 550 ms

## • Operation times are rather long 400 ms 550 ms 550 ms 400 ms

near the supply

January 24, 2019 | Slide 29
Short Circuit Protection
Directional Overcurrent Protection
Direction determination. Polarization methods

Cross-polarization
• In single phase faults the faulted phase current phasor is compared to
phase-to-phase voltage phasor (healthy phases)
• All phases individually: IA - UBC, IB - UCA, IC - UAB
• Relay will operate is any of phases fullfill the operation criterias
• In two phase short-circuits the phase-phase current is compared to two
phase-phase voltages
• Only the currents of phases having the fault is considered
• Example (two phase fault) IA - IB phasor is compared with UBC -
UCA phasor

January 24, 2019 | Slide 30
Short Circuit Protection
Directional Overcurrent Protection
Direction determination. Polarization methods

Self-polarization
• In single phase faults the faulted phase current phasor is compared to
faulted phase voltage phasor
• All phases individually: IA – UA, IB – UB, IC – UC
• Relay will operate is any of phases fullfill the operation criterias
• In two phase short-circuits the phase-phase current is compared to the
same phase-phase voltage
• Only the currents of phases having the fault is considered
• Example (two phase fault) IA - IB phasor is compared with UAB
phasor

January 24, 2019 | Slide 31
Short Circuit Protection
Directional Overcurrent Protection
Direction determination. Polarization methods

Negative sequence-polarization
• Negative sequence current phasor is compared to negative sequence
voltage phasor. I2 - -U2

January 24, 2019 | Slide 32
Short Circuit Protection
Directional Overcurrent Protection
Direction determination. Polarization methods
Positive sequence-polarization
• Faulted phase(s) current phasor is compared to positive sequence
voltage phasor. For example IA - U1, IB-IC – U1
• Depending on the faulted phase(s) the polarization voltage has to be
rotated.

January 24, 2019 | Slide 33
Short Circuit Protection
Directional Overcurrent Protection
Direction determination, 3-phase faults
 Voltage memory
• All voltages can drop to (near) zero in 3-phase short circuit
• The voltage phasors must be stored prior the fault
• If the VT:s are located on line side, a separate Switch-on-to-
fault protection (SOTF) is necessary
Memorized voltage
(flywheel)

Actual voltage

Short circuit

January 24, 2019 | Slide 34
Short Circuit Protection
Directional Overcurrent Protection
Configurable operating sectors

##  RCA does not have to be same as the line angle.

 But the possible angle error due to CT saturation has to be
considered.
 DFT,RMS or Peak-to-Peak measurement modes can be used
for current magnitude, but the angle measurement is always
based on DFT.

January 24, 2019 | Slide 35
Earth-Fault Protection

Topics:
 Earth-fault  Other earth fault
protection functions
 System earthing
methods
 Resistance earthed
neutral
 Measurements
 Setting of directional
earth fault protection
Earth-Fault Protection

 Earth-fault situations

##  Flashover to earthed parts or parts with

contact to ground
 Trees touching overhead lines
 Vehicles touching overhead lines
 Isolators with weak insulation
 Cable insulation faults caused by aging
or physical damage
 Overhead line fallen to ground
 etc...
Earth-Fault Protection

## a) Single phase fault b) Two phase short-circuit with earth contact

c) Double earth-fault, typically a d) Line break down and one phase earth-
cross country EF (faults in fault on the load side
different location)
Earth-Fault Protection

 Hazard voltages
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Limit the hazard for the public

 Minimize the degree of damage of electrical equipment
 Disconnect the faulty part of the network to avoid any enlargement in other parts, due to
overvoltage
 Stated by national electricity safety regulations
Earth-Fault Protection

## System earthing methods

Isolated Reactance
earthed

Compensated
Solidly earthed

Resistance
earthed
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Earthing current is depending of the earthing

resistor
 High resistance earthed (Ief < 25 A typ.)
 Low resistance earthed (Ief >25 A typ.)
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Resistance earthed neutral

UR Z
~ R equivalent circuit
U Ief Rf
Z IRe IC
S ~ S
U0
UT Z ~ Re
~ T Up 3· C0

Re Ief C0
Rf
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Resistance earthed neutral

 Calculation of earth fault current

equivalent circuit
The earth fault current Ief:
Ief Rf
IRe IC
E 1  Re 3C0 
2
U0
Ief 
 Rf Re 3C0 
~ Re
Rf  Re 2 2
Up 3· C0

## In the case that Xc0>>Re, the Ief

calculation can be simplified:

E
Ief 
Re  Rf
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Resistance earthed neutral

 Calculation of zero sequence voltage (U0)
 Zero sequence voltage indicates that there is an earth fault
in the network
 The highest zero sequence voltage level is the same as
the phase voltage (E)

Ief Uo Re
Uo  2 or when Xc0>>R: 
 1 E Re Rf
    3Co
2

 Re 
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Resistance earthed neutral

 Calculation of capacitive part of the earth fault current

## In the case where the fault resistance Rf is zero (0), the

fault current can be calculated as follows:

Ie = 3C0E
Co = earth capacitance per phase
E = phase voltage
For overhead lines the earth fault current (Rf=0) can
roughly be calculated as follows:
U l
Ie  A 
300
U = phase-phase voltage [kV]
l = length of the galvanically connected OH-lines [km]
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Resistance earthed neutral

 For sensitive earth fault protection, directional E/F protection is necessary in order to:
 Detect high fault resistance faults, i.e faults with small Io current.
 Direction determination is necessary to avoid tripping of healthy feeders due to capacitive
Io –current. Especially feeders with long underground cables produce large capacitive Io-
currents during earth faults in the system.
 Basic angle operation -U0
Base angle 0 = 0o

I0
 TRIP

BLOCK
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Resistance earthed neutral

 Icosj operation
 Only the resistive part of Io current is measured => capacitive currents neglected
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Calculate earth-fault current neglecting

earth capacitances, when Rf = 0
 Calculate earth-fault current neglecting
earth capacitances, when Rf = 500
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Resistance earthed neutral / example

Earth-Fault Protection

##  Calculate earth-fault current

neglecting earth capacitances,
when Rf = 0
 Calculate earth-fault current
neglecting earth capacitances,
when Rf = 500
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Resistance earthed neutral / example

Earth-Fault Protection

## Residual connection Cable core transformer

L1 L1
L2 L2
L3 L3
Installation of core balanced CT
Earth-Fault Protection

 Measurements
 Cable core transformer Efficency factor n for a 100/1 transformer as a function
of the networks earth fault current (solid line).
Within the mentioned current range is the phase angle error
The efficiency factor n should less than 5 degrees.
100 %

be considered when 99 %

## calculating the relay setting: 98 %

97 % 100/1
n Isn
Iorelay  * * I0 96 %
100 Ipn

n(%)
95 %

30/1

## Isn = Rated secondary current of the 92 %

CT
91 %
Ipn = Rated primary current of the
90 %
CT 0,01 0,1 1 10
Io/Ipn
I0 = Primary earth fault current (A) continued...
Earth-Fault Protection

 Measurements
 Residual connection of current transformers

## The apparent residual current should be considered when

calculating the relay setting:

Iorelay 
I0  I0 apIsn
Ipn
Iorelay = relay setting (A)
Isn = Rated secondary current of the CT
Ipn = Rated primary current of the CT
I0 = Primary earth fault current I0ap
= Max apparent residual current (primary value)
Earth-Fault Protection

 Measurements
 Residual voltage

## Open Delta connection of

voltage transformers

## (in some countries this is

know as broken delta)
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Directional earth fault protection DEFxPDEF -settings

Allow Non Dir
- Trip if direction is unknown Yes/No
Measurement mode
-DFT,RMS or Peak-to-Peak
Pol reversal
- Direction reversed (CT/VT
wiring)
Curve parameters A…E
- Used for user defined inverse
time curves.
Io signal Sel /Pol signal Sel
- Measured or calculated values
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Directional earth fault protection DEFxPDEF -settings

Start value
- Current start value
Start value Mult
-Start value can be changed by
configured signal, for example
higher setting when transformer
inrush is detected.
Directional mode
- Forward, reverse or non-
directional.
Time multiplier
- Used with IDMT curves
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Directional earth fault protection DEFxPDEF -settings

Operating curve type
- All commonly used IDMT and DT
curves available
- Programmable = User defined
characteristics. Defined with
Curve parameters A…E
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Directional earth fault protection DEFxPDEF -settings

Operating delay time
- Operate dely time with Definite
Time characteristic
Operation mode
- Phase angle
- Io Sin
- Io cos
- Phase angle 80
- Phase angle 88
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Directional earth fault protection DEFxPDEF -settings

Operation mode
- Phase angle
- Io Sin
- Io cos
- Phase angle 80
- Phase angle 88
Earth-Fault Protection

##  Directional earth fault protection DEFxPDEF -settings

Characteristic angle (RCA)
- With Phase angle, Phase angle
80 and Phase angle 88 –
operation modes
Max/ Min forward / reverse angle
- Defines the forward and reverse
oparating sectors in Phase angle
–operation mode
Voltage start value
-start value for Uo for fault detection
Enable voltage limit
- Defines if the volatage star value
has to be exceeded for operating.
Canbe used to make a non-
directional Io-protection with voltage
criteria.
Earth-Fault Protection: Other protection functions

##  Non-directional = Io amplitude tells fault location (especially directly/low

impedance earthed networks)
 Directional = Io amplitude alone does not tell fault direction (especially
isolated & compensated networks)
 Harmonics based, Admittance based, Transient/Intermittent, Multifrequency
admittance-based and Wattmetric are all intended for protection in isolated
and ,especially, compensated networks.
Earth-Fault Protection: Other protection functions

## Methods (Relion, Q3/2015):

Current based DEFxPDEF: Iocos, Iosin, phase angle criterion
(Io) ”Traditional” method, directional E/F protection

## Power based WPWDE: Wattmetric/Varmetric

(So) ”Traditional” method, directional E/F protection
Po = 3*Uo*Io*cos(phi), Qo = 3*Uo*Io*sin(phi),
(Yo) New method available in Relion products
Io, Uo
New method available in Relion products

## Harmonic based HAE/FPTOC:

New method available in Relion products

## INTRPTEF: Intermittent/Transient E/F protection

Transient based Improved method available in Relion products
Earth-Fault Protection: System earthing

No preferred method
Compensated neutral (tripping)

## Compensated neutral (alarming)

Compensated neutral (alarming,
or tripping)
Compensated neutral
(alarming), or Unearthed
(isolated)
Compensatedneutral
neutral (tripping),
or Unearthed (isolated) neutral
Compensated neutral
(alarming), or Low-ohmic neutral
Compensated neutral (tripping),
or Low-ohmic neutral
Low-ohmic neutral

## Unearthed (isolated) neutral , or

Low-ohmic neutral

Reference:
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Introduction
 The ”Father” of compensated networks: Waldemar Petersen (1880-1946),
a former AEG chief engineer, who was granted a patent at 1917

##  Compensated network == Resonant(ly) Earthed system == Arc suppression

coil (ASC) earthed system == High impedance earthed system

Waldemar
Petersen

Erdschlusslöschspule von
Petersen im Deutschen
Museum
Source:https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waldemar_Petersen
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Introduction
Compensated systems
Benefits vs. Drawbacks
IMPROVED SAFETY AND SERVICE QUALITY CHALLENGING E/F PROTECTION
• The inductive current of the coil reduces the • Special functionality required due to
capacitive fault current multitude nature of earth faults
• Self-extinguishing of arcing faults • High sensitivity requirements
• Earth-fault current is reduced 95…97% • Accurate measurement required
• Network operation possible during a sustained
earth fault
• Improved power quality and reliability for the
customer

January 24, 2019 | Slide 68
Earth fault in
compensated network
• Fundamentals
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
L1 L2 L3

## The neutral is earthed

through a high-impedance
L1
L2
reactor – so called
L3 Petersen Coil. The idea is
Ro to tune the coil to match
110/20kV
Co
the capacitances of the
network so that the earth-
fault current at fault point
is greatly limited

L1
L2
L3 System is connected to
Yo earth through the phase-
500V (~capacitances)

Lcoil Rpar
Yo = Go + j*Bo
= 1/Ro j*(w*C0)
Petersen Parallel L1
Coil resistor
L2
L3

Yo
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
L1
L1 L2 L3
Capacitive current, ICo
L3 L2
Inductive current, ILo

## Resistive current, IRo L1 During the healthy state

L2 residual current and voltage
L3
are (typically) very small.
110/20kV åIL = Io ~very small value Yo The exact value depends on
the natural asymmetry of the
network.

## TUNED! OCT 2015/10/21 08:00:00

L1 RESONANCE CUR: 100A TUNING DEG.: 10%
L2 COIL CURRENT: 110A TOTAL LOSS.: 7.0A
L3 RESIDUAL VOLT: 3.8 % (438V)
U0[%]
åIL = Io ~very small value Yo
5.0
4.0
500V
3.0
Lcoil Rpar
+Uo
2.0
1.0
Petersen Parallel L1 0.0
Coil resistor 30A Ipos 300A
L2
L3 Icoil 110A Icoil
Min. Max.
åIL = Io ~very small value Yo
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals

## Analysis of an single-phase Earth Fault (EF)

in an unearthed system
(compensation coil is switched off)
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
L1 L2 L3
Capacitive current, ICo
Inductive current, ILo

## Resistive current, IRo L1 When an earth fault occurs,

L2 the capacitance of the faulty
L3
phase is bypassed – the fault
110/20kV åIL = Io Yo current Ie is composed of the
currents flowing through the
earth capacitances of the
healthy phases
open L1 When Petersen coil is
L2 disconnected, the system
L3
neutral point is unearthed and
åIL = Io Yo the fault current is ~purely
capacitive. The resistive
500V
component is due to natural
Lcoil Rpar losses of the system.
+Uo
Petersen Parallel L1 Unearthed neutral
Coil resistor
L2
L3
UNEARTHED åIL = Io Yo
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
L1 L2 L3
Capacitive current, ICo The fault current Ie at fault
Inductive current, ILo
point depends the size of the
total capacitance of the
Resistive current, IRo L1
L2 network, natural losses and
L3 fault resistance (not fault
110/20kV åIL = Io Yo location!)

## Fault resistance further

lowers the amplitude of the
already small fault current:
open L1
high impedance faults are
L2
difficult to detect!
L3

åIL = Io Yo

500V

Lcoil Rpar
+Uo
Petersen Parallel L1
Coil resistor
L2
L3
UNEARTHED åIL = Io Yo

Unearthed neutral
Time domain
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection behaviour of
voltages and
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals currents

## L1 L2 L3 UL12 UL23 UL31

Capacitive current, ICo 30

kV
0
Inductive current, ILo
L1 -30
Resistive current, IRo
UL1 UL2 UL3
L2 40
L3

kV
0
110/20kV åIL = Io Yo
-40
-U0
20

kV
0

-20
FAULT CURRENT@FLT LOCAT.
open L1 0

A
L2
L3
Io AT FAULTY FEEDER
åIL = Io Yo
0

A
500V
Io AT HEALTHY FEEDER

Lcoil Rpar
+Uo 0

A
Petersen Parallel L1 UL1@400V UL2@400V UL3@400V
Coil resistor 400
L2
L3 0

V
UNEARTHED åIL = Io Yo -400
0 20 40 60
Time [ms]
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
What residual current is measured
L1 L2 L3
by the protection?
Capacitive current, ICo
Inductive current, ILo • The residual current measured
Resistive current, IRo L1 from the beginning of the healthy
L2 feeder equals ~the capacitive
L3 current fed by the feeder itself!
110/20kV åIL = Io Yo Direction: from line towards
busbar

## • The residual current measured

from the beginning of the faulty
feeder is less than the current in
open L1
the fault point – it does not include
the current fed by the feeder itself!
L2
L3 Direction: from busbar towards
line
åIL = Io Yo
-> measured current is the
500V capacitive current fed by the
background network
Lcoil Rpar
+Uo -> capacitive residual currents
Parallel
in the healthy and faulty
Petersen L1
Coil resistor feeders flows in opposite
L2
L3 directions!
UNEARTHED åIL = Io Yo
-> indication of fault direction in
unearthed system is based on
the reactive component
(e.g. Iosin)!
Unearthed neutral
What residual
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection current is
measured by the
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals protection?

L1 L2 L3 -Uo Re(Io)
Capacitive current, ICo
Inductive current, ILo

## Resistive current, IRo L1

L2
L3 Io Im(Io)
110/20kV åIL = Io Yo
capacitive current:
from line towars busbar

-Uo Re(Io)

open L1
L2
L3 Io Im(Io)

åIL = Io Yo
capacitive current:
from line towars busbar
500V
-Uo Re(Io)
Lcoil Rpar
+Uo
Petersen Parallel L1 Io
Coil resistor
L2
L3 Im(Io)
UNEARTHED åIL = Io Yo
capacitive current:
from busbar towards line
What residual
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection current is
measured by the
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals protection?

L1 L2 L3 -Uo Re(Io)
Capacitive current, ICo
Inductive current, ILo

OPERATE
SECTOR
Resistive current, IRo L1
L2
L3 Io Im(Io)
110/20kV åIL = Io Yo
capacitive current:
from line towars busbar

-Uo Re(Io)

open

OPERATE
SECTOR
L1
L2
L3 Io Im(Io)

åIL = Io Yo
capacitive current:
from line towars busbar
500V
-Uo Re(Io)
Lcoil Rpar
+Uo
Parallel Io

OPERATE
SECTOR
Petersen L1
Coil resistor
L2
L3 Im(Io)
UNEARTHED åIL = Io Yo
capacitive current:
from busbar towards line
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals

## Analysis of an single-phase Earth Fault (EF)

in a compensated system
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
L1 L2 L3
Capacitive current, ICo
Inductive current, ILo

## Resistive current, IRo L1 When an earth fault occurs,

L2 the capacitance of the faulty
L3
phase is bypassed – the fault
110/20kV åIL = Io Yo
current Ie is composed of the
currents flowing through the
earth capacitances of the
healthy phases and through
the Petersen coil
L1
L2 Fault current is either
L3
capacitive or inductive
åIL = Io Yo depending on the coil current
(compensation degree). The
500V
resistive component is due to
Lcoil Rpar natural losses of the system
+Uo and the coil and the current of
Petersen
Parallel L1 the parallel resistor
resistor
Coil L2
L3
(OVER Compensated system
COMP.) åIL = Io Yo
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
L1 L2 L3
The fault current Ie at fault
Capacitive current, ICo point depends the size of the
Inductive current, ILo
total capacitance of the
network, natural losses, the
Resistive current, IRo L1
L2 tuning degree of the coil,
L3 parallel resistor and fault
110/20kV åIL = Io Yo resistance (not fault location!)

## Fault resistance further

lowers the amplitude of the
already small fault current:
high impedance faults are
L1
L2
difficult to detect!
L3 Residual voltage Uo Residual current Io

åIL = Io Yo Parallel
Resistor

## Residual current Io [A, primary]

Residual voltage Uo [% x Uphase]
5A
500V

Lcoil Rpar
+Uo
Parallel L1
Petersen resistor
Coil L2
L3
(OVER
COMP.) åIL = Io Yo
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Fault resistance [kOhm] Fault resistance [kOhm]
Compensated system
Time domain
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection behaviour of
voltages and
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals currents

## L1 L2 L3 UL12 UL23 UL31

Capacitive current, ICo 30

kV
0
Inductive current, ILo
L1 -30
Resistive current, IRo
UL1 UL2 UL3
L2 40
L3

kV
0
110/20kV åIL = Io Yo -40
-U0
20

kV
0
-20
FAULT CURRENT@FLT LOCAT.

L1 0

A
L2
L3 Io AT FAULTY FEEDER

åIL = Io Yo 0

A
500V
Io AT HEALTHY FEEDER

Lcoil Rpar 0

A
+Uo
Parallel L1 400
UL1@400V UL2@400V UL3@400V
Petersen resistor
Coil L2
0

V
L3
(OVER
COMP.) -400
åIL = Io Yo
0 20 40 60
Time [ms]
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
What residual current is
L1 L2 L3
Capacitive current, ICo
measured by the protection?
Inductive current, ILo
• The residual current measured
Resistive current, IRo L1
from the beginning of the
L2
L3 healthy feeder equals the
110/20kV capacitive current fed by the
åIL = Io Yo
feeder itself!

## • The residual current measured

from the beginning of the faulty
feeder may be either
L1
capacitive or inductive
L2 depending on the coil
L3 current (tuning degree)!
åIL = Io Yo -> indication of fault
direction must NOT be based
500V on the reactive component
(e.g. Iosin)!, but on resistive
Lcoil Rpar
+Uo component (Iocos) or other
methods!
Parallel L1
Petersen resistor
Coil L2
L3 Compensated system
(OVER
COMP.) åIL = Io Yo
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
L1 L2 L3 -Uo Re(Io)
Capacitive current, ICo
Inductive current, ILo

## Resistive current, IRo L1

L2
L3 Io Im(Io)
110/20kV åIL = Io Yo
capacitive current:
from line towars busbar

-Uo Re(Io)

L1
L2
L3 Io Im(Io)

åIL = Io Yo
capacitive current:
from line towars busbar
500V
-Uo Re(Io)
Lcoil Rpar
+Uo
Io
Parallel L1
Petersen resistor
Coil L2
L3 Im(Io)
(OVER
COMP.) åIL = Io Yo Inductive current:
from busbar towars line
(depends on the compensation degree)
Resistive current: from busbar towards line
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
L1 L2 L3 -Uo Re(Io)
Capacitive current, ICo
Inductive current, ILo OPERATE
SECTOR
Resistive current, IRo L1
L2
L3 Io Im(Io)
110/20kV åIL = Io Yo
capacitive current:
from line towars busbar

-Uo Re(Io)

OPERATE
SECTOR
L1
L2
L3 Io Im(Io)

åIL = Io Yo
capacitive current:
from line towars busbar
500V
-Uo Re(Io)
Lcoil Rpar
+Uo
OPERATE Io
Parallel SECTOR
Petersen L1
resistor
Coil L2
L3 Im(Io)
(OVER
COMP.) åIL = Io Yo Inductive current:
from busbar towars line
(depends on the compensation degree)
Resistive current: from busbar towards line
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
L1 L2 L3 -Uo Re(Io)
Capacitive current, ICo
Inductive current, ILo OPERATE
SECTOR
Resistive current, IRo L1
L2
L3 Io Im(Io)
110/20kV åIL = Io Yo
capacitive current:
from line towars busbar

-Uo Re(Io)

OPERATE
SECTOR
L1
L2
L3 Io Im(Io)

åIL = Io Yo
capacitive current:
from line towars busbar
500V
-Uo Re(Io)
Lcoil Rpar
+Uo
OPERATE
Parallel SECTOR Io
Petersen L1
resistor
Coil L2
L3 Im(Io)
(OVER
COMP.) åIL = Io Yo Inductive current:
from busbar towars line
(depends on the compensation degree)
Resistive current: from busbar towards line
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals

## Analysis of an single-phase Earth-Fault (EF)

in an compensated system

## Effect of measurement accuracy

(phase displacement)
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
• In compensated systems, the indication of fault direction is based on the resistive
component of operate quantity (current, power, admittance)

• This quantity is typically very low (few Ampeers, RF = 0 ohm) and thus affected by the
measurement accuracy:
 Adequate measurement accuracy of Uo and especially Io is
required! Especially when high sensitivity of protection is required!

## • Typically the value of resistive component is increased with a parallel resistor

connected in the Power Auxialiry Winding (PAW, 500V) of the Petersen coil

• Below are given the limits of error for Protective current transformers according to
standard IEC 61869-2.

## • It should be noted that:

 For protection class 5P phase displacement is only specified at rated current!
 For protection class 10P NO phase displacement accuracy is given!
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
• IEC-standard gives limits of current error and phase displacement at off-nominal
values only for Measuring class transformers!

• For protective current transformers such values may be asked from manufacturer or
measured
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
• For directional earth-fault protection application in compensated networks, especially the phase
displacement accuracy of Io measurement is important!
• The phase displacement error of CT is the difference in phase between the primary and secondary
current vectors.
• In practice, the phase displacement is positive, i.e. the secondary current leads the primary current
vector!

Phase
displacement
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
• The practical effect of phase displacement error is the risk of unselective operation of directional earth-
fault protection, especially in the healthy feeders!
• Especially at low magnitudes of Io, the phase displacement error introduces apparent resistive
component, which may turn the operate quantity into operate sector during an outside fault

 Measurement errors affect the performance of protection and affect the selection of settings!
Compensated networks and earth-fault protection
Earth fault in compensated network, fundamentals
• The practical effect of phase displacement error is the risk of unselective operation of directional earth-
fault protection, especially in the healthy feeders!
• Especially at low magnitudes of Io, the phase displacement error introduces apparent resistive
component, which may turn the operate quantity into operate sector during an outside fault
 Measurement errors affect the performance of protection and affect the selection of settings!

Especially at low
magnitudes of Io, the phase
displacement error
introduces apparent
resistive component, which
may turn the operate
quantity into operate sector
during an outside fault
Accuracy requirements (Io, Uo) for different protection functions

HIGHEST
methods,

methods,
INTRPTEF

## Io based methods, Admittance based

Phase angle, methods,

Iocosphi,
DEFLPDEF

Harmonic based
methods,
LOW

HAEFPTOC
LOW HIGH HIGHEST

## Increased sensitivity in terms of

fault resistance [kOhms]
-Uo Re(Io) Illustration of how ph. Re(Yo) Fundamental
displacement error frequency
resistive component
seen by protection
OPERATE OPERATE
SECTOR SECTOR
Iocos-method

Im(Io) Im(Yo)

Ph.angle-
method

## Fault resistance increases: … , which decrases

current and increases ph. displacement error!

## CURRENT PLANE ADMITTANCE PLANE

-Uo Re(Io) Illustration of how ph. Re(Yo) Multifrequency
introduces apparent
resistive component
seen by protection
OPERATE OPERATE
SECTOR SECTOR
Iocos-method

Im(Io) Im(Yo)

Ph.angle-
method

## Fault resistance increases: … , which decrases

current and increases ph. displacement error!

## CURRENT PLANE ADMITTANCE PLANE

Example of how ph. displacement error introduces apparent resistive component seen by
protection: Re(Io)** = Io*Tan(PhDisplacement) , Re(Yo)** = IeFd*Tan(PhDisplacement)

## Ratio:1 Re(Io)** [A] Re(Yo)** [A]

0.6 12.8
1.0 9.5 Very high
1.2 7.7
1.1 5.4 errors
1.2 4.8 introduce
Example of 1.1 3.8
large
1.2 3.3
”Bad” CT 1.2 3.0 apparent
10P10, 1.2 2.8
resistive
1.3 2.5
100:1A 1.4 2.3 component!
1.4 1.9
1.4 1.6
1.5 1.5

## Ratio:1 Re(Io)** [A] Re(Yo)** [A]

0.0 0.4
0.1 0.3
Better accuracy
0.1 0.3 lowers the
0.1 0.3 apparent resistive
0.1 0.3
0.1 0.3
component
Example of 0.1 0.2 considerably and
”Good” CT 0.1 0.2
enables good
10P10, 0.1 0.2
sensitivity and high
0.1 0.2
150:1A 0.1 0.2 dependability of
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
protection!