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Group 1:

Aprilliana Wahyuni(1610421003)
Arya Yoga Mahestu(1610422060)
Miftahul Rahmah(1610422018)
Rakha Mafiskha(1610422006)
Sagita Rahayu(161022003 )
Cells are microscopic building blocks of
unicellular and multicellular living organisms. Animal,
plant, fungal and bacterial cells are different in terms
of structure but also have many similarities. Bacteria
and the fungus yeast, are described as being
unicellular. Organisms made of many cells such as
animals, most plants and many species of fungi, are
described as being multicellular.
 Robert Hooke (mid-1600s)
 Observed sliver of cork
 Saw “row of empty boxes”
 Coined the term cell
 (1839)Theodor Schwann & Matthias Schleiden
“ all living things are made of cells”

 (50 yrs. later) Rudolf Virchow

“all cells come from cells”
prokaryotic cells. prokaryotic cells that do not
yet have a nucleus or has no nuclear membrane of cells
with other cell parts

eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have a

nucleus is real, or dna wrapped by the
nuclear membrane
 Derived from symbiotic bacteria

 Ancient association

 Endosymbiotic theory
 Evolution of modern cells from cells & symbiotic
 Contains cell contents
 Double layer of phospholipids & proteins
 Polar
 Hydrophylic head
 Hydrophobic tail

 Interacts with water

 A few molecules move freely
 Water, Carbon dioxide, Ammonia, Oxygen

 Carrier proteins transport some

 Proteins embedded in lipid bilayer
 Fluid mosaic model – describes fluid
nature of a lipid bilayer with proteins
The cell wall is a rigid layer that surrounds the plant cells. It is made up of
cellulose. Cell wall is a characteristic feature to cells of plants. Plant cell walls
are primarily made up of cellulose. Plant cell wall consists of three layers: the
primary cell wall, secondary cell wall and the middle lamella. It is located
outside the cell membrane whose main function is to provide rigidity, strength,
protection against mechanical stress and infection. Cell wall is made up of
cellulose, pectins,glycoproteins, hemicellulose and lignin.
 Viscous fluid containing organelles
 components of cytoplasm
 Interconnected filaments & fibers
 Fluid = cytosol
 Organelles (not nucleus)
 storage substances
 Network of protein fibers supporting cell shape and anchoring
 Actin filaments
 cell movement
 Microtubules
 Hollow tubes Intermediate
 Facilitate cell movement filaments
 Centrioles – barrel shaped
 organelles occur in pairs –
 help assemble animal cell’s microtubules
 Intermediate filaments
 Stable - don’t break down Actin
 Provide motility
 Cilia
 Short
 Used to move substances outside
human cells
 Flagella
 Whip-like extensions
 Found on sperm cells
 Basal bodies like centrioles
 Pairs of microtubular structures
 Play a role in cell division
 Repository for genetic material
 Directs activities of the cell
 Usually single, some cells several, RBC none
 Nucleolus - region of intensive ribosomal RNA synthesis
 Surface of nucleus bound by two phospholipid bilayer
 nuclear membrane
 Nuclear pores – protein gatekeepers
 Usually proteins going in and RNA going out
 Most cells have 2 or more
 Directs synthesis of RNA
 Forms ribosomes
 Double membrane
 Mitochondrial (maternal) DNA
 “Power House” of the cell
 Food converted into energy
 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
 Consumes Oxygen, produces CO2
 DNA of eukaryotes is divided into linear
 exist as strands of chromatin, except during cell
 associated with packaging histones, packaging
 nucleosomes
 Largest internal membrane
 Composed of Lipid bilayer
 Serves as system of channels from the nucleus
 Functions in storage and secretion
 Rough ER is “rough” because of associated ribosomes
(sites of protein synthesis
 Smooth ER - lack associated ribosomes – contained
embedded enzymes, catalyze synthesis of
carbohydrate and lipid molecules
 collection of Golgi bodies
 collect, package, and distribute molecules
synthesized at one location in the cell and
utilized at another location
 Front - cis , Back – trans
 Cisternae – stacked membrane
 folds
 Ribosomes are RNA-protein complexes composed of
two subunits that join and attach to messenger RNA.
 site of protein synthesis
 assembled in nucleoli
 Contain digestive enzymes
 Functions
 Aid in cell renewal
 Break down old cell parts
 Digests invaders
 Membrane bound storage sacs
 More common in plants than animals
 Contents
 Water
 Food
 wastes
• Chloroplasts are larger and more complex than
• Grana – closed compartments of stacked membranes

• Thylakoids – disc shaped structure – light capturing

• Stroma – fluid matrix
 Central vacuole
 often found in the center of a plant, and serves as a storage
facility for water and other materials
 Cell wall
 primary walls – laid down while cell is growing
 middle lamella – glues cells together
 secondary walls – inside the primary cell walls after
 Animal cells lack cell walls.
 form extracellular matrix
 provides support, strength, and resilience