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ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING

OUTCOMES
Purposes of Instructional Goals &
Objectives
1. It provides direction for the instructional
process by clarifying the intended learning
outcomes.
2. It conveys instructional intent to other
stakeholders.
3. It provides basis for assessing the performance
of the students by describing the performance
to be measured.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GOALS &
OBJECTIVES
GOALS OBJECTIVES
Broad Narrow
General Intention Precise
Intangible Tangible
Abstract Concrete
Cannot be validated as is Can be validated
Long term aims what you want to Short term aims what you want to
accomplish achieve
Hard to quantify or put in a timeline Must be given a timeline to
accomplish to be more affective
GOALS, GEN. ED. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES &
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

GOALS GEN. ED. PROGRAM INSTRUCTIONAL


OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES
A broad statement of More narrowly defined Specific statement of the
very general statements of learners behavior or
educational outcomes educational statements outcomes that are
that do not include that apply to specific expected to be
specific level of educational programs; exhibited by the students
performance. formulated on annual after completing a unit
It tend to change basis and developed by of instruction.
infrequently and in program coordinators,
response to the societal principals and other
pressure. school administrators.
TYPICAL PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED
WHEN WRITING OBJECTIVES
PROBLEMS ERROR TYPES SOLUTIONS
Too broad or complex The objective is too broad in Simplify or break apart
scope or is actually more
than one objective
False or missing behavior, The objective does not list Be more specific;
condition or degree the correct behavior,
condition, and/or degree or
it is missing
False given Describes instruction, not Simplify.
conditions
False performance No true overt, observable Describe what behavior you
performance listed must observe
An objective must be SMART!

S – Specific
M – Measurable
A – Attainable
R – Realistic/Relevant
T – Time-bound
COMPONENTS OF OBJECTIVES

1.Audience
2.Observable Behavior
3.Special Conditions
4.Stating Criterion Level
TYPES OF EDUACTIONAL OBJECTIVES
(Kubiszyn & Borich)
1. Specific or Behavioral Objectives
- precise statement of behavior to be exhibited by the students;
the criterion by which mastery of the objectives will be judged; the
statement of the conditions under which behavior must be
demonstrated.

2. General or Expressive Objectives


- behaviors are not usually specified and the criterion of the
performance level is not stated; it only describes the experience or
educational activity to be done.
LEARNING OUTCOME

Activity that implies a certain product or end


result of instructional objectives.
The expected behaviors/skills the students
should be able to perform at the end of the
course/unit
Tend to not state specifically how the student will
perform the skill, just that they are expected to
perform it
TYPES OF LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. Measurable & Observable Behavior
2. Non-measurable & Non-Observable Behavior

OBSERVABLE LEARNING NON-OBSERVABLE LEARNING


OUTCOMES OUTCOMES
Draw Understand
Build Appreciate
List Value
Recite Know
Add Be familiar
EXAMPLES

OBSERVABLE LEARNING OUTCOMES


1. Recite names of the characters in the story A DAY in the country
2. Add two-digit numbers with 100% accuracy
3. Circle the initial sounds of words

NON-OBSERVABLE LEARNING OUTCOMES


1. Understand the process of evaporation.
2. Enjoy speaking Spanish.
3. Appreciate the beauty of an art.
Types of learning outcomes to consider
1.Knowledge
2.Understanding
3.Application
4.Thinking Skill
5.General Skill
6.Attitudes
7.Interest
8.Appreciation
9.Adjustment
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
A useful guide for developing a comprehensive
list of instructional objectives
Primarily useful in identifying the types of
learning outcomes that should be considered
when developing a comprehensive list of
objectives for classroom instruction
Three Domains

Cognitive Affective Psychomotor


Cognitive Domain
 outcomes of mental activity
Affective Domain
 learning objectives that emphasize a feeling,
tone, an emotion, or a degree of acceptance
or rejection
Psychomotor Domain
 the progressive levels of behaviors from
observation to mastery of physical skills
Importance of Instructional
objectives
 Specifies what the students should learn
to do
 Serve as sign post to the students
 Provides direction to the teacher in the
learning process to attain the stated
objectives
 Provides guidance to the question paper
setter for evaluating students
Criteria for selecting Appropriate
Objectives
 Should include all important outcomes of the
course or subject matter
 Should be harmony with the content standards
of the state and with the general goals of the
school
 Should be in harmony with the sound
principles of the learning
 Should be realistic in terms of the abilities of
the students, time and the available facilities
Two steps to define the
objectives
State the general objectives of instruction as
intended learning outcomes
List under of each objectives a sample of the
specific types of performance that the
students should be able to demonstrate
when they have achieved the objective
 Example:

1. Understands the scientific principles


A. Describes the principle in their own words
B. Identifies example of the principle
C. State reasonable hypotheses based on the
principle
D. Uses the principle in solving problem
E. Distinguishes between two given principles
F. Explain the relationships between the given
principles
Test items to instructional objectives
 the test item should match the instructional
objectives

Objective: Circle the adjectives and verbs from the


given list of words.
Test items: Give five example of adjectives and five
examples of verbs
Objectives: Discriminate fact from opinion from the
second State of the Nation Address (SONA)
Test items: Give five examples of opinions and five
examples of facts from the State of the Nation Address
Objective: Recall the names and capitals of all the
different provinces of Regions I and II in the Philippines.
Test items: List the names and capitals of two
provinces in Region I and three provinces in Region II.
Objectives: List the main events in chronological order
after reading the short story A VENDETTA by Guy de
Maupassant
Test items: From the short story A VENDETTA by Guy
de Maupassant, list the main events in chronological
order.
Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy

Evaluation Creating

Synthesis Evaluating

Analysis Analyzing

Application Applying

Comprehension Understanding

Knowledge Remembering
Bloom taxonomy revised
in order to fit the more
outcome focused modern education
objectives.

 is a set of three hierarchical


models used to classify educational
learning objectives into levels of
complexity and specificity
Old Taxonomy Revised Taxonomy
Knowledge: remembering Remembering: Retrieving,
or retrieving previously recalling, or recognizing
learned material. knowledge from memory.

Comprehension: the Understanding: Constructing


ability to grasp or construct meaning from different types of
material. function be they written or
graphic message activities.
Application: the ability to Applying: Carrying out or
learned material, or to using a procedure through
implement material in new and executing or implementing.
concrete situations.
Analysis: The ability or break Analyzing: Breaking material
down or distinguish the parts of or concepts into parts relate or
the material into their interrelate to one another or to
components overall.

Synthesis: The ability to put Evaluating: Making


parts together to form a judgements based on criteria
coherent or unique new whole. and standards through
checking and critiquing

Evaluation: The ability to Creating: Putting elements


judge, check, and even critique together to form coherent or
the value of material for a given functional whole
purpose.
Revised Cognitive Domain
arranged according to the lowest level to the
highest level
Level of Cognitive Domain
1. Knowledge
2. Comprehension
3. Analysis
4. Application
5. Synthesis
6. Evaluation
Knowledge
 recognizes students ability to use rote
memorization and recall certain facts
Comprehension
 involves students ability to read course
content, interpret important information
and put other ideas into words
Application
 Students take new concepts and apply
them to new situation
Analysis
Students have the ability to take new information
and break it down into parts and differentiate
between them
Synthesis
Students are able to take various pieces of
information and form a whole creating a pattern
where one did not previously exist
Evaluation
Involves students ability to look at someone else’s
ideas or principles and the worth of the work and
the value of the conclusion
Revised Affective Domain
Describes learning objectives that emphasize a
feeling tone, an emotion, or a degree of
acceptance or rejection
Levels of Affective Domain
1. Receiving
2. Responding
3. Valuing
4. Organization
5. Characterization by Value or Value set
Receiving
Refers to being aware of or sensitive to the
existence of certain ideas, materials, or
phenomena and being able to tolerate them
The learners are willing to listen
Responding
Refers to the commitment in some
measure to the ideas, materials, or
phenomena involved by actively
responding to them
 The learners are willing to participate
Valuing
Refers to the willingness to be
perceived others as valuing certain
ideas, materials, phenomenon or
behavior
Based on the internalization of a set of
specified values, while clues to these
values are expressed in the learner’s
overt behavior and are often
identifiable
The learners are willing to be involved
Organization
Refers to the ability to relate the valueto
those already held and bring it into a
harmonious and internally consistent
philosophy
The learners are willing to be an advocate
Characterization by Value or Value set
Incorporate ideas into completely practice,
recognize by the use of them
The learners are willing to change one’s
behavior, lifestyle, or way of life
Revised Psychomotor Domain
Characterized by the progressive levels of
behaviors from observation to mastery of
physical skills
Levels of Psychomotor Domain
1. Perception
2. Set
3. Guided Response
4. Mechanism
5. Complex Overt Response
6. Adaptation
7. Origination
Perception
The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor
activity
Set
Readiness to act, includes mental, physical, and
emotional set
Guided Response
Early stages in learning a complex skill that
includes imitation and trial and error
Mechanism
Intermediate stage in learning a complex skill
Complex Overt Response
 Skillful performance of motor acts that involves complex
movement pattern
 Includes performing without hesitation, and automatic
performance
Adaptation
 Skills are well developed and the individual can modify
movement patterns to fit special requirements
Origination
Creating new movements pattern to fit a particular situation
or specific problem
Levels of other Psychomotor Domains

Dave (1975) Borich (2007)


Imitation Reflex movements
Manipulation Fundamental movements
Precision Perception
Physical abilities
Articulation
Skilled movements
naturalization
No discursive
communication
Dave psychomotor (1975)

Imitation
Observing and patterning behavior after
someone else
Manipulation
Being able to perform certain actions by
following instructions and practicing
Precision
Refining, becoming more exact
Articulation
Coordinating a series of actions, achieving
harmony and internal consistency
Naturalization
Having high level performance become natural,
without needing to think much about it

Borich Psychomotor (2007)

Reflex movements
Reaction that are not learned
Fundamental movements
 Inherent movement patterns which are formed by combinations of
reflex movements, the basis for complex movements
Perception
 Response to stimuli such as visual, auditory, kinesthetic, or tactile
discrimination
Physical abilities
 Stamina that must be developed for further development such as
strength and agility
Skilled movements
 Advanced learned movements as one would find in sports or acting
No discursive communication
 effective body language, such as gesture and facial expression
Chapter Quiz-Group one
Instruction: give the right answer to the following questions
Give at least two main things that objectives should specify
What are the two types of learning outcomes
What are the three domains of educational objectives
Give the highest and the lowest level of cognitive domain
Give the lowest and the highest level of affective domain
Differentiate goals and objectives