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PROCESSES

boundary problems

Method of weighted residuals and finite elements

Heat exchangers (making use analytical solution)

Pipelines (pressure and flowrates using finite element

methods)

Trusses, beams and rotationally symmetric shells

zpracovatelské techniky ČVUT FS 2010

NAP5

Models by ODE boundary problem

Some systems are described by the same ODE as before (ie as systems of

equations with first derivatives), except that the initial state is not completely defined

because not all conditions are specified for the same value of the independent

variable (we speak not about initial, but boundary conditions).

While the initial problem generally refers to non-stationary processes (the

independent variable is time) finding a steady state is typical for boundary problems

when independent variable is a spatial coordinate.

Examples:

NAP5

ODE heat exchangers

NAP5

ODE heat exchangers

The simplest possible case of hat exchanger with two parallel streams (coordinate

x is measured from one end of HE). This is example solved in the course of „Heat

processes“.

dT1 k INITIAL

trhis is

(T1 T2 ) T 1’ problem, can be solved by

dx W1 x

previous methods

dT2 k

(T1 T2 ) T 2’

dx W2

L

Enthalpy balance for COUNTER-CURRENT

BOUNDARY problem,

missing temperature at x=0

dT1 k

(T1 T2 ) T 1’

dx W1 x

dT2 k

(T1 T2 ) T 2’

dx W2

(k is heat transfer coefficient related to unit length of channel, Wi heat capacity of

streams)

NAP5

ODE heat exchangers

Equations for temperature profiles in a matrix form are as follows

d special case for co-

[T ] [[ A]] [T ] current flow

dx

T1 k / W1 k / W1

[T ] [[ A]]

T2 k / W2 k / W2

The matrix [[A]] is constant (for constant k), the ODE system is therefore linear and

can be transformed from a coupled to a separated system by linear transformation

[T ] [[U ]] [ Z ]

where [[U]] is the eigenvector matrix of [[A]] satisfying

[[ A]] [[U ]] [[U ]] [[ ]] a matrix multiplied by its eigenvector gives the same

eigenvector (scaled by eigenvalue)

many eigenvalues and eigenvectors). Calculation of [[]] and [[U]] is

accomplished in MATLAB by single standard function [U,L]=eig(A).

NAP5

ODE heat exchangers

Substituting transformation to the ODE system

d

[[U ]] [ Z ] [[ A]] [[U ]] [ Z ] Square DIAGONAL matrix

(as soon as the [[U]] are

dx eigenvectors)

d

[ Z ] [[U ]]1 [[ A]] [[U ]] [ Z ]

dx

results to uncoupled system of ODE for transformed temperatures

(vector [Z] ) d

[ Z ] [[ ]] [ Z ]

dx

ODE for Z are independent,

Z i ( x) di ei x

because [[]] is diagonal

Solution of ODE i 1, 2,...

[ Z ] e[[ ]] x [d ] [[e x ]] [d ]

diagonal matrix

Backtransformation

[T ( x)] [[U ]] [[ex ]] [d ] coefficients dj are

determined by

Ti ( x) U ij e j d j

boundary conditions

x

j

NAP5

ODE heat exchangers

Specific case of 2channels and co-current arrangement of HE

T1 ( x) U11d1e1 x + U12d 2e2 x

T2 ( x) U 21d1e1 x + U 22d 2e2 x

Eigenproblem of [[A]]2 x 2 can be solved analytically :

0 0

k / W1 k / W1 1 W2

[[ A]] [[U ]] [[]] 1 1

k / W2 k / W2 1 W1 0 k (W + W )

1 2

and solution d1 1 1 d2 .

T2 ' 1 W1 d 2 W1 + W2 W1 + W2

verify eigenproblem sol;ution in MATLABu (k=1, w1=1, w2=2) the result is the same, only the order of

vectors is exchanged, and eigenvectors

a=[-1 1;0.5 -0.5];

are normalised to the unit Eucleid norm.

[u,l]=eig(a) It has no effect upon the results.

u=

-0.8944 -0.7071

0.4472 -0.7071

l=

-1.5000 0

0 0

NAP5

ODE heat exchangers

Generalisation for more complicated HE and HEN (Heat Exchanger Networks)

Heat exchangers have often more than 2 streams (generally N-streams) and each stream (channel) is

divided into M sub-channels (eg because the inlet and outlet ports of various streams are in different

locations or heat transfer coefficient changes along the flow direction). Let us assume that all N streams is

divided into M sub-channels (M> N), the position of the input subchannels is given by the vector [x '] position

and outputs the vector [x'']. Subchannel i (i = 1,2, ..., M) corresponds to the temperature Ti(x), heat capacity

Wi (constant), and the heat transfer coefficient kij with all other sub-channels (also constant). This data is

sufficient to write an enthalpy balance of subchannels M and to formulate system of M-differential equations

d

[T ] [[ A]] [T ]

dx

This system is solved by previous procedure (finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of [[A]] and

solving separated equations). The result is a vector of temperature profiles in M subchannels, expressed

by M-coefficients of yet unknown vector [d]

[T ( x)] [[U ]] [[ex ]] [d ]

From this equation we can determine the input and output temperatures of M subchannels (substituting

the coordinates [x '], [x'']). Some of the inputs/outputs of subchannels are input/output channels (ie the

whole heat exchanger), some express only and internal linking. These links of subchannels are

represented by binary matrix [[G]]MxM whose rows correspond to the inputs and outputs of the column

(Gij=1 means that the input of i-th sub-channel is the output of j-th sub-channel), by the matrix of inputs

[[G ']]MxN (G'ij=1 means that the input of i-th subchannel is the input of j-th stream) and by the matrix of

outputs [[G'']]NxM (G''ij=1 means that the output of i-th stream is and the output of j-th sub-channel).

NAP5

ODE heat exchangers

N-coefficients of [d] is determined from the boundary conditions (the prescribed inlet temperature at N

streams). The requirement that the outlet temperature of subchannels are simultaneously input temperature

subchannels downstream (it is defined by matrix [[G]]), represents the missing M-N conditions.

Inlet temperature of all subchannels are therefore either the heat exchanger inlet temperature or outlet

temperature of the downstream sub-channel, ie

[T ( x' )]M [[G ' ]]MxN [T ' ]N + [[G ]]MxM [T ( x' ' )]M

[[U ]]MxM [[e x ' ]]MxM [d ]M [[G ' ]]MxN [T ' ]N + [[G ]]MxM [[U ]]MxM [[e x '' ]]MxM [d ]M

([[V ' ]]MxM [[G ]]MxM [[V ' ' ]]MxM ) [d ]M [[G ' ]]MxN [T ' ]N

1 x2 ' 2 x 2 ' M x2 '

U e U 22e ... U 2 M e

[[V ' ]] 21

...

U e 1xM ' M x M '

M1 ... U MM e

Previous relationship is a system of M linear algebraic equations for the coefficients [d] and for example

the output temperatures of the whole heat exchanger can be expressed as follows

[T '']N [[G '']]NxM [[V '']]MxM ([[V ']]MxM [[G ]]MxM [[V '']]MxM ) 1 [[G ']]MxN [T ']N

Xing Luo, Meiling Li, Wilfried Roetzel: A general solution for one-dimensional multistream heat exchangers and their

networks. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 45 (2002) 2695–2705

NAP5

ODE heat exchangers

The previous method is appropriate when the ODE are linear and if there exists an

analytical solution. If the coefficients of heat transfer are not constant (but are

independent of the temperature) the exchanger channels can be divided into

smaller subchannels with constant mean values k (see above). If the coefficient k

is temperature dependent, it would be necessary to repeat the process iteratively

(and in each iteration to solve their own eigenproblem for the matrix [[A]]

depending on temperature).

It is alternatively possible to use numerical integration (repeated solution of the initial problem): Missing

initial condition (x=0) must be estimated and gradually refined in repeated integration (eg by Runge Kutta)

so as to best meet the remaining boundary conditions (for x=L). This is called the shooting method

and it's actually an optimization problem of minimization the norm of the difference between the prescribed

boundary conditions and numerical prediction for x=L (in MATLAB the function fminsearch optimizes the

parameters of missing initial conditions).

You can try a different approach of estimating the missing initial conditions at x=0, execution of integration

from x=0 to x=L, and then carry out the solution in the reverse direction from x=L to x=0, but with the

predicted values (x=L) replaced with prescribed boundary terms. The whole procedure must be repeated

several times (zig zag method) and not always converge (see next example).

NAP5

ODE heat exchangers

Example of two channels HE of length L=1, T1’=90

90

cocurrent and countercurrent arrangement 85

75

definition ODE for

current (differs only by sign)

cocurrent 65

dtdx=zeros(2,1); dtdx=zeros(2,1); 55

w1=1; w2=2; k=1; w1=1; w2=2; k=1; 50

dtdx(1)=-k/w1*(t(1)-t(2)); dtdx(1)=-k/w1*(t(1)-t(2));

dtdx(2)=k/w2*(t(1)-t(2)); dtdx(2)=-k/w2*(t(1)-t(2));

45 T2’=40

40

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

cocurrent arrangement is

INITIAL problem

90

(therefore easy) >> sol=ode45(@dts,[0 1],[90 40]);

>> plot(sol.x,sol.y) 80

T 1’

countrercurrent by the

70

zig-zag method

s=ode45(@dtp,[0,1],[90,50]);

for i=1:10

60

n=length(s.x);

s=ode45(@dtp,[1,0],[s.y(1,n),40]);

50

n=length(s.x);

s=ode45(@dtp,[0,1],[90,s.y(2,n)]);

end 40 T 2’

plot(s.x,s.y)

30

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

NAP5

ODE dryers, extractors…

Flow-through (continuous) devices such as contactors, reactors or dryers (co-

current, counter) are solved almost as well as heat exchangers. Only the

balancing equations of heat transfer are added to equation analogous to the

mass transfer.

So, again the numerical integration methods (Runge Kutta), method of

shooting, etc. are used

Example:

Bruce D.M., Giner S.A.: Mathematicall Modelling of Grain Drying in Counter-flow Beds.

J.Agric.Engng.Res. (1993),pp.143-161

Solution by Euler, Runge Kutta, shooting method.

NAP5

Pipelines networks

The piping network is

made up of straight

sections, bends and turns.

In a broader sense also by

machines like pumps,

accumulators, valves.

The aim is to determine the

pressure profile along the

pipe and flow distribution in

branches.

be applied in the case of

•compressible fluid or deformable walls

(hydraulic shock)

NAP5

Pipeline network

The basic element is a tube (of any section which may vary in the axial

direction). Flow characteristics in a certain place of the tube are the

pressure p(x) and the characteristic velocity u. Axial velocity profile is

fairly generally (even for compressible flow) described by the Navier

Stokes equation

v 1 v 2

p

( + ) 2v + g x

t 2 x x

The second term of the right side expresses the frictional losses which are a

function of flow rate, viscosity and the geometry of the channel. These

factors will be included into the coefficient k:

D equivalent diameter, A

cross section, m mass flow-

v 1 v 2 p m 2 DA2 rate

( + ) + gx k

t 2 x x k (m, x) m

coefficient, in laminar e.g. 64/Re

unsteady compressible fluid flow (this equation will be uses later ...).

NAP5

Pipeline network FEM, MWR Finite Element Method Method of Weighted Residuals

Consider a special case: a steady flow-rate, constant cross section. Derive the

previous equation p k

(k ) gx

x x x

There is only the pressure p(x) in this equation, and the mass flow rate (which is

constant) was eliminated. The left side represents the friction loss, the right side

buoyancy (when the density depends on the temperature and the temperature

along the channel change). The coefficient k is constant in the laminar flow regime

and decreases with increasing Reynolds number in the turbulent regime.

This ordinary differential equation will be used for explanation of principles of the

method of weighted residuals (MWR) and its special variant of finite element

method (FEM). What is the residue of differential equations? What remains to

the right side, when all terms will transfer to the left

p k

(k ) g x res ( x)

x x x

If p(x) is exact solution the

residual function res(x) is zero

NAP5

Pipeline network FEM, MWR Finite Element Method Method of Weighted Residuals

The method of weighted residuals collected from the possible options p(x) such that

nullifies integrals of residuals multiplied by the selected weight (test) function w(x)

The solution is approximated by a linear model, a linear combination of basis

functions Nj(x) (which may even be normalised polynomials defined in elements)

N

p ( x) p j N j ( x)

j 1

necessary to select at least N different weighting function wi(x).

N j k

L N

( p j

0 j 1 x

(k

x

) g x

x

) wi dx 0 i 1, 2,..., N

N L

N j L

k

j 1

p j ( wi

x

(k

x

)dx) wi g x

x

dx

0 0

NAP5

Method of Weighted Residuals

The weighting function wi(x,y,z) are proposed in advance, more or less independently

to solutions. They can be of different types and correspond to the different numerical

methods

(orthogonal polynomials or goniometric functions are used as base and

weight functions. Analytical weights are used also in the Boundary Element

Methods BEM.)

(example is Galerkin’s method using the same base and weight functions.

xi

FEM is preffered in structural analysis, see software ANSYS)

(also Control Volume Method. Most

frequently used in fluid mechanics, see wi h( x xi 1 / 2 ) h( x xi +1 / 2 )

software FLUENT) xi

(also Finite Difference Method. Suitable for

complicated problems in simple geometries, wi ( x xi )

easy programming)

xi

NAP5

Finite Elements and Volumes

System (e.g.pipes) is divided into finite elements with nodal points on the element

boundaries (element is a section of pipe between two nodes). Each node (i) is

assigned one weighting function wi(x), one basis function Ni(x) and the one

calculated value (pressure pi).

xi wi(x) xi wi(x)

FEM - weight functions FVM weight functions are

x are continuous and first

derivative exists

x discontinuous at finite

volume boundaries

boundary. At finite volumes there is only one (internal) node associated with the finite

volume and therefore the solution is approximated by a constant.

Remark: A prototype of FVM are compartment models (aim was calculation of

temperatures and concentrations the same in the whole compartment). FEM aims to

calculate values at element boundaries, i.e. parameters of streams connecting

compartments. FVM satisfies the balances of control volume (it follows from principle

of control volume), while FEM need not satisfy the conservation exactly (and this is

disadvantage of FEM).

NAP5

Finite Element Method

Basis functions Ni(x) are generally constructed so that they are equal to 1 at

node i and zero at all other nodes (1, ..., N). Basis function Ni(x) is a non-zero

only in the element that contains the node number i

It is possible to use identical base and weight functions (for example element-

wise linear polynomial pressure and weights). Identification of weight and base

functions (wi(x)=Ni(x)) is a characteristics of Galerkin’s method.

Integrand of the residual integral is the product of weight function and the

second derivative of base function. Because the weight function in FEM is

continuous its first derivative exists and it is possible to transform the integral by

per partes method Kij bi

N i N j k

N L L

p j ( k dx) N i g x dx

j 1 0

x x 0

x

Matrix coefficients Kij and right side vector bi are integrals over the entire pipe

network (L is the total length of all branches). These integrals are calculated as

the sum of integrals over individual finite elements.

NAP5

Finite Element Method

In a general finite element only two base and weighting functions corresponding to

two nodes i, j are nonzero. The element therefore contributes only to 4 entries of the

matrix (Kii, Kjj Kij Kji). Because the derivatives of linear Ni(x) are constant the integral

contribution of element is calculated easily as

Ni Nj

ke 1 1

[[ K ]]e j

Le 1 1 i

Le

subroutine

calculating Ke

global system matrix (and right side vector). In the cycle b=zeros(n,1);

through all elements a procedure calculating the local for e=1:ne

[Ke,be]=local(e); connectivity

matrix for a given flow rate and geometry is called and the for i=1:2

matrix

between the local indices (1,2) and the global indexes b(ig)=b(ig)+be(i);

for j=1:2

must be defined in the matrix connectivity c whose rows

jg=c(e,j) ;

correspond to the elements and in the two columns are K(ig,jg)=K(ig,jg)+Ke(i,j);

indices i, j nodes of each element. This is actually defined end

by the network topology. end

end

NAP5

Finite Element Method

Physical interpretation: Product of local matrix of one element [[K]]e by the vector

of calculated pressures results to the mass flowrate through the element (e), more

specifically flowrate from node i to the node j

K iie K ije pi bie m i

e

e e e

K

ji

e

K jj p j b j m j

Assembly of local matrices represents requirement that the sum of

oriented flowrates through any node is zero.

The assembled matrix [[K]] is singular in this phase, as soon as the boundary

conditions are not specified (and distribution of pressures is not unique). The

boundary conditions have to be prescribed at all end-nodes of mesh:

End pressures (the correponding row of [[K]] is substituted by 1 at diagonal and

the right hand side is prescribed pressure).

As soon as the mass flowrate is prescribed at an end-node the flowrate is

substituted as the right hand side bi.

NAP5

Finite Element Method

System of linear algebraic equations can be solved either by direct methods

(characterized by a finite number of steps, example is Gauss elimination method,

frontal method ) or iteration methods (e.g. Gauss Seidel overrelaxation, or method

of conjugated gradients). The system matrix [[K]] is sparsed (in a row

corresponding to a node connecting only 2 elements are only 3 nonzero entries)

and therefore special storage methods are used for sparse matrices, e.g.

Band Sky Line

matrix matrix

Profit is not only a memory saving but first of all speed of computation. For example

the Gauss elimination with a full and asymetric matrix N x N requires N3/3 floating

point multiplication. Using the band matrix algorithm the number of operations is

reduced to N.Nb2/2, where Nb is the band width.

For small problems (for example pipe networks) it is sufficient to use a standard

Gauss eliminatiom and to write the solution of [[K]][p]=[b] in MATLAB as

p=K\b

NAP5

Finite Element Method

Matrix of equations for nodal values of pressures is a constant only at

laminar.flows. For turbulent or non-Newtonian flows the matrix [[K]] is a function of

Reynolds number and calculated pressure drop (k(p)). The system is non-linear

and must be solved iteratively

[[ K ( p ( k 1) )]][ p ( k ) ] [b]

where k is index of iteration (and a new matrix [[K]] must be assembled at each

iteration).

Systém of nonlinear equations can be used by previously introduced substitution

method (Picard) or by using Newton Raphson method, that is a straightforward

generalisation of Newton‘s tangent-line method. The method is based upon Taylor

expansion of residuals.

( k 1)

N N N

K ( p ) ( k 1)

j 1

K ij ( p ( k 1)

) p ( k 1)

j bi + (

j 1 m 1

im

p j

pm + K ij ( p ( k 1)

))( p (k )

j p ( k 1)

j )0

residuum residuum / p

NAP5

Finite Element Method

Historical remark: Galerkin method and FEM

In russsian literature the Galerkin method is referred to Bubnov method published in 1914 (Bubnov

I.G.: Stroitelnaja mechanika korablja. II. SPB-Tipografija morskogo ministerstva – Bubnov was a

designer of battleships). Galerkin published his works later Galerkin B.G. K voprosu ob issledovajii

naprjazenij i deformacij v uprugom izotropnom tele, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1930, Ser.A,

No.14, s.353-358. FEM application of Galerkin method was developed much later in connection to

analysis of catastrophes of british jet-liners Comet. Turner M.J. et al: Stiffness and deflection analysis

of complex structures. J. of Aeronautical Sciences, 23, pp.805-823 (1956).

NAP5

Pipe networks – circulation model

Fluid flow in a model of blood circulation (physical model in the laboratory of

cardiovascular mechanics). The model demonstrates that the FEM need not be

designed by Galerkin or even by weighted residual methods (in this case only

Bernoulli and continuity equations are used).

NAP5

Pipeline network - nodes

Nodal parameter are pressure p and the volumetric flowrate Q. It means that nodes

cannot be located at the branching points, where the flowrate is not defined!

16 where N is number of nodes and Nb

28

15 is number of end-points (where either

27 17 flowrate or pressure is prescribed as

14 22 a boundary condition)

20 29

9 7

25 24

12 6 21

26 8 5

10

11 It is not possible to define

13 pressure and flowrate at a

node simultaneously!!!

4 3

23

m Calculated pressure and flowrate

k Auxilliary node defining geometry of branching

1

-0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 X [m]

NAP5

Pipeline network - elements

Two different FE: two-nodes element generate 2 equations (Bernoulli’s equation

along streamline between nodes 1,2 and continuity equation) and a three-nodes FE

generating 3 equations (Bernoulli 1,2 and 1,3 plus continuity equation). Equations of

system are not generated by assembly of elements contributions. Equations are

generated directly at an element level. Number of unknowns agrees with the

number of generated equations: Number of

2N-Nb = 2Mp+3Mv elements BRANCH

Number of

Number of nodes

elements PIPE

d x2,y2,z2 p2,Q2

Number of end-

nodes

x1,y1,z1 p1,Q1

x2,y2,z2 p2,Q2

V1(2,3,4,23,d1,d2,d2) x3,y3,z3 p3,Q3

P1(1,2,d1) d1

x4,y4,z4

x1,y1,z1 p1,Q1

NAP5

Pipeline network - Bernoulli

Previous solution is based upon Bernoulli equation derived by integration of

momentum balance along streamline between nodes 1 and 2

dv 2 2 p2 p1

L12 + (v2 v1 ) + + g x ( x2 x1 ) + ez12 0

dt 2

The last term ez12 , energy loss [J/kg], depends on flowrate Q, apparent viscosity,

local losses, seez E.Fried, E.I.Idelcik: Flow resistance, a design guide for engineers, E.I.Idelcik:

Handbook of hydraulic resistances.

d 128 LQ 38 8Q 2

L ez12 t 4 + (1.2 + ) 2 4

d Re d

Q2

8Q12 300Q1 128 Q1L1 Q2 L2

d2 Q3 ez12 2 4 (k + 1) 12t + + ( + )

d1 d1

t1 t2

L2 3

d14

d24

d1

p1 p2 150

L1 12 (k + 1) 12t +

v1 2

Re1

2

Q1

NAP5

Pipeline network MATLAB

MATLAB possible solution: mainpq.m

NAP5

Truss, beam, shells

between calculation of pressures and

flowrates in pipelines and calculation of

forces and sisplacements in a frame

structure.

NAP5

Truss, beam, shells FEM

What is the difference between trusses and beams? Both are rods but

trusses are connected by joints (no moment can be transfered) while beams

are welded and are deformed by bending and torsional moments.

The same differences characterise membranes and shells. Membrane is an

analogy of truss (no bending moments, unlike shells).

Bernoulli beam deformed cross section remains perpendicular to the beam

axis

Timoshenko beam: deformed cross section remains planar but not

perpendicular to axis (effect of shear)

Analogy in shells

Kirchhoff plate – cross section perpendicular to the deformed mid plane

9analogy to Bernoulli beam)

Mindlin plate is analogy to Timoshenko beam

NAP5

Truss, beam, shells FEM

Following examples share the following features:

Solution is based upon deformation method, calculating displacements and

rotations at nodes (stresses are calculated ex post).

Deformation method corresponds to Lagrangean principle of minimum of total potentiual energy. There exist another

principles based upon complementary energy (Castiggliano) when primary results are forces or hybrid principles (Hu

Waschizu) calculating both kinematic and dynamic varibles as primary unknowns..

implemented as MATLAB functions. You can copy these functions and use

them for solution of particular problems.

NAP5

Truss FEM

Frame construction from trusses is computationally identical with the calculation

of pressures in pipeline networks. Instead of pressures are displacements of

nodes, the stiffness coefficient (cross-section x Young modulus) replaces the

friction factor and buoyancy is substituted by continuous load.

2u x fx(x), ux(x)

EA 2 + f x 0

x

Weighted residual method results to algebraic equations for displacements

Kij

bi

N i N j

N L L

u xj ( EA dx) N i f x dx

j 1 0

x x 0 Remark: FUNCTIONALISTs would

derived the same result in a simpler

way by minimising potential energy

L

1 du

and also the stiffness matrix is identical W ( EA( x ) 2 f xu x )dx

0

2 dx

EAe 1 1

[[ K ]]e

Le 1 1

NAP5

Trusses FEM

In this way it could be possible to solve only the simplest 1D problem of serially

connected springs in the direction x. Nodal displacements are generally vectors

ux,uy (2D case), uz (3D case).

Local matrices must be transformed to a global coordinate system shared by all

finite elements. For example the local element matrix 2 x 2 is to be transformed to

4 x 4 matrix in planar construction (each node is characterized by two

displacements ux, uy).

Transform from local to global coordinatge system concerns only rotations (one

rotation at 2D and three rotations at 3D frames).

y

u ux1 Fx1 c 0

uy

ux u 1 c s 0 0 u y1 F s 0 F 1

y1

u Fx 2 0

u

0 0 c s x2 c F 2

x 2

uy2 y2 0

F s

NAP5

Trusses FEM

Equations in local coordinate system

EAe 1 1 u 1 F 1

Le 1 1 u 2 F 2

After transformation

c 0 ux1 Fx1

EAe s 0 1 1 c s 0 0 u y1 Fy1

Le 0 c 1 1 0 0 c s ux 2 Fx 2

0 s u F

y2 y2

Final matrix in thee coordinate systém x,y

c2 cs c 2 cs

2 >> t=[c^2 c*s;c*s s^2];

EA cs s 2

cs s

[[ K ]]e e 2 >> ke=[t -t;-t t]

Le c cs c 2 cs

2

cs s 2

cs s

NAP5

Truss

Example 5

x=[0 1 0 1 2]; y=[0 0 1 1 2];

y con=[1 3; 2 3; 2 4; 3 4; 3 5; 4 5];

e5 a=[4e-4 4e-4 4e-4 4e-4 4e-4 4e-4];

e6 nu=length(x)

3 e4 ne=length(a)

4 n=2*nu;

k=zeros(n,n);b=zeros(n,1); assembly

e1 e2 e3 for e=1:ne

[kl,ig]=kloc(e,x,y,con,a);

x k(ig(1:4),ig(1:4))=k(ig(1:4),ig(1:4))+kl(1:4,1:4);

end

1 2 for i=1:4

k(i,:)=0;k(i,i)=1; nulové posuvy v uzlech 1,2 a

end zatížení -100N v uzlu 5 (ošklivé

řešení, platí jen pro danou topologii)

b(n)=-100;

Connectivity matrix p=k\b;

p are displacements

E=200e9;

ae=a(ie);

i1=con(ie,1);i2=con(ie,2);

ig=[2*i1-1 2*i1 2*i2-1 2*i2];

le=((x(i1)-x(i2))^2+(y(i1)-y(i2))^2)^0.5;

c=(x(i2)-x(i1))/le;s=(y(i2)-y(i1))/le;

td=E*ae/le*[c^2 c*s;c*s s^2];

kl=[td -td;-td td];

Stiffness matrix

of element

NAP5

Beams (pipes)

Displacement of neutral axis of a straight beam is described by

differential equation of the fourth order

Fx

z

4u z 2u z x

EI 4 + Fx 2 + kuz f z

x x fz

and fz(x) is continuous transversal load. Corresponding residual integral is

b

4 uzj N j 2 uzj N j

Ni ( EI

j

+ Fx j

+ k uzj N j f z )dx 0

a

x 4

x 2

j

Per partes integration is applied twice with the aim to decrease order of derivatives

2 Ni N j Ni N j

b 2 b

a a

The terms at boundary points resulting from per partes integration are neglected.

This is consistent with the assumption that strong boundary conditions (fixed

deformations) are applied or that there is no loading at boundary (free ends).

NAP5

Beams (pipes)

If you are not interested in details, skip these gray pages

The Bernoulli beam is described by ODE, relating bending moment M and resistive moment

2u z

EI 2 M ( x)

x

Where the second derivative is a measure of curvature (1/d 2u/dx2 radius of circular arc).

Bending moment can be caused by transversal force (reaction M=Fz(b-x)), but also by axial force Fx

2M F 2u z 4u z 2u z

M F ( x) (uz (b) uz ( x)) Fx Fx 2 EI 4 + Fx 2 0

x 2 x x x

This equation is a basis for stability analysis of axially loaded beams (Euler stability).

Bending moment M(x) corresponding to isolated transversal forces is only a linear function of x-coordinate and its second

derivative is zero. Only a continuous transversal loading or a continuous elastic support give moments with non-zero second

derivative

b x

M 2M 4u z

b

M ( x)

0

f z ( x + )d

x

f z ( )d

x

x 2

f z ( x) EI 4 f z ( x)

x

b

x Derivative of integral with

variable upper bound

M(x) M(x)

fz

NAP5

Beams (pipes)

Lets return back to the weighted residual method

4u z 2u z

b

Twice applied per partes to the first term and once applied per partes to the second term give

2 w 2u z w u z 3u z u z w 2u z b

b

New terms corresponding to boundary conditions at ends of beam are expressed in terms of moments and forces

Fz(b)

2 w 2u z w u z w

b M(b)

a x2 x 2 + + a 0

b

(EI F w( ku f )) dx [ wF M ]

x x x

x z z z

M(b)

Fz(a)

NAP5

Beams (pipes)

Strong and weak boundary conditions

Degrees of freedom (DOF) of the systém taken as a stiff body should be eliminated by STRONG boundary conditions

(nodal displacements and rotations). Strong BC are implemented easily by zeroing corresponding row of the system

matrix with the exception of diagonal element that is substituted by one and by specifying prescribed displacement as

the right hand side. If strong BC are satisfied at all approximations than the limit of approximations satisfies the BC too.

However, some boundary conditions cannot be specified as strong but WEAK (conditions containing first derivatives in

case of second order differential equations). But it is questionable whether they will comply with the prescribed

conditions and limitations of numerical solutions for refining the network elements. Not always, at least not when the

differential equation simply does not prescribe any parameter as a strong boundary condition. An example is the

equation of the beam entered the second derivative of the deflection lines

2u w u z u z L

L L

M EI 2z M ( x)

x

0 x x

EI dx [ wEI

x

]0 = wMdx

0

Cantilever beam loaded constant torque M. Linear The same task, but using the cubic basis functions.

basis functions. Nodes have a single parameter, Nodal parameters are displacement and rotation.

the displacement uz. Zero rotation at the fixed (x Zero rotation can be prescribed, but the solution with

= 0) or not possible to prescribe. a large number of elements ignores this condition

5 5

4 Exact solution

Mx 2 In the solution shown in the 4 20 elements

uz ( x)

3

assume that Natural boundary 3 1 element

1

conditions hold. Is it not the cause

0 of failure? 2 2 elements

-1

1 3 elements

-2

3 elementy

-3

0

-4

20 elementů

Exact solution

-5 -1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

NAP5

Beams (pipes)

u z L

Neglecting the term [ wEI ]0 assumes zero duz/dx at the end-point L. The equation

x

of weighted residuals method is really trying to accomplish (this is evident from the previous figures, where an approximation of the deflection line

by linear and cubic polynomials respect this unwanted boundary condition). When we include the boundary term into the stiffness matrix, the

result will be improved (for cubic polynomials solutions will be even accurate), but the boundary condition of zero rotation is not satisfied when

using linear polynomials. It is due to the fact that for second order differential equations only displacements can be applied as the strong boundary

condition. The first derivative of displacement (rotation) can be prescribed as a strong boundary condition only for the fourth-order equations.

u z L

Linear base functions [ wEI ]0

4 4 Cubic base x

3 3

Arbitrary number of

2 2

elements

3 elements 20 elements

1 1

0 0

-1 -1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Boundary conditions, which a priori ensures each approximation solutions are called strong, while the boundary conditions

transferred to the integral formula MWR application integration by parts are weak. For differential equations 2s-th order

weak boundary conditions in a least s-normal derivatives, boundary conditions with lower derivatives are strong. For

second order differential equations are strong boundary conditions prescribed values and weak conditions include the first

derivative, while the fourth order equation (like bending plates) are strong boundary condition values and first derivative

(displacements and rotations, ie kinematic conditions), poor conditions concern until the second or third derivative (stressful

conditions, the second derivative of corresponding moments M = EId 2u / dx2, the third derivative of a rolling force F = -EI

d3u / dx3). Compliance with weak boundary conditions is a matter of correct choices integral formula for the method of

weighted residuals and can not enforce them by fixing the nodal parameters.

NAP5

Beams (pipes)

The final formulation of the Galerkin method of weighted residuals for

Bernoulli’s beam on elastic foundation

Fz

M

Fx

z

x

fz

2 Ni N j Ni N j Ni

b 2 b

j x2 x2 x x x

[ ( EI F + kN i N j ) dx ]u zj N i f z dx + [ N i Fz +

x

M ]b

a

a a

Forces and

[[K]] load

moments

Remark.: Do not forget that this is still only very simplified model of the beam, functioning only

for small deformations, slender beams (not considering shear forces as Timošenko model) and

does not even have axial stiffness. The model calculates only with a bending stiffness!

NAP5

Beams (pipes)

Significant difference from the problem with trusses is that there are now the

second derivatives of basis functions in the integrand and therefore it is not

possible to use linear polynomials - basis functions must be constructed so as to

have a continuous first derivative, for example the Hermite cubic polynomials

Base function having zero first

Basis function equal to 0 on all

derivative e at all nodes and in a

nodes and in single node is the

single node the value is 1

first derivative equal to 1 N zi ( x)

N di (x)

i i+1

( x xi 1 ) 2 ( x xi ) i i+1

( x xi 1 )2 (3xi xi 1 2 x)

N di ( x) N zi ( x)

Expression of

deflection line

( xi xi 1 )2 ( xi xi 1 )3

uz ( x) uz1N z1 ( x) + 1Nd1 ( x) + uz 2 N z 2 ( x) + 2 N d 2 ( x)

Substituting Hermite polynomials into integrand results to a system of linear

algebraic equations whose matrix is the sum of three matrices

[[ K ]] [[ K M ]] Fx [[ K F ]] + [[ M ]]

[[KM]] bending stiffness, [[KF]] geometrical stiffness, [[M]] is mass matrix

NAP5

Beams (pipes)

Results for element of length L

Nodal parameters

u zi (transversal displacement

and rotation)

i

12 6 L 12 6 L

6 L 2 L2

2 Ni N j

2

1 L

EI 4 L2

[[ K M ]] EI dx 3

0.8

x 2

x 2

L 12 6 L

0

Stiffness matrix

0.6

N1 sym 4 L2

N2

0.4 N3

36 3L 36 3L

N4

3L L2

0.2

Ni N j 4 L2

L

1

0

[[ K F ]] dx

30 L 36 3L

0 0.5 1

x x

-0.2

0

Geometry stiffness

sym 4 L2

N1 1 3( x / L) 2 + 2( x / L)3

2 156 22 L 54 13L

2N x (1 2 x / L + ( x / L ) )

L 4 L2 13L 3L2

N3 3( x / L) 2 2( x / L)3 [[ M ]] kNi N j dx

kL

420 156 22 L

N 4 x ( x / L + ( x / L) )

2

2

0

Mass matrix

sym 4 L

NAP5

Beams (pipes) MATLAB

12 6 L 12 6 L

4 L2 6 L 2 L2

EI

function [kstif,kgeom,mass,ig]=kloc(ie,x,y,con,ei,k) [[ K M ]] 3

L 12 6 L

EI=ei(ie);E=200e9;

i1=con(ie,1);i2=con(ie,2); sym 4 L2

ig=[2*i1-1 2*i1 2*i2-1 2*i2];

l=((x(i1)-x(i2))^2+(y(i1)-y(i2))^2)^0.5; 36 3L 36 3L

kstif=EI*E/l^3*[12 6*l -12 6*l;6*l 4*l^2 -6*l 2*l^2; 4 L2 3L L2

1

-12 -6*l 12 -6*l;6*l 2*l^2 -6*l 4*l^2]; [[ K F ]]

30 L 36 3L

kgeom=1/(30*l)*[36 3*l -36 3*l;3*l 4*l^2 -3*l -l^2;

-36 -3*l 36 -3*l;3*l -l^2 -3*l 4*l^2]; sym 4 L2

mass=k*l/420*[156 22*l 54 -13*l;22*l 4*l^2 13*l -3*l^2;

54 13*l 156 -22*l;-13*l -3*l^2 -22*l 4*l^2]; 156 22 L 54 13L

4 L2 13L 3L2

kL

Nodal [[ M ]]

u zi parems 420 156 22 L

i sym 4 L2

These matrices can be used to construct several elements, but only oriented

along the axis x (mass matrix will be use when analyzing vibration of beams,

geometric stiffness matrix for the investigation of stability). In each node are two

calculated parameters, deflection and bending angle of deflection. We can not use

the coordinate transformation for rotating the truss beams as well as for rods,

because the cantilever element has zero stiffness in the x direction. The addition

of stiffness matrix of the beam stiffness of the element type of rod is shown in the

following example.

NAP5

Beams frame 1/3

Stiffness matrix of steel beam + truss

uy z

function [kstif,ig]=klocp(ie,x,y,con,ei,ea) AL2 AL2

EI=ei(ie);EA=ea(ie); E=200e9; I 0 0 0 0

i1=con(ie,1);i2=con(ie,2); ux I

ig=[3*i1-2 3*i1-1 3*i1 3*i2-2 3*i2-1 3*i2]; 12 6 L 0 12 6 L

l=((x(i1)-x(i2))^2+(y(i1)-y(i2))^2)^0.5; EI 4 L2 0 6 L 2 L2

[[ K ]] 3

c=(x(i2)-x(i1))/l;s=(y(i2)-y(i1))/l; L AL2

r=[c s 0;-s c 0;0 0 1];z=zeros(3,3); 0 0

I

Q=[r z;z r];

12 6 L

km=EI*E/l^3*[EA*l^2/EI 0 0 -EA*l^2/EI 0 0; sym

0 12 6*l 0 -12 6*l; 4 L2

0 6*l 4*l^2 0 -6*l 2*l^2;

-EA*l^2/EI 0 0 EA*l^2/EI 0 0;

0 -12 -6*l 0 12 -6*l;

Previous matrix [[KM]] extended by first and fourth

0 6*l 2*l^2 0 -6*l 4*l^2]; rows and columns (inserting stiffness matrix of

kstif=Q'*km*Q; truss)

Transformation to global

coordinate system

Generalised

C S 0 0 0 0

displacements

S C 0 0 0 0

uy z Generalised loads

0 0 1 0 0 0

Q , C cos , S sin

u xi Fxi

0 0 0 C S 0

0 0 0 S C 0 u yi

ux

Fyi

0 0 0 0 0 1 i M

i

NAP5

Beams frame 2/3

Nodal coordinates, connectiv ity matrix, assembly, boundary values

spacification and solution of systém is the same as with trusses

Inertia moment for pipe I ( D24 D14 )

Square cross section 1x1 cm. 64

bh3

Area 1e-4 m2, inertia moment Inertia moment for rectangular profile I

I=8.3333e-10 m4 12

con=[1 2; 2 3];

ei=[8.3333e-10 8.3333e-10];ea=[1e-4 1e-4];

nu=length(x)

ne=length(ea)

Fy=-100 N

n=3*nu;

k=zeros(n,n);b=zeros(n,1);

for e=1:ne

e1 [kl,ig]=klocp(e,x,y,con,ei,ea);

x k(ig(1:6),ig(1:6))=k(ig(1:6),ig(1:6))+kl(1:6,1:6);

1 end

for i=1:3

k(i,:)=0;k(i,i)=1;

end

Zero displacement and rotation

b(n-1)=-100; in node 1 and load -100N at

p=k\b; node 3

NAP5

Beams frame 3/3

Result is vector of nodal parameters p(1:9), generalised displacements

p=

-0.0000 ux1

0.0000 uy1

0 1

0.3000 ux2

-0.0000 uy2

-0.6000 2

0.3000 ux3

-0.8000 uy3

-0.9000 3

Internal forces and moments are calculated as the product of stiffness matrix of

particular element times displacement vector (in this element). For example element 2

f=kl*p(ig(1:6))

kl local stiffness matrix

f= ig selects 6 corresponding displacements

from the vector of global displacements p.

0 Fx2

100.0000 Fy2

100.0000 M2 arm of force 1m, force 100 N

0 Fx3

-100.0000 Fy3

0.0000 M3

NAP5

Rotationally symmetric shells

In rotationally symmetric vessels loaded eg. by internal pressure exist normal

membrane stresses (formulas of type pr / s), but at the locations, where the

curvature or thickness of wall changes, bending and shear stresses appears (wave

of stresses in range typically (rs) ). The vessel is then to be understood as a shell.

FEM systems, e.g. ANSYS, COSMOS, ... always contain spatial shell elements

(curved triangles or quadrangles), but for application to rotationally symmetric shells

are sufficient and important only 2-nodal elements (representing a conical ring).

Perhaps the most successful element of this type already suggested about 30 years ago ing.Vykutil (VUT

Brno), is implemented in Femina and is easy to write in MATLAB

See Schneider P., Vykutil J.:Aplikovaná metoda konečných prvků, skripta VÚT Brno, 1997.

FEMINA (Vykutilovský element)

NAP5

Rotationally symmetric shells

Element representing the conical ring has two nodes and each node 3 parameters:

displacement in the axial direction ux, uy radial direction and rotation .

N

r=y 2 u x1

ur1 M u y1

rz1=

[u ] 1

1

ux1 ux2

u

y2

r

x 2

[[ K ]]e rL[[ B]]T [[ D]] [[ B]]

Derivatives of base

c s 0 c s 0

1 0 0 0 L L

h2 h2 0 0 0 0

Eh 0 0

0 2r 2r

12 12 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

[[ D]]5 x 5

1 2 [[ B]]5 x 6

h2 h2 L 0 sL sL

0 0 0 0 0 0

12 12 2r 2r

L L

5(1 ) s c s c

0 0 0 0 2 2

12

NAP5

Rotationally symmetric shells

MATLAB

function [kstif,bp,ig]=kloc(ie,x,y,con,he,pe)

% kstif(6x6) matice tuhosti, bp(6) zatížení tlakem, ig(6) indexy globální soustavy c s 0 c s 0

% ie index elementu,x(),y() globalni souradnice, con(:,2) konektivita L L

0 0 0 0

% he() tloušťky stěn, pe() vnitřní přetlaky 2r 2r

1 0 0 1

[[ B]]5 x 6

E=200e9;mi=0.28;h=he(ie);p=pe(ie); 0 0 1

i1=con(ie,1);i2=con(ie,2); L 0 sL sL

0 0 0

ig=[3*i1-2 3*i1-1 3*i1 3*i2-2 3*i2-1 3*i2]; 2r 2r

L L

r1=y(i1);r2=y(i2); s c s c

l=((x(i1)-x(i2))^2+(r1-r2)^2)^0.5; 2 2

r=(r1+r2)/2;

c=(x(i2)-x(i1))/l;s=(r2-r1)/l;

b=1/l*[-c -s 0 c s 0; 1 0 0 0

0 l/(2*r) 0 0 l/(2*r) 0; 1 0 0 0

0 0 -1 0 0 1; h2 h2

0 0 s*l/(2*r) 0 0 s*l/(2*r); Eh 0 0 0

-s -c l/2 s -c l/2]; [[ D]]5 x 5 12 12

1 2

h 2

h2

d=E*h/(1-mi^2)*[1 mi 0 0 0; 0 0 0

mi 1 0 0 0; 12 12

0 0 h^2/12 mi*h^2/12 0; 5(1 )

0 0 0 0

0 0 mi*h^2/12 h^2/12 0; 12

0 0 0 0 5*(1-mi)/12];

kstif=r*l*b'*d*b;

pl=p*l/8;

bp=[-pl*s*(3*r1+r2) pl*c*(3*r1+r2) 0 -pl*s*(3*r2+r1) pl*c*(3*r2+r1) 0];

Pressure loading

NAP5

Rotationally symmetric shells

Solution of system [[K]][u]=[b] is vector of generalized displacements,

for element with nodes 1,2

N

u x1

r=y 2

u y1 ur1 M

rz1=

[u ] 1 1

ux2 ux1

u

y2

x

2

Eh Eh u x 2 u x1 u u r1 u + u r1

5 generalized forces: N ( + ) [ cos + r 2 sin + r 2 ]

1 2

1 2

L L 2R

N [N/m] meridian membrane force

Eh Eh u u x1 u u r1 u + u r1

N ( + ) [ ( x 2 cos + r 2 sin ) + r 2 ]

N [N/m] circumferential force 1 2

1 2

L L 2R

M ( + ) [ 2 + sin 2 ]

12(1 )

2

12(1 )

2

L 2R

M [N] circumferential moment

Eh 3 Eh 3 1 + 1

M ( + ) [ 2 + sin 2 ]

Q [N/m] transversal force 12(1 )

2

12(1 )

2

L 2R

5Eh u u x1 u u r1 + 1

Q [ x2 sin + r 2 cos + 2 ]

12(1 + ) L L 2

NAP5

FEM 2D and 3D elements

Truss, beam, but also the rotary shell are typical 1D finite elements

corresponding to ordinary differential equations for displacement, deflection or

rotation of a single independent variable (length in the direction of the

coordinate axis of the element). Analogous equations for displacements,

deflections or rotations also applies to 2D or 3D elements (eg. triangles,

tetrahedrons, hexahedron ...). Basis weight functions and Ni are, however, a

function of x, y, z (again it may e.g. linear or Hermite polynomials). Application

of Galerkin method and implementation of assembly, boundary conditions and

the solution of system of algebraic equations is the same for 1D, 2D or 3D

elements.

The 2D and 3D problems differ from the 1D problems more or less formally,

because corresponding differential equations are partial differential equations

and not ordinary differential equations (because there is more than one

independent variable, x,y,z). A solution of partial differential equations will be a

subject of next lecture ...

NAP5

What is important

described by ordinary differential equations. It is quite extensive and

quite important, it is important to remember that a little more than

usual ...

NAP5

What is important

How to use solution of eigenproblem for transformation of

differential equations to separated equations

[[ A]] [[U ]] [[U ]] [[ ]]

Weighted residual method. What is it weight function. Type

of weight functions used in spectral, finite element, finite res ( x)w( x)dx 0

N

volumes and collocation methods. p ( x) p j N j ( x)

j 1

p k

FEM for solution of popeline networks (k ) g x

(incompressible fluid, steady state). x x x

N i N j k

N L L

p j ( k dx) N i g x dx

Finite element PIPE j 1 x x x

ke 1 1

0 0

[[ K ]]e

Le 1 1

Assembly of elements to global matrix for e=1:ne

[kl,ig]=kloc(e);

k(ig(1:2),ig(1:2))=k(ig(1:2),ig(1:2))+kl(1:2,1:2);

end

NAP5

What is important

What is the difference between truss, beam and membrane, shell.

FEM for trusses

2u x EAe 1 1

EA 2 + f x 0 [[ K ]]e

x Le 1 1

Transformation from local coordinate systém of element to global coordinate u

x1

systém x,y

u 1 c s 0 0 u y1

u 2 0 0 c s ux 2

u

y2

FEM for beams. Cubic polynomials

4u z 2u z

EI 4 + Fx 2 + kuz f z

x x

Bending and geometrical stiffness, mass matrix

2 Ni N j N N j

L 2 L L

[[ K M ]] EI dx [[ K F ]] i dx [[ M ]] kN i N j dx

0

x 2

x 2

0

x x 0

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