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DRYING AND

HEAT TRANSFER

Yusron Sugiarto, STP, MP, MSc


DRYING PROCESSES
 Dryingis perhaps the oldest, most common
and most diverse of chemical engineering unit
operations.

 Over four hundred types of dryers have been


reported in the literature while over one
hundred distinct types are commonly available.

 Energy consumption in drying ranges from a


low value of under five percent for the chemical
process industries to thirty five percent for the
papermaking operations.
DRYING PROCESSES
 Objective - removal of solvents
 Contact solids with fluid not saturated with
solvent
 Economics
 Recover solvent
 Avoid shipping solvent
 May avoid spoilage
DRYING CURVE
DRYING EQUIPMENT
 CATEGORIES
 BATCH OR CONTINUOUS
 DRYING MECHANISM
http://www.grecobrothers.com/centrifugal-
 THERMAL dryers/K94.jpg
 VACUUM
 FREEZING
 MECHANICAL

http://www.arrowhead-dryers.com/steam-tube-
dryers.html
VACUUM DRYERS

 SHELF ROTARY CONICAL

http://www.mcgillairpressure.com/index.html
SHELF DRYERS
 Batch units
 Circulate air past trays of fluids
 Over (cross-circulation)
 And/or perpendicular to (through-circulation)

 Can operate under vacuum


 Long batch cycles (4 - 48 hours) are common
 Primary uses
 Plastics
 Metals
 Chemicals
http://www.bocedwards.com/ind
 Pharmaceuticals ex.cfm?ProcessVacuum/pharmac
 Foods eutical-upgrades.cfm~content
TUNNEL DRYERS
 Move material on belt or conveyor through drying zone
 Used for a wide range of free-flowing particulates (granular, flake or
fibrous)
 Used for pastes and filter cakes with even application to belt
 Drying times approximately 5 - 120 minutes
 Large capacity is practical with these units

http://www.dryer.com/Columbia%20Flyer%2005%20.pdf
ROTARY DRYERS

 Drop solids through counter current flowing hot gases


 Can be lined with refractory to allow very high temperature
operation
 High volume with wide stable operating range
 Residence times typically measured in minutes

http://www.siko.co.id/images/kiln.jpg
DRUM AND WIPED-FILM DRYERS
 Drum dryers
 Thin film dryers with indirect heating
 Slurry applied to drum and dried solid removed (see fig. 9.2-4)
 Wiped film dryers
 Inverse of drum dryer with internal wiper to apply film to vertical surface
 Material leaving dryer must be free flowing
 High thermal efficiency

FEED
WIPED FILM DRYER

FINISH DRYER

http://www.atlascoffee.com/imgz/1br/1br07.jpg
FREEZE DRYERS

 USED FOR BIOLOGICALS


 USE SUBLIMATION

http://www.niroinc.com/html/ch http://www.pharmaceutical-
emical/freezedryers.html technology.com/contractors/process_automa
tion/telstar/telstar1.html
FLASH OR SPRAY DRYERS
 Contact flow with concurrent flow of hot
air
 Solids may be entrained
 Solids may fall through air
 May incorporate cyclone
 May incorporate sprayer to produce
slurry droplets http://www.oc-
 May be included on tall tower (prilling) sd.co.jp/english/exampleusage/
operation index01.html
FLUID BED DRYERS
 Suspend solids in hot air stream
 Gentle processing – no degradation
 Uniformity of process conditions
 Fed slurry from a centrifuge
 Recover fines with either cylcone, filter or esp and re-slurry

http://www.niroinc.com
/html/drying/fluidbed.h
tml
FLUID BED DRYER EXAMPLE

http://www.barr-rosin.com/english/products/fluid-bed-dryer.htm
Heat Transfer

 Heat always moves from a warmer place to a


cooler place.
 Hot objects in a cooler room will cool to room
temperature.
 Cold objects in a warmer room will heat up to room
temperature.
Question

If a cup of coffee and a red popsickle were


left on the table in this room what would
happen to them? Why?

The cup of coffee will cool until it reaches room


temperature. The popsickle will melt and then
the liquid will warm to room temperature.
Basics to heat transfer

(1) Heat (Q) = a form of energy [ J or Btu ]

(2) Rate of heat transfer (q) = amount of heat (J, Btu)


unit time (s ,hr)
*** (J/s = Watts)

(3) Nature of heat flow


“Net heat flow is always
in the direction of
temperature decrease”
(4) Heat flux = rate of heat flow per unit area
= q/A
= Q [J/s m2]
t X A

(5) Temperature gradient = changes of temperature


with distance, i.e. for x
direction = dT/dx [°C/m]
Heat Transfer Methods

Heat transfers in three ways:


Conduction
Convection
Radiation
Conduction
When you heat a metal strip at one end, the heat
travels to the other end.

As you heat the metal, the particles vibrate, these


vibrations make the adjacent particles vibrate, and so on
and so on, the vibrations are passed along the metal and
so is the heat. We call this? Conduction
Metals are different

The outer e______


lectrons of metal atoms
drift, and are free to move.

When the metal is heated, this


‘sea of electrons’ gain k_____
energy and transfer it
inetic
throughout the metal.

Insulators, such as w___ andood


p____, do not
lastic
have this ‘sea of
electrons’ which is why they do not conduct heat as well as
metals.
Why does metal feel colder than wood, if they
are both at the same temperature?

Metal is a conductor, wood is an insulator. Metal


conducts the heat away from your hands. Wood
does not conduct the heat away from your hands as
well as the metal, so the wood feels warmer than
the metal.
* Heat Transfer by Conduction
- If temperature gradient exists in a continuous
substance (solid, fluid and gas), heat can flow without
observable motion of matter.
- Heat flux is oppositely proportional to the
temperature gradient (Fourier’s law)

dq dT
 k ……………… ( I )
dA dx
where,
q = rate of heat flow in direction normal to surface
A = surface area
T = temperature x = distance normal to surface
k = proportionality constant or thermal conductivity
Convection
What happens to the particles in a liquid or a
gas when you heat them?

The particles spread out and


become less dense.

This effects
What is afluid
A liquid or gas.movement.
fluid?
Fluid movement

Cooler, more d____,


ense fluids
sink through w_____,
armer less
dense fluids.

In effect, warmer liquids and gases r___


up. ise

Cooler liquids and gases s___. ink


Water movement

Cools at the Convection


surface
current

Cooler Hot water


water sinks rises
Why is it windy at the seaside?
Cold air sinks

Where is the Freezer


freezer compartment
compartment
put in a fridge?
It is warmer at the
bottom, so this
warmer air rises
It is put at the top,
and a convection
because cool air sinks,
current is set up.
so it cools the food on
the way down.
* Heat Transfer by Convection
- Flow of heat associated with the movement of
fluid
wall
Cold fluid q
High
Temperature

- Convective flux  T (Newton’s law of cooling)


q
 h (Ts Tf ) ……………….. ( II )
where,
A
Ts = surface temperature
Tf = bulk temperature of fluid, far from surface
h = heat-transfer coefficient
* Heat Transfer by Convection (next)

**unlike k, h depends not only on thermal properties of fluid but


also flow patterns**

้ อ
convection แบ่งออกเป็ น 2 แบบ ดังนี คื
- Force convection
- Natural convection
 Temperature gradient in fluid 

buoyancy forces flow


The third method of heat transfer

How does heat energy get from


the Sun to the Earth? There are no particles between the
Sun and the Earth so it CANNOT
travel by conduction or by
convection.

RADIATION
?
Radiation

Radiation travels in straight lines


True/False
Radiation can travel through a vacuum
True/False
Radiation requires particles to travel
True/False
Radiation travels at the speed of light
True/False
Absorption experiment
Four containers were placed equidistant from a heater. Which
container would have the warmest water after ten minutes?

Dull metal Shiny black

Shiny metal Dull black

dull black container would be the warmest after ten minutes


The __________
because its surface absorbs heat radiation
_______ the best. The _________
shiny metal
container would be the coolest because it is the poorest at
__________
absorbing heat radiation.
*Heat Transfer by Radiation
Transfer of energy through space by
electromagnetic waves
Through empty space, energy not transformed nor
diverted
Through matters, transmitted, reflected, or
absorbed
Absorbed energy is in form of heat
Energy emitted by a black body (absolute temp.)4

W  εσT
b
4
Wb  T 4
……….. (III)
 where,
Wb = rate of radiant energy emission per unit /area
 = Stefan-Boltzmann constant
T = absolute temperature  = emissivity