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THE ANAMBRA BASIN

BY GROUP 7
GROUP MEMBERS
• OFIME RALPH SMITH – 16CN021110
• ADETOLA JOSEPH – 16CE021699
• ASAGBA SHARON – 16CN021068
• IFEANYI NWEZE – 16CN021105
• NWAFOR CHINENYE – 16CN021103
• OGBODO MILES – 14CN017229
• AFERNU-EYO NYONG FELIX - 16CN021106
• NWABUISI TEDDY ADIM – 16CN021102
• OBOMANU VICTORIA – 16CN021108
TABLE OF CONTENTS
• INTRODUCTION: MEANING OF A BASIN AND
SEDIMENTARY BASIN
• LOCATION/GEOLOGY OF ANAMBRA BASIN
• STRATIGRAPHY OF THE ANAMBRA BASIN
• FORMATIONS OF THE ANAMBRA BASIN
• HYDROCARBON/MINERAL POTENTIAL OF THE BASIN
• THE KEROGEN TYPES IN ANAMBRA BASIN
• CONCLUSION
• REFERENCES
WHAT IS A BASIN?

FIGURE 2
FIGURE 1

A BASIN IS A LARGE OR SMALL DEPRESSION IN THE


EARTH SURFACE OR IN THE OCEAN FLOOR CAUSED
BY TECTONIC SHIFTS.
WHAT IS A SEDIMENTARY BASIN?
• A SEDIMENTARY BASIN IS A LARGE AREA IN WHICH THICK LAYERS OF
SEDIMENTARY DEPOSITS ACCUMULATE.
• THERE ARE 6 IDENTIFIABLE SEDIMENTARY BASINS: SOKOTO BASIN ,
BORNO BASIN ,BIDA BASIN ,BENUE TROUGH , EASTERN DAHOMEY
BASIN ,NIGER DELTA BASIN.
• BENUE TROUGH
• IT IS A RIFT BASIN IN CENTRAL AFRICA THAT EXTENDS NORTH EAST
AND SOUTH WEST. THIS IS THE LARGEST BASIN IN NIGERIA
VOLUMETRICALLY. IT IS 500 MILES LONG & 140 MILES WIDE IN THE
SOUTH & TAPERS TO ABOUT 70 MILES WIDE AT THE NORTH END.
• THE BENUE TROUGH CONSISTS OF:
• THE LOWER BENUE TROUGH (THE ANAMBRA BASIN )THE MIDDLE
BENUE TROUGH AND THE UPPER BENUE TROUGH (THE GONGOLA
BASIN & THE YOLA BASIN) .
• THE LOWER BENUE TROUGH IS THE SOUTHERN PORTION OF THE BENUE TROUGH THAT IS
BELIEVED TO HAVE ORIGINATED AS A FAILED ARM DURING THE SEPARATION OF THE
AFRICAN PLATE FROM THE SOUTH AMERICAN PLATE IN THE CRETACEOUS AGE.
• THE GEOLOGY OF THE LOWER BENUE TROUGH IS ASSOCIATED WITH TECTONIC
ACTIVITIES IN SANTONIAN TIMES WHICH RESULTED IN THE UPLIFT AND FOLDING OF THE
ABKALIKI SECTOR OF THE TROUGH AND THE SUBSIDENCE OF THE ANAMBRA PLATFORM.

FIG 3- CENTRAL AFRICAN RIFT SYSTEM : BENUE TROUGH TO THE WEST IN


NIGERIA
LOCATION
• ANAMBRA BASIN WAS THE FIRST BASIN WHERE INTENSIVE OIL
EXPLORATION WAS CARRIED OUT , WHICH LIES IN ANAMBRA STATE,
NIGERIA. THE BASIN IS ONE OF THE ENERGY-RICH INLAND SEDIMENTARY
BASINS IN NIGERIA.
• IT IS BOUNDED IN THE EAST BY THE ABAKALIKI ANTICLINORIUM AND ON
THE SOUTH-WESTERN FLANK BY THE NIGER DELTA HINGE LINE,
NORTHWEST BY THE BENUE FLANK.
• IT IS A NEARLY TRIANGULAR SHAPED EMBAYMENT COVERING AN AREA
OF ABOUT 3000SQKM WITH A TOTAL SEDIMENTARY THICKNESS OF
ABOUT 9KM. THE DOMINANT LITHOLOGIES COMPRISE SANDSTONES,
SHALES, LIMESTONES AND COAL SEAMS.
It lies within Latitudes 5.0°N and
8°0N and between Longitudes
6.3°E and 8.0°E. It falls within
South-Eastern part of Nigeria.
Major roads such as Enugu-Port
Harcourt expressway and Uselu
Ifon expressway enhance
accessibility to the outcrop
locations.

FIG 4 : SHOWING THE LOCATION


OF THE BASINS
STRATIGRAPHY OF THE ANAMBRA
BASIN
• SANTONIAN AGE MARKED THE STAGE WHERE THE BASIN
EXPERIENCED ANOTHER PHASE OF TECTONIC EVENT THAT
INVOLVED DEFORMATION , FOLDING, FAULTING AND UPLIFT
OF PRE-SANTONIAN SEDIMENTS LEADING TO THE FORMATION
OF THE ANAMBRA BASIN WHICH EVOLVED AS A DEPRESSION
TO THE WEST OF THE UPLIFT.
• THE FILLING OF THE ANAMBRA BASIN TOOK PLACE WITHIN THE
TIME INTERVAL FROM SANTONIAN TO EARLY PALEOCENE ,
THERE WERE TWO MARINE TRANSGRESSIONS – A MAJOR ONE
(THE NKPORO TRANSGRESSION) AND A LESS EXTENSIVE ONE
(THE MAMU TRANSGRESSION).
FIG 5: STRATIGRAPHY OF THE
ANAMBRA BASIN
THE FORMATIONS OF THE ANAMBRA BASIN
• THE ANAMBRA BASIN IS GENERALLY DIVIDED INTO FOUR
MAJOR FORMATIONS ACCORDING TO THEIR PERIOD OF
DEPOSITION .
• NKPORO GROUP
• MAMU FORMATION
• AJALI SANDSTONE
• NSUKKA FORMATION
STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY
THE EARLY CENOMANIAN AND
LATER SANTIONIAN
DEFORMATION LEAD TO THE
FORMATION OF SIMPLE FOLDS
AND FAULTS THAT PLAY A PART
IN THE HYDROCARBON
TRAPPING MECHANISM OF
THE BASIN. THE STACKING OF
BTHE SEDIMENTS PROMOTED
THE FORMATION OF GROWTH
FAULTS. THE MOVEMENTS ON
THE BASEMENT FAULTS ALSO
LEAD TO FORMATION OF
POSSIBLE TRAPS.

FIG 6: TECTONIC FRAMEWORK


FIG 7: MARINE TRANSGRESSION &
REGRESSION RESULTING IN EACH
FORMATION.
THE NKPORO FORMATION
• THIS IS THE OLDEST FORMATION IN THE ANAMBRA BASIN, IT WAS
DEPOSITED INTO THE BASIN IN LATE CAMPANIAN, COMPRISING
NPKORO SHALE, OWELLI SANDSTONE AND ENUGU SHALE.
• THE NKPORO SHALE DOCUMENTS THE TRANSGRESSIVE EVENT THAT
FOLLOWED THE SANTONIAN DEFORMATIONIN THE BASIN. THE
FORMATION IS GENERALLY POORLY EXPOSED BUT HAS BEEN
DESCRIBED AS COARSENING UPWARD DELTAIC SEQUENCE OF SHALE
AND INTERBEDS OF SAND AND SHALE WITH OCCASIONALLY THIN
BEDS OF LIMESTONE.
• THE BASAL CONTACT IS THEREFORE AN EROSIONAL UNCOMFORMITY.
• THE FISSILITY OF THE SHALE SUGGESTS THAT IT WAS DEPOSITED IN
LOW ENERGY ENVIRONMENT DISTAL TO PROXIMAL LAGOON
ENVIRONMENT.
FIGURE 8: OUTCROP OF THE
NKPORO/ENUGU SHALE
THE MAMU FORMATION
THE NKPORO GROUP IS OVERLAIN BY MAMU FORMATION, IT
COMPRISES A SUCCESSION OF SILTSTONE, MUDSTONE, SANDSTONE
AND COAL SEAMS. IT IS MAINLY UNCONSOLIDATED COARSE-FINE
GRAINED, POORLY CEMENTED; MUDSTONE AND SILTSTONE WHICH HAS
BEEN GROUPED INTO THREE MAJOR FACIES
 SHALE FACIES
 COAL FACIES
 SANDY SHALE FACIES UNIT
THE TEXTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE FORMATION SUGGESTS A SEDIMENT
DEPOSITED IN A LOW ENERGY ENVIRONMENT WHICH FAVOURED
DEPOSITION OF FINE TO MEDIUM SIZE SEDIMENTS.
FIGURE 9: ROAD CUTS EXPOSING
ROCKS OF MAMU FORMATION
AJALI SANDSTONE
• IT IS EXPOSED AT TWO STATIONS. THE VERTICAL EXPOSURE
IS ESTIMATED TO BE 21M WHILE THE LATERAL EXTENT IS
ESTIMATED AS 500M. THE SECTION STARTS WITH A BASAL,
POORLY SORTED, POORLY CEMENTED UNCONSOLIDATED
WHITE FINE GRAINED SANDSTONE BED THAT IS
COARSENING UPWARD.
• THE AJALI SANDSTONE FORMATION ACCUMULATED DURING
THE EPOCH OF OVERALL REGRESSION OF THE NKPORO
CYCLE
• TEXTURAL RESULT REVEALED THAT AJALI SANDSTONE WAS
DEPOSITED IN A TIDAL ENVIRONMENT.
FIGURE 10: FAULTS AND JOINTS
AFFECTING THE AJALI SANDSTONE
NSUKKA FORMATION
• THE NSUKKA FORMATION MARKS THE ONSET OF
ANOTHER TRANSGRESSION IN THE ANAMBRA BASIN
DURING THE PALEOCENE. IT IS THE YOUNGEST
FORMATION IN THE STUDY AREA.
• THE VERTICAL EXTENT OF THE SECTION IS 4.8M WHILE
THE LATERAL EXTENT IS 20M.
• IT WAS DEPOSITED IN AN OXIDIZING SHALLOW
MARINE ENVIRONMENT.
• THE SHALES CONTAIN SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF
ORGANIC MATTER AND MAY BE A POTENTIAL
SOURCE OF HYDROCARBON IN THE NORTHERN PART
OF THE NIGER DELTA.
FIGURE 11: THE NSUKKA FORMATION
FIG 12: TABLE SHOWING THE
LITHOLOGY DESCRIPTION
HYDROCARBON/MINERAL POTENTIAL
OF THE BASIN
• THE ANAMBRA BASIN IS NOT PARTICULARLY RICH IN MINERAL
DEPOSITS AND SOME KNOWN TO EXIST ARE NOT YET EXPLOITED. THE
LOWER BENUE TROUGH LIKE OTHER SEDIMENTARY BASINS IN NIGERIA IS FOUND
TO BE ENDOWED WITH MINERAL RESOURCES. OVER TWENTY MINERAL
RESOURCES HAVE SO FAR BEEN REPORTED IN THE TROUGH BY THE GEOLOGICAL
SURVEY OF NIGERIA AGENCY AND THESE INCLUDE; COAL, LEAD-ZINC, BARYTES,
LIMESTONE, CLAY, GYPSUM, PHOSPHATE, GLASS SAND, FLUORSPAR, SALT,
IRONSTONE, URANIUM, SULPHUR, GRAPHITE, CASSITERITE, MANGANESE, MICA
AND SILVER.
• THE FOUR FORMATIONS STUDIED IN ANAMBRA BASIN ARE ADEQUATE ENOUGH
FOR THE FORMATIONS TO BE POTENTIAL SOURCE ROCKS WHICH IS AN
INDICATION FOR MATURE SOURCE ROCK THAT HAS ATTAINED OIL GENERATING
WINDOW.
• MAMU FORMATION IS OIL PRONE WITH LITTLE PORTION OF GAS.
• THE BASIN HARBOURS THE LARGEST DEPOSIT OF COAL AND LIGNITE
IN NIGERIA. COAL MINING IN NIGERIA STARTED IN ENUGU WITHIN
THE BASIN.
• GAS POTENTIAL OF 10 TRILLION CUBIC FEET. MAJORLY THE
UGWUOBA GAS FIELDS, IGBARIAM GAS FIELDS.
• SHALES IN THIS BASIN CONTAIN MOSTLY OF TYPE 2 & 3 KEROGEN
• GAS IS THE PREDOMINANT HYDROCARBON IN THE BASIN BUT NOT
COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE.
FIG 13 :THE KEROGEN TYPES IN ANAMBRA BASIN
CONCLUSION
THE PRESENT STUDY HAS SHOWN THAT THERE IS A GREAT
PROSPECT FOR HYDROCARBON IN THE ANAMBRA BASIN.
HOWEVER, GREAT ATTENTION SHOULD BE FOCUSED ON MAMU
FORMATION AND ON THE ZONES WHERE RAPID SUBSIDENCE
OCCURRED IN THE OTHER THREE FORMATIONS FOR OPTIMAL
EXPLORATION.
REFERENCE
• NWAJIDE CS (1998) GEOLOGY OF THE SOUTHERN ANAMBRA BASIN.
• NUHU GO (2009) GEOLOGY OF THE LOWER BENUE TROUGH.
• HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/AGBAJEMAYOWA/COAL-DEPOSIT-IN-
MAMU-FORMATION
• OLUBAYO LB (2010) THE MAIN OIL SOURCE FORMATIONS OF THE
ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA.
• HTTPS://WWW.SCIENCEDIRECT.COM/SCIENCE/ARTICLE/PII/S209538
3615301462
• IHEANACHO PRINCEWILL UGOCHUKWU. "SUBSURFACE EVALUATION
OF SOURCE ROCK AND HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF THE
ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTH EASTERN
NIGERIA" (PDF). DISSERTATION.COM BOCA RATON, FLORIDA, USA.
MERCI BEAUCOUP
TOUT LE MONDE!!!