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BEST PRACTICES IN

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
BEST PRACTICES IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Some organizations are perceived as having
successfully managed their projects.
• How do certain companies achieve excellence in
Project Management?
• What are the Critical Success Factors (CSFs)
responsible for success?
• How do they intend to maintain excellence?
• What best practices these companies are using?
Inherent difference between those companies
that have best practices and are excellent in
project management and those that are
average and even struggling, is the way they
perform strategic planning for project
management.
BEST PRACTICES IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
 Critical Success factors are those factors
present in the project’s environment that
are most conducive to achievement of
project’s success.
 Understanding these variables of success
provides us the means of capturing and
retaining best practices.
 Best Practices are those actions or
activities undertaken by the organization
or individuals that lead to a sustained
competitive advantage in Project
Management
BEST PRACTICES IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
LEVELS OF BEST PRACTICES
•PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS: Contain the greatest
number of best practices but are general in nature and have
a low level of complexity (e.g. Professional standards as
defined by PMI
•INDUSTRY STANDARDS: Contain best practices related
to performance within industry. (e.g. Best Practices in
Construction)
•COMPANY STANDARDS: Best Practices followed by a
company
•PROJECT SPECIFIC: Best Practices followed for specific
types of projects (e.g. Best Practices for construction of
High-rise buildings)
•INDIVIDUAL: Best Practices adopted in relation to
individuals. (Considers individual characteristics for
assigning tasks)
Project Management Maturity Model
Foundation for achieving excellence in project
management can be best described as Project
Management Maturity Model (PMMM)
It is a common method of determining the current project
management capability and maturity.
It has defined five distinct levels of maturity.
Level 1 – Ad hoc
Organization recognizes importance of
Project Management& understands need
for knowledge about Common Language &
terminology. There is no formal, consistent
process to execute a project
• Many, incomplete, informal approaches – each
project handled differently
• Highly dependent on Project Manager
• Project outcomes unpredictable
• Little organizational support available for
project management
• Lessons learned are not gathered and passed on
to other projects
Level 2 – Foundation
Management feels need for Common
Process so that success on one project can
be repeated on others. Consistent, basic
approach to project execution is adopted

• Managed support for project management


• Repeatable processes are applied to basic
project management steps
• Project outcomes are more predictable
• Use of common tools and techniques for key
project management processes
Level 3 – Managed
Management appreciates synergistic effect
of combining all corporate methodologies
into a Singular Project Methodology.
Consistent, comprehensive approach to
project execution is adopted.
• Senior management support for project management
• Organization can efficiently plan, manage, integrate
and control single projects
• Repository of previous project experience is
maintained and utilized
• Team members and project managers trained in project
management
• Consistent use of tools and techniques for project
management processes
Level 4 – Integrated
Project portfolio management is
institutionalized and integrated into the
organization’s business planning process.
Need for benchmarking is recognized and
continuous process improvement is started.
• Active senior management support for
integration of business planning and project
execution
• Organization can efficiently plan, manage,
integrate and control multiple projects
• Database of previous project data is
maintained and utilized
Level 5 – Optimization
Project-centered organization with an
established approach to continuous
improvement of project management.
Continuous Improvement is achieved.
• Project management environment improvement
is actively encouraged
• Flexible, project-centered organization structure
• Career program for project managers
• Project management training is a key
component in staff development
QUALITY MANAGEMENT STNDARD
QUALITY IS THE TOTALITY OF
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ENTITY
THAT BEAR ON ITS ABILITY TO
SATISFY STATED OR IMPLIED
NEEDS
PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT
IS THE PROCESS REQUIRED TO
ENSURE THAT PROJECT WILL
SATISFY THE NEEDS FOR WHICH IT
WAS UNDERTAKEN.
PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT
• QUALITY OF PROJECT
MANAGEMENT PROCESS
• QUALITY OF PROJECT
DELIVERABLES.
FAILURE TO MEET QUALITY
REQUIREMENTS IN EITHER CAN HAVE
SERIOUS NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES
FOR ANY OR ALL OF THE PROJECT
STAKE-HOLDERS AND PROJECT
ORGANIZATION.
PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROCESS
• QUALITY PLANNING: IDENTIFYING
WHICH QUALITY STANDARDS ARE
RELEVANT TO THE PROJECT AND HOW TO
SATISFY THEM.
• QUALITY ASSURANCE: EVALUATING
OVERALL PROJECT PERFORMANCE ON A
REGULAR BASIS TO PROVIDE CONFIDENCE
THAT THE PROJECT WILL SATISFY THE
RELEVANT QUALITY STANDARDS.
• QUALITY CONTROL: MONITORING
SPECIFIC PROJECT RESULTS TO DETERMINE
IF THEY COMPLY WITH RELEVANT QUALITY
STANDARDS AND IDENTIFYING WAYS TO
ELIMINATE CAUSES OF UNSATISFACTORY
PERFORMANCE.
ISO 10006
QUALITY MANAGEMENT

GUIDELINES TO QUALITY IN

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
ISO 10006 OVERVIEW
A standard is a document
approved by a recognized body,
that provides for
a common & repeated use,
rules, guidelines or characteristics
for products, processes or services
with which compliance is
not mandatory
- (ISO)
ISO 10006 OVERVIEW

 WHY HAVE PM STANDARDS?


 Common reference source
 Training & learning Guide
 Basis of measurement
 Building block for profession
 Integrating link with other
professions
 Behavior basis for contracts
 Background for certification
ISO 10006 OVERVIEW

 WHAT ARE PM STANDARDS?


 A way of thinking about PM
 A set of guidelines for PM
 An expected approach for PM
 A method of measuring PM
 A method of measuring project
performance
 A contractual obligation for PM
 A contractual obligation for project
performance
ISO 10006 OVERVIEW

 WHY GLOBAL PM STANDARDS?


 Global marketplace
 International projects
 Multinational companies
 Assortment of existing standards
ISO 10006 OVERVIEW
 ISO (The International Organization
for Standardization) is a worldwide
federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies)
 International standard ISO 10006
provides guidance on quality system
elements, concepts & practices for
which the implementation is
important to, and has an impact on,
the achievement of quality in project
management and supplements the
guidance given in ISO9004-1
ISO 10006 OVERVIEW
 The guidelines are applicable to projects of
varying complexity, small or large, of short
or long duration, in different environments,
and irrespective of kind of project product.
 They are intended to be used by people who
have experience in project management
and need to ensure that their organization
is applying the practices contained in the
ISO 9000 family of standards.
 Also by those who have experience in
quality management and are required to
interact with project organizations in
applying their knowledge and experience to
the project.
INTERNATIONAL CERTIFICATION

• PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE


(PMI) - USA
(PMP Certification)
• INTERNATIONAL PROJECT
MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATES
(IPMA) Switzerland
(QPMP Certification)
PROJECT MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE
AREAS RECOGNIZED BY PMI
1. Project Integration Management
2. Project Scope Management
3. Project Time Management
4. Project Cost Management
5. Project Quality Management
6. Project Human Resource Management
7. Project Communications Management
8. Project Risk Management
9. Project Procurement Management
CRITICAL CHAIN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

CURRENT CHALENGES FOR A


PROJECT MANAGER
• CHOOSING THE RIGHT PROJECT
AMONG A LARGE POOL
• COMPLETE PROJECT AHEAD OF
TIME &
• COMPLETE MORE PROJECTS
THROUGH WITHOUT ADDING
RESOURCES
CRITICAL CHAIN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
A paradigm shift in Project Management
derived from the Theory of Constraints
by Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt
Integrates human behavioral
aspects with project management
methodology resulting in

• Faster project delivery


• Increased reliability of project
deliveries
CRITICAL CHAIN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
The TOC approach
• The throughput in projects is the project
completion time
•How to improve throughput?
•By finishing the project in time or
earlier
• The weakest link is the Critical Path.
•Once identified, how to exploit it?
•Protection of Critical Path is the
way to exploit
CRITICAL CHAIN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
The Human Behavioral Aspect
Students’ Syndrome:
Delay task beginning till the last

Parkinson’s Law:
Work Expands to fill the time available

Murphy’s Law:
If anything can go wrong, it will
CRITICAL CHAIN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Implementing the Critical Chain Method
calls for a change in individual and
organizational behavior
• Discontinue the practice of measuring people
on the basis of accuracy of estimates
• Discontinue practice of measuring people on
the basis of meeting the dates
• Replace due dates by ‘Relay Race’ approach
• System accepted by all to start new project or
task only when critical resource is available
• Protect project task time variability by suitable
‘buffer’
• Eliminate multi-tasking