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GASTROENTERITIS

GASTRO (stomach)
ENTERO (Intestines)
-itis (Inflammation)
 Also known as Stomach flu, Traveler’s
Diarrhea, Gastro-infectious diarrhea
 Caused by Virus, bacteria that gain access
to your gut via mouth
 It can affect anyone/ anywhere/ Common
among 3rd world countries.
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
 Diarrhea
 Vomiting
 Abdominal pain
 Fever
If persists, it can lead to severe Dehydration which can
become a medical emergency
 Extreme thirst
 Not urinating/ small amt of urine
 Dry lips & mouth
 Dizziness
 Loss of skin turgor
Diagnosis

1. Stool exam – to identify the causative


agent.
2. Blood test – to look for signs that the
person may have dehydration (high levels
of Sodium and Creatinine)
Treatment
“ Oral Rehydration Therapy “
 Drink fluids
 IV fluids
1. Most cases of gastroenteritis get better on their own, within a week or so.
2. Self-care measures, such as making sure you stay hydrated, and avoiding
eating or drinking anything that might upset your stomach even more; for
example, spicy food, or alcohol.
3. If your symptoms are very severe, you may need to take antidiarrheal or
antiemetic medications to reduce diarrhea and vomiting. There are no
specific medications for treating viral gastroenteritis; however, you may be
given antibiotics if a specific causative microbe has been identified.
Antibiotics are only effective against bacterial infections and are often
avoided as much as possible in order to prevent the development of
antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria.
4. In very severe cases, you may need to go to hospital for intravenous fluids
and nutrition, and to avoid more serious complications.
Prevention
 These include washing your hands thoroughly, particularly after using the
toilet, and ensuring your children do too.
 Avoiding sharing eating utensils, and using separate personal items like
toothbrushes and towels.
 Disinfecting hard surfaces around your home, and keeping your distance if
you or a family member has an infection.
 It is also a good idea to wash all fruit and vegetables, and cook meat and
poultry all the way through, to kill any harmful bacteria that may be lurking
there.
Prognosis
 With proper treatment, the prognosis is excellent. Viral gastroenteritis is self-
limited; the typical episode lasts 3 to 7 days.
 acute gastroenteritis accounts for 1.5 to 2.5 million deaths annually.
Updates: IDSA Updates Guidelines on Acute Gastroenteritis
 Updated Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines on diagnosing and managing
acute gastroenteritis include advice that with the new, more sensitive tests, front-line
physicians may need to consult specialists when the results come back with organisms they
have not seen before.
 These culture-independent tests cut the diagnostic time by days, guideline coauthor Larry
Pickering, MD, from the Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Emory
University, Atlanta, Georgia, told Medscape Medical News. But because of their high
sensitivity, they may show unfamiliar organisms. Infectious disease experts can clarify what
the results mean and how they should be approached.
 The new guidelines by Andi L. Shane, MD, MPH, associate professor of pediatric infectious
diseases at Emory and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, and colleagues were published
online today in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
 The rapid test results now allow physicians to quickly determine appropriate therapies,
potentially notify public health authorities of an outbreak, and predict some of the clinical
manifestations that will occur if they have not already occurred, Dr Pickering said.
 The new tests likely will also result in more diagnoses of acute gastroenteritis, which leads to
nearly 500,000 hospitalizations and more than 5000 deaths in the United States every year, he
said. "Some of these organisms we just didn't detect before," he added.
THANK YOU !

 References :
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/88728
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