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KONSEP DASAR

PENCEGAHAN
KECELAKAAN KERJA
KECELAKAAN
(Industrial Accident)
• Tidak direncanakan (unplanned)
• Terjadinya tiba-tiba (suddenly)
• Menghentikan proses yg direncanakan
• Tidak diinginkan (undesired)
• Mengakibatkan :
– Meninggal
– Penyakit akibat kerja
– Cidera
– Kerusakan asset
– Kerusakan lingkungan
– Peningkatan liabilitas
ACCIDENT
NEAR MISS
Undesired Circumstance
Happen
CONSEQUENCES After ACCIDENT
the

I njury
D amage
CAUSES
L oss
E motion P lant, Processes, Premises
E quipment
All of which could not
E nvironment
happen without
P EOPLE
REMOVE THE CAUSES S ystems of work

PREVENT THE ACCIDENT


TEORI KECELAKAAN
• TEORI DOMINO
• SINGLE FACTOR THEORY
• MULTIPLE FACTOR THEORY
• TEORI 4MS`
• ENERGY THEORY
• TEORI De Reamer
• Reason’s “Swiss-cheese” Model of Human
Error
• The ILCI Loss Causation Model
• Dan lain-lain
I. Teori DOMINO
TEORI DOMINO
(William W. Heinrich 1930’s)

A B C D E

LINGKUNGAN SIFAT PERBUATAN/ KECELAKAAN


SOSIAL CIDERA/RUSAK
INDIVIDU KONDISI
BERBAHAYA

(Diluar perusahaan) (Dalam perusahaan)

PERSYARATAN PENGENDALIAN :
~ MENGENDALIKAN DAN MENIADAKAN
PERBUATAN/KONDISI BERBAHAYA
TEORI DOMINO
Konsep Pencegahan Kecelakaan

Mistake of PEOPLE EFFECT


PERBUATAN BERBAHAYA
(UNSAFE ACTION)

• Menjalankan Mesin/ • Mengambil posisi pada


Peralatan tanpa tempat yang berbahaya
wewenang • Membetulkan mesin dalam
• Menjalankan Mesin/ keadaan jalan
Peralatan dgn • Lalai memberikan
kecepatan yg tidak peringatan atau lupa
semestinya mengamankan tempat kerja
• Membuat Alat • Bersenda gurau tidak pada
Pengaman/K3 tidak tempatnya
berfungsi • Memaksakan diri untuk
• Lalai menggunakan bekerja walaupun sakit
APD • Merancang /memasang
• Mengangkat barang peralatan tanpa pengaman
dengan cara yg salah
KENAPA PERBUATAN TIDAK
AMAN DILAKUKAN

• KURANG PENGETAHUAN
• KURANG TERAMPIL/ PENGALAMAN
• TIDAK ADA KEMAUAN
• FAKTOR KELELAHAN
• JENIS PEKERJAAN YG TIDAK SESUAI
• GANGGUAN MENTAL
• KESALAHAN DALAM SIFAT DAN
TINGKAH LAKU MANUSIA
KONDISI BERBAHAYA
(UNSAFE CONDITION)

• Pelindung atau • Kebersihan lingkungan


pengaman yang tidak kerja yang jelek
memadai • Polusi udara di ruangan
• Peralatan/ perkakas kerja (gas, uap, asap,
dan bahan yang rusak debu dsb.)
tetap digunakan
• Kebisingan yang
• Penempatan barang
berlebihan
yang salah
• Sistem peringatan yang • Pemaparan Radiasi
tidak memadai • Ventilasi yang tidak
• Pengabaian terhadap memadai
perkiraan bahaya • Penerangan yang tidak
kebakaran/peledakan memadai
PENYEBAB TERJADINYA KONDISI
BERBAHAYA

ENERGY MATERIAL

KONDISI
BERBAHAYA

SITE &
STRUCTURE MACHINERY
DISEBABKAN OLEH :
-Environmental Stress
-Failures
-Design Characteristics
THE ACCIDENT TRIANGLE

Serious or fatal injury

Minor injury

Damage only

RESULT No injury or damage

CAUSES Substandard Practices Unsafe Acts and


And Conditions Condition
HEINRICH`S ACCIDENT TRIANGLE

1 Serious or fatal injury (0,33%)

29 Minor injury (8,78%)

No injury accidents
RESULT 300 (90,90%)

CAUSES 3000 Unsafe Acts and


Condition
FINDING ROOT CAUSE

S3-6
II. SINGLE FACTOR THEORIES
SINGLE FACTOR THEORIES

• PENDAPAT INDIVIDU YANG TIDAK


PERNAH MEMAHAMI DAN
MENGETAHUI :
– PENCEGAHAN KECELAKAAN (accident
prevention)
– PENYELIDIKAN KECELAKAAN (accident
investigation)
III. MULTIPLE FACTOR THEORIES
MULTIPLE FACTOR THEORIES

• V.L. GROSE (1972)


• 4 FAKTOR SISTEM K3 (4 M`s)
– MAN
– MACHINE
– MEDIA
– MANAGEMENT
KHARAKTERISTIK 4M`S

MAN

• USIA • PENDIDIKAN/
• JENIS KELAMIN LATIHAN
• FISIK • KOMPETENSI
• SKILL • MOTIVASI
• SIKAP/PERILAKU • EMOSIONAL
• PENGALAMAN • INFORMASI
• RISK PERCEPTION • DSB
KHARAKTERISTIK 4M`S

MACHINE

• UKURAN (size) • KONSTRUKSI


• BERAT • MATERIAL
• BENTUK • TYPE OF ACTION/
• SUMBER ENERJI MOTION
• PENGAMAN MESIN • SPESIFIKASI TEHNIK
(machine guarding) • DSB.
KHARAKTERISTIK 4M`S

MEDIA

• SUHU • KEBISINGAN
• LINGKUNGAN • DEBU
PADAT/KUMUH • EMISI GAS
• KELEMBABAN • UAP/KABUT
• SIRKULASI • ASAP
UDARA • DSB.
KHARAKTERISTIK 4M`S

MANAGEMENT
• MANAGEMENT • BUDAYA
STYLE PERUSAHAAN
• STRUKTUR • TUGAS POKOK DAN
FUNGSI UNIT
ORGANISASI
ORGANISASI
• SUMBERDAYA • KEBIJAKAN DAN
(RESOURCES) PROSEDUR
• ALIRAN • INSTRUKSI KERJA
KOMUNIKASI • URAIAN TUGAS
• LEADERSHIP • DSB.
KHARAKTERISTIK 4M`S

CONTROL MEASURES

• STATISTICAL • CAUSES AND


TECHNIQUES EFFECT ANALYSIS
• FAULT TREE • FISH BONE
ANALYSIS (FTA) ANALYSIS
• EVENT TREE • DSB.
ANALYSIS (ETA)
Typical Control Measures

• Eliminate (eq. Remove the hazards)


• Prevent (eq. Prevent cause of hazard)
• Reduce (eq. Reduce the size of hazard)
• Mitigate (eq. Prevent or reduce impact of
hazard)
IV. ENERGY THEORY
ENERGY THEORY

• WILLIAM HADDON (1970)


• PENYEBAB KECELAKAAN :
TRANSFER OF ENERGY
• TEORI INI DISEBUT JUGA : energy
release theory
• CONTROL STRATEGY : (10)
SUMBER ENERJI
(Energy Sources)
• Enerji diartikan sebagai gerakan atau
kemungkinan menimbulkan gerakan;
• Sumber enerji potensial :
 Electrical
 Mechanical
 Hydraulic
 Pneumatic
 Chemical
 Thermal
 Gravitational
 Speed
SUMBER ENERGI
• Gravitasi :: daya tarik bumi thd • Suhu : panas atau dingin, mis. :
massa/bumi, mis.: benda jatuh api terbuka, percikan api,
• Gerakan : perubahan posisi cairan/gas/uap panas atau
dingin, cuaca
benda/zat, mis. : gerakan • Kimia : energi yg ada dlm bhn
kendaraan, angin, air, posisi kimia apakah sendiri atau mell
tubuh reaksi, mis. : kebakaran,
• Mekanika : energi dari komponen eksplosif, toksik, korosif, irritatif,
sistem mekanik spt putaran, karsinogenik
getaran dari peralatan yg tdk • Biologi : organisme hidup, mis.:
bergerak, mis.: peralatan berputar, bakteri, virus, kuman, serangga,
ban berjalan, sabuk berputar, jamur, parasit, hewan
mesin
• Radiasi : energi yg terpencar
• Listrik : keberadaan muatan dan dari radioaktif, mis. : las listrik,
arus listrik, mis.: kabel listrik, trafo, gelomnbang mikro, sinar laser,
listrik statis, petir, instalasi listrik, bhn radioaktif
battery
• Bahaya bunyi : suara bising dari
• Tekanan : cairan/gas yg aktivitas kerja, mis.: getaran,
dimampatkan dlm kondisi hampa pelepasan energi tekanan tinggi
udara, mis. : pipa bertekanan,
bejana, tangki, selang
ENERGY THEORY

CONTROL STRATEGY
1. MENGHINDARKAN PENGGUNAAN ENERJI
BERPOTENSI BAHAYA TINGGI
2. MENEKAN JUMLAH ENERJI YANG
DIGUNAKAN
3. MENCEGAH TERLEPASNYA ENERJI
4. MERUBAH TINGKAT ENERJI YANG
TERLEPAS DARI SUMBERNYA
5. MEMISAHKAN ENERJI YANG DILEPASKAN
SESUAI DENGAN WAKTU/ TEMPAT
ENERGY THEORY

CONTROL STRATEGY

6. MEMISAHKAN ENERJI YANG AKAN


DILEPASKAN DENGAN BANGUNAN/ ORANG
7. MERUBAH PERMUKAAN BANGUNAN
8. MENGUATKAN KONDISI BANGUNAN /MANUSIA
9. DITEKSI DINI TERHADAP KERUSAKAN
10. MEMPERTAHANKAN KONDISI YANG STABIL
V. TEORI De Reamer (1980)
TEORI De Reamer (1980)
PENYEBAB KECELAKAAN,
DIKELOMPOKKAN DALAM 2 KELOMPOK

1. IMMEDIATE CAUSES
(penyebab langsung)
2. CONTRIBUTING CAUSES
(penyebab penyumbang)
IMMEDIATE CAUSE
(PENYEBAB LANGSUNG)

TERMASUK DALAM KELOMPOK INI :

1. UNSAFE ACTS
(perbuatan berbahaya)
2. UNSAFE CONDITIONS
(kondisi berbahaya)
CONTRIBUTING CAUSES
(PENYEBAB PENYUMBANG)

TERMASUK DALAM KELOMPOK INI :


1. KONDISI FISIK PEKERJA
(physical condition of worker)
2. KONDISI MENTAL PEKERJA
(mental condition of worker)
3. KEBIJAKAN MANAJEMEN
(management policies)
PENYEBAB KECELAKAAN
(De Reamer Theory)

IMMEDIATE KASUS CONTRIBUTING


KECELAKAAN
CAUSES
CAUSES
1.Manajemen
1.PERBUATAN AKIBAT dan Supervisi
BERBAHAYA KECELAKAAN
(Unsafe Acts)
2.Kondisi Mental
2.KONDISI -Cidera Pekerja
-Kerusakan Asset
BERBAHAYA -Kerusakan Lingkungan
(Unsafe Conditions) -Berpengaruh thd : 3. Kondisi Fisik
-Produktivitas, Kualitas, Pekerja
Effisiensi Biaya, Loss
POO
POORR
BASIC
BASIC MAN
CAUSES MANAGE
AGEMEN
MENTT
CAUSES

INDIRECT
INDIRECT UNSAFE UNSAFE
CAUSES
CAUSES CONDITIONS ACTS

UNPLANNED
DIRECT
DIRECT RELEASE OF
CAUSES
CAUSES ENERGY

ACCIDENT
STRUCTURE OF ACCIDENT
INFLUENCES ON ACCIDENT CAUSATION
(Caruana,S.A.- 2004)

IMMEDIATE ORGANISATIONAL CORPORATE EXTERNAL


CAUSES CAUSES INFLUENCES INFLUENCES
-Equipment -Management/ -Organisational -Regulation
Design Supervision -Political
-Working -Communication change environment
environment -Recruitment/ -Ownership and -Customers
-Inspection & Selection Control -Public
maintenance -Training -Safety Mgt perception
-Risk perception -Planning system -Economic
-Motivation -Procedures -Procurement Factors
-Pressure -Incident
-Fatigue Management &
-Compliances Feedback
-Competence
PERSYARATAN PENGENDALIAN
(Control Measures)
/ELIMINATION

PPE
Safety helm/
shoes/
Harness
etc
VI. SWISS CHEESE
MODEL OF DEFENCE
SWISS CHEESE MODEL OF DEFENCE
The Concept of Accident Causation
Third Stage Control :
First Stage Control : Control of Outputs :
Control of Input : -Products and Services
- Physical Resources -By Products
- Human Resources -Information
- Information Organisation
Objective :
Objective: To minimise risks
To minimise People outside the organi-
hazards entering sation from work
the organisation activities, products
and services
Procedures

Premises Plant and


(workplaces) Substances

The Job
Second Stage Control :
Control of Work Activities : People, Procedures, Plant&Substances, Premises.
Objectives : To Eliminate and minimise risks inside the organisation.
To create a supportive organisational culture.
No Accident
Defences

Safe Acts
Preconditions
Line Management

Decision Makers

Safe Acts and


Latent Safe Conditions

Latent Safe Conditions


Defences Accident

Unsafe Acts
Preconditions

Line Management

Decision Makers
REASON’S Defences
MODEL
Unsafe Acts
Preconditions
Window
Line Management of Opportunity
Decision Makers

Unsafe Acts
and Latent
Unsafe Conditions

Latent Unsafe Conditions


REASON’S Defences
Accident
MODEL
Unsafe Acts
Preconditions
Window
Line Management of Opportunity
Decision Makers

Unsafe Acts
and Latent
Unsafe Conditions

Latent Unsafe Conditions


SWISS CHEESE MODEL OF DEFENCE
Reason’s “Swiss-cheese”
Model of Human Error Causation
Latent Failures
Input Organizational
Factor
Latent Failures
Unsafe
Supervision

Precondition Latent Failures


For
Unsafe Acts

Active Failures

Unsafe
Acts
Failed or
Absent Defenses

Accident &
Injury
Reason’s (1990)
Concept of Latent and Active Failures
(Human Factors Analysis and Classification System)

Four levels of failure :

1. Unsafe Acts;
2. Preconditions for Unsafe Acts;
3. Unsafe Supervision; and
4. Organizational Influences.
Categories of Unsafe Acts

UNSAFE
ACTS

Errors Violations

Decision Skill-Based Perceptual Routine Exceptional


Errors Errors Errors
ERRORS
Selected Examples of Unsafe Acts
SKILL-BASED ERRORS :
• Breakdown in visual scan
• Failed to priorities attention
• Inadvertent use of flight controls
• Omitted step in procedure
• Omitted checklist item
• Poor technique
• Over-controlled the aircraft
ERRORS
Selected Examples of Unsafe Acts
DECISION ERRORS :
• Improper procedure
• Misdiagnosed emergency
• Wrong response to emergency
• Exceeded ability
• Inappropriate maneuver
• Poor decision
ERRORS
Selected Examples of Unsafe Acts

PERCEPTUAL ERRORS (due to) :


• Misjudged distance/altitude/airspeed
• Spatial disorientation
• Visual illusion
VIOLATIONS
Selected Examples of Unsafe Acts
VIOLATIONS :
• Failed to adhere to brief
• Failed to use the radar altimeter
• Flew an unauthorized approach
• Violated training rules
• Flew an overaggressive maneuver
• Failed to properly prepare for the flight
• Briefed unauthorized flight
• Not current/qualified for the mission
• Intentionally exceeded the limits of the aircraft
• Continued low-altitude flight in VMC
• Unauthorized low-altitude canyon running
Categories of
Preconditions of Unsafe Acts
PRECONDTIONS FOR
UNSAFE ACTS

Substandard Substandard
Condition of Practices of
Operators Operators

Adverse Adverse Physical/ Crew Personal


Mental Physiological Mental Resource Readiness
States States Limitation Mis-mgt
Preconditions of Unsafe Acts
Substandard Conditions of Operators

ADVERSE MENTAL STATES :


• Channelized attention
• Complacency
• Distraction
• Mental fatigue
• Get-home-it is
• Haste
• Loss of situational awareness
• Misplaced motivation
• Task saturation
Preconditions of Unsafe Acts
Substandard Conditions of Operators

ADVERSE PHYSIOLOGICAL STATES :


• Impaired physiological state
• Medical illness
• Physiological incapacitation
• Physical fatigue
Preconditions of Unsafe Acts
Substandard Conditions of Operators

PHYSICAL/MENTAL LIMITATION :
• Insufficient reaction time
• Visual limitation
• Incompatible intelligence/aptitude
• Incompatible physical capability
Preconditions of Unsafe Acts
Substandard Practice of Operators

CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT :


• Failed to back-up
• Failed to communication/coordinate
• Failed to conduct adequate brief
• Failed to use all available resources
• Failure of leadership
• Misinterpretation of traffic calls
Preconditions of Unsafe Acts
Substandard Practice of Operators

PERSONAL READINESS :

• Excessive physical training


• Self-medicating
• Violation of crew rest requirement
• Violation of bottle-to-throttle requirement
Categories of
UNSAFE SUPERVISION

UNSAFE
SUPERVISION

Inadequate Planned Failed to Supervisory


Supervision Inappropriate Correct Violation
Operations Problem
Categories of
UNSAFE SUPERVISION
INADEQUATE SUPERVISION :
• Failed to provide guidance
• Failed to provide operational doctrine
• Failed to provide oversight
• Failed to provide training
• Failed to track qualification
• Failed to track performance
Categories of
UNSAFE SUPERVISION

PLANNED INAPPROPRIATE OPERATIONS :

• Failed to provide correct data


• Failed to provide adequate brief time
• Improper manning
• Mission not in accordance with rules/ regulations
• Provided in adequate opportunity for crew rest
Categories of
UNSAFE SUPERVISION

FAILED TO CORRECT A KNOWN PROBLEM :

• Failed to correct document in error


• Failed to identify an at-risk aviator
• Failed to initiate corrective action
• Failed to correct unsafe tendencies
Categories of
UNSAFE SUPERVISION

SUPERVISORY VIOLATION :

• Authorized unnecessary hazard


• Failed to enforce rules and regulations
• Authorized unqualified crew for flight
Categories of
ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS
INFLUENCING ACCIDENTS

ORGANIZATIONAL
INFLUENCES

Resource Organizational Organizational


Management Climate Process
Categories of
ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING
ACCIDENTS

RESOURCE/ACQUISITION MANAGEMENT :
• Human Resources :
– Selection
– Staffing/manning
– Training
• Monetary/budget resources :
– Excessive cost cutting
– Lack of funding
• Equipment/facility resources :
– Poor design
– Purchasing of unsuitable equipment
Categories of
ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING
ACCIDENTS
ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE :
• Structure : • Culture :
– Chain-of-command – Norms and rules
– Delegation of authority – Values and benefits
– Communication – Organizational justuce
– Formal accountability for actions
• Policies :
– Hiring and firing
– Promotion
– Drug and alcohol
Categories of
ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING
ACCIDENTS
ORANIZATIONAL PROCESS :

• Operations : • Procedures :
– Operational tempo – Standards
– Time pressure – Clearly defined objectives
– Production quotas – Documentations
– Incentives – instructions
– Measurement/ appraisal • Oversight :
– Schedules – Risk management
– Deficient planning – Safety programs
ACCIDENT MODEL
HUMAN
FAILURE Unsafe acts

INCIDENT

Latent Unsafe Plant/


Errors Condition

Fail to
recover situation

ORGANISATION

PERSON JOB
Failure of ACCIDENT
ACCIDENT
mitigation
HUMAN FAILURE TYPES
SLIP
OF ACTIONS
SKILL BASED
ERRORS
LAPSE OF
MEMORY
ERRORS
RULE BASED
MISTAKE MISTAKE
HUMAN
FAILURE KNOWLEDGE
BASED MISTAKE
ROUTINE

VIOLATIONS SITUATIONAL

EXCEPTIONAL
VII. The ILCI Loss Caution Model
The ILCI
Loss Causation Model
Lack of Basic Immediate
INCIDENT LOSS
Control Causes Causes

People, Property,Process
Inadequate
Personal
Contact
Factors Substandard
with
Program Acts
Energy
and/or
or
Job Conditions
Substance
Factors
Standards

Compliance
LOSS
Dalam bentuk :
• Kerusakan :
– Peralatan dan sarana
– Material/bahan.
• Cidera pada manusia
• Pencemaran lingkungan
• Gangguan proses
INCIDENT

• Insiden diartikan sebagai kejadian,


dimana terjadi kontak dengan sumber
energi (kimia, fisik, mekanik, dan biologis)
yang tidak direncanakan.
BENTUK-BENTUK INSIDEN
• Menabrak/membentur (struck against)
• Terpukul/tertabrak (struck by)
• Jatuh dari tempat yang lebih tinggi (fall to bellow)
• Jatuh di tempat yang datar (fall on same level)
• Terperangkap masuk (caught in)
• Terperangkap pada (caught on)
• Terjepit (caught between)
• Kontak dengan (caught with)
• Bahan berlebihan (overload)
• Kegagalan mesin/peralatan (equipment failure)
• Bocoran ke lingkungan (environmental release)
IMMEDIATE CAUSES
(penyebab langsung)

Terdiri dari :
• Perbuatan berbahaya
(Substandard acts/practice)
• Kondisi berbahaya
(Substandar condition)
BASIC CAUSES

Terdiri dari :
• Factor manusia
(Personal factors)
• Factor pekerjaan
(Job factors)
FAKTOR MANUSIA
(personal factors)
Faktor manusia a.l :
• Kurang kemampuan (Inadequate capability)
• Kurang pengetahuan (lack of knowledge)
• Kurang keterampilan (lack of skill)
• Kurang motivasi (improper motivation)
• Mengalami stres (stress)
FAKTOR PEKERJAAN
(job factors)

Faktor pekerjaan a.l :


• Kurang kepemimpinan/pengawasan (Inadequate
leadership/supervision)
• Kelemahan perekayasaan (inadequate engineering)
• Kelemahan pengadaan (inadequate purchasing)
• Kurang pemeliharaan/perawatan (inadequate
maintenance)
• Kurang peralatan, sarana kerja, material
(inadequate tools, equipment, materials)
• Kurang standar kerja (inadequate work standard)
• Aus atau salah penggunaan ( wear and tear, abuse or
misuse)
KELEMAHAN PENGENDALIAN MANAJEMEN
(Lack of Management Control)

Kelemahan pengendalian Manajemen a.l :


• Program yang tidak memadai
(inadequate program)
• Standar dari program yang kurang
memadai
(inadequate program standards)
• Kurang kepatuhan terhadap standar
(inadequate compliance with standard)
HUMAN FAKTOR
HUMAN FACTOR

OR
AL

GA
DU

NI
IVI

ZA
HUMAN
IND

TI O
FACTOR
(Health & Safety Executive -1999)

JOB N

• The JOB – what people are ask to do


(task/workload/procedures/environment/equipment)
• The INDIVUAL – who is doing it
(competence/attitude/capability/risk perception)
• ORGANIZATION – how is the work organized
(leadership/resources/culture/communication)
HUMAN FACTOR
ORGANISATION AND INDIVIDUAL
JOB FACTOR MANAGEMENT FACTOR FACTOR

LATENT FAILURE

LATENT CONDITION

ACTIVE FAILURE
JOB FACTORS
• Illegal design of equipment and
instruments;
• Constant disturbances and interruptions;
• Missing or unclear instructions;
• Poorly maintained equipment;
• High workload;
• Noisy and unpleasant working conditions.
ORGANIZATION and
MANAGEMENT FACTORS
• Poor work planning, leading to high work
pressure;
• Lack of safety systems and barriers;
• Inadequate responses to previous incidents;
• Management based on one-way
communications;
• Deficient co-ordination and responsibilities;
• Poor management of safety and health;
• Poor safety and health culture.
INDIVIDUAL FACTORS

• Low skill and competence level;


• Tired staff;
• Individual medical problems;
• Bored or disheartened staff.
Latent Failures
(Human error & Violations)
1. Poor design of plant and equipment;
2. Ineffective training;
3. Inadequate supervision;
4. Ineffective communications;
5. Inadequate resources;
6. Uncertainties in roles and responsibilities.
Latent failure are usually hidden within an
organization : SERIOUS CONSEQUENCES
Latent Condition
• The managerial influences;
• Social pressures;
• Influences the design of equipment;
• Influences system;
• Define supervision inadequacies.
INFLUENCING DOMAINS
VIII. KONSEP LAIN DALAM MEMILIH
TINDAKAN PENCEGAHAN
KECELAKAAN KERJA
KONSEP LAIN DALAM MEMILIH
TINDAKAN
PENCEGAHAN KECELAKAAN
• MELALUI 4E`S :
– ENGINEERING
– EDUCATION
– ENFORCEMENT
– ENTHUSIASM
MELALUI 4E`S

ENGINEERING
• SUBSITUSI
• MODIFIKASI PROSES
• MENEKAN/MENGURANGI JUMLAH
INVENTORI
• DISAIN
• ALAT PENGAMAN/PELINDUNG
• WARNING SYSTEM
• DLL
MELALUI 4E`S

EDUCATION

• LATIHAN K3 UNTUK MANAJER, SUPERVISOR,


OPERATOR, PEKERJA BARU
• PENGGUNAAN PROSEDUR KERJA AMAN/SOP
• MENGOPERASIKAN MESIN DENGAN BENAR
DAN AMAN
• PENGGUNAAN ALAT PELINDUNG DIRI
• PROSEDUR KEADAAN DARURAT
• REGU PENANGGULANGAN KEBAKARAN
• PENILAIAN RISIKO
• DLL
MELALUI 4E`S

ENFORCEMENT

• MEMATUHI PERATURAN/ KETENTUAN/


SYARAT-SYARAT/STANDARD K3
MELALUI 4E`S

ENTHUSIASM

• MELIBATKAN DAN MEMOTIVASI TENAGA


KERJA
Three New E words for Leading Safety

E ngineering
E ducation Traditional Safety
E nforcement

E motion
E mphaty People Based Safety
E mpowerment
IX. STRATEGI PENCEGAHAN
KECELAKAAN KERJA
STRATEGI PENCEGAHAN
KECELAKAAN KERJA

• DIDASARKAN KEPADA :

– FREQUENCY (KEKERAPAN)
– SEVERITY (KEPARAHAN)
– COST (BIAYA)
– KOMBINASI
PENDEKATAN DALAM
PENCEGAHAN KECELAKAAN

1. PENDEKATAN REAKTIF

INVESTIGA PREVENTIVE
ACCIDENT ANALYSIS
TION ACTION
PENDEKATAN DALAM
PENCEGAHAN KECELAKAAN

2. PENDEKATAN PROAKTIF

ANALYSIS OF
PREVENTIVE
POTENTIAL ACCIDENT
PROGRAM
ACCIDENTS
SEKIAN