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SISTEM DAN PERMESINAN

BANGUNAN LEPAS PANTAI


KODE : ME141424
MATERI PERKULIAHAN

1. Pengantar Sistem Permesinan & Teknologi BLP


2. Macam-macam Bangunan Lepas Pantai
3. Tahapan Pembangunan Rigs
4. Proses & Operasi Bangunan Lepas Pantai
5. Visualisasi Bangunan Lepas Pantai
6. Permesinan Penunjang Pengeboran
7. Permesinan Penunjang Produksi
8. Ujian Tengah Semester (UTS)

9. Mooring Systems
10. Dynamic Positioning Systems untuk Bangunan Lepas Pantai
11. Survey & Inspeksi Permesinan Bangunan Lepas Pantai 1
12. Survey & Inspeksi Permesinan Bangunan Lepas Pantai 2
13. Inspeksi Pekerjaan Bawah Air
14. Regulasi & Rules
15. Decommissioning Bangunan Lepas Pantai
16. Ujian Akhir Semester (UAS)
MINGGU 1 :
PENGANTAR SISTEM PERMESINAN & TEKNOLOGI
BANGUNAN LEPAS PANTAI
PRODUK DASAR ENERGI LEPAS PANTAI

MINYAK BUMI
GAS
(FOSIL OIL)

ENERGY GELOMBANG LAUT

ENERGY PANAS DASAR LAUT

HASIL MINERAL LAIN


PENDAHULUAN
- Aktifitas Offshore pertama tahun 1947
- Eksplorasi & Exploitasi ladang minyak dan gas
- Gejolak harga minyak/gas mempengaruhi perkembangan
teknologi BLP

- Umumnya BLP jauh lebih mahal dibanding struktur di darat dan lebih beresiko,
tergantung :
- Letak ladang minyak/gas
- Kedalaman laut daerah operasi
- Jarak lokasi ke daratan terdekat

- Biaya operasional BLP sekitar 5 ~ 10 kali lebih mahal dari bangunan di darat,
karenanya perlu diperhatikan :
- Industri offshore hanya membangun struktur yang memenuhi fungsi spesifik
- Pre-fabrikasi didarat dan membatasi kerja di laut seminimal mungkin

- Perlu pertimbangan detail untuk menghindari resiko terhadap :


- Jiwa manusia
- Units
- Investasi
- Pencemaran Laut
EXTERNAL FACTOR perkembangan Industri Offshore

- Kenaikan harga minyak Tahun 1973


- Tuntutan mencari ladang minyak baru di perairan lebih dalam dan ganas
- Mendorong bertambahnya aktifitas di lepas pantai
- Bertambahnya kebutuhan bangunan baru offshore

- Masa mendatang :
- Deposit semakin turun, kapasitas relatif lebih kecil (marginal field)
- Marginal field di Asia Tenggara terletak di perairan lebih dalam dan
cadangan tidak cukup ekonomis jika digali dengan teknologi yang ada
- Perlu jenis BLP yang efektif dari segi biaya (floating atau sub-sea)

- GULF WAR sejak 1970


- Ditutupnya Suez mendorong kenaikan harga minyak dari $10/barrel ~ $38

- Perkembangan Politik Global :


- Globalisasi pasar dan industri (WTO)
- Pergeseran industri dari Eropa ke Timur jauh (Jepang, Korsel, Taiwan,
ASEAN)
- Integrasi pasar regional (MEE, NAFTA, ASEAN, OPEC, AFTA)
- Pergeseran industri ke negara bertenaga kerja murah (Brazil, Korsel, Jepang,
dan ASEAN)
- Perkembangan Ekonomi :
- Minyak/gas sebagai sumber energi utama dunia (40% oil + 23% gas)
- Batubara 18%, energy Hydro 3%, nuklir 6%, dan lain-lain 1%

- 1978~1986 : Krisis minyak kedua


- Harga minyak naik sampai $40/barrel
- Stimulan penting untuk industri offshore meski terjadi oversupply BLP
- 1986 harga minyak turun drastis menjadi $15/barrel
CADANGAN GAS DUNIA
PERBANDINGAN PRODUKSI DAN KONSUMSI GAS DUNIA
PROGRESS IN INDONESIA’S OIL & NATURAL GAS EXPLOITATION
( Source : Soegianto – President director and chief executive officer Pertamina, 1998 )
History :
Search for oil in Indonesia began in 1871 ( only 12 years after America drilled its first well at Titusville,
Pennsylvania

Indonesia produced its 1st commercial oil at Langkat, North Sumatra in 1885

In 1966, Oil industries began to experience rapid growth


In 1966, first offshore production sharing contract

In 1968, 1st offshore drill in the java sea in september and oil in commercial quantities was discovered after
5th well in february 1969

In 1969, production capacity of crude oil including condensate was about < 800.000 barrels/day and about <
300 million ft3/day ( SCFD ) of gas production

In 1969, oil refining plant capacity was about < 80.000 barrels/day
In 1969, export of crude oil was about < 200 million barrels and 30 million barrels of petroleum products

In 1970, 1st offshore production platform was inaugurated on 23rd October and gas processed at an offshore
floating LPG plant ( production reached 1 million barrels/day mark in 1972 )

In 1968 we had no offshore production platform, but ten years later ( 1978 ) we had almost 400
offshore wells flowing from 73 production platform

By the early 1980’s oils sector accounted for ¼ of the country’s revenue
In 1983, government introduced a policy to reduce the economy’s major dependancy from oil
and gas sector

In 1997, Indonesia reserves was estimated about 9 billion barrels oil and 137 trillion m3 of gas

In 1997, production capacity of oil was about 1.600.000 barrels/day and about 8.3 billion SCFD

In 1997, oil refining plant capacity was about 1.000.000 barrels/day of crude and LNG plant capacity was
about 28 million ton/year ( MPTA )

In 1997 data, Domestic demand for oil was around 280 million barrels ( domestic distribution network covers
an area of 5 million km2, consisting of more than 17,500 islands, stretching over 54,000 km of
equatorial coastlines.

In 1997 data, Pertamina manages a fleets of more than 180 tankers, carying about 82 million long tons of oil
and oil products annually. Some 3000 km of pipeline makes up several separated grids for
domestic gas transmission.

In 1997, the export of crude oil was about 286 million barrels and 68 million barrels of petroleum products

In 1997, total export of LNG was more than 26 million tons

In 1997, total export of LPG was more than 2 million tons

In 1998, LNG plant capacity was about 34 million ton/year ( MPTA )

In 1998, Oil and gas still account 25% of government revenues, 20% of export earnings, and 85% of
national primary energy supply
In 1998 data, Indonesia has 60 petroleum sedimentary basins spread across the archipelago covering more
than 2 million km2 of land and sea. More than 70% of those basins are located offshore and about 65% are
found in the eastern provinces. Only some 36 of these have been subject to any kind of exploratory work
and around 14 are currently under production. Many of the unexplored basins are in deep water and remote
terrain that are expensive to explore and develop

In June 1998, we signed 6 new production sharing contracts with a total investment of US$ 318 million for
the first 10 year

On 20th July 1998, started producing from Elang and Kakatua oilfields in the offshore eastern provinces
using FPSO facilities

Timor Gap estimated contains about 500 million to one billion barrels

On 27th August 1998 started developing deepwater resources in Merah Besar oilfield using deepwater
drilling rigs called as TLP facilities. TLP cost just US$ 85 million and produce 35,000 barrels/day of oil.
Water depth was estimated over 914 meter

On 28th August 1998 started the US$ 4 billion LNG project from Wiriagar field in Irian. The estimated gas
potential and proven reserves are 21.3 TCF and 14.4 TCF respectively.

At 1998, Japanesse already purchase about 18 million tons/year of Indonesia’s 26 million tons/year of LNG
output from plants in Arun and Bontang.
PERKEMBANGAN INDUSTRI OFFSHORE

Ditentukan oleh faktor-faktor :


- Permintaan energy
- Keberhasilan Pengeboran
- Harga minyak/gas
- Tingkat Investasi
- Kondisi cash-flow
- Tax regimes
- Peranan energy alternatif
- Stabilitas politik
- Perkembangan ekonomi

Harga minyak tergantung SUPPLY-DEMAND di pasaran


Penentu utama adalah OPEC sebagai supplier minyak terbesar di dunia
Dibanding tenaga surya, nuklir, OTEC; ------ unit costs minyak/gas masih lebih murah
INVESTASI DI INDUSTRI BLP

Perancangan Offshore modern diarahkan pada efektifitas biaya selama umur operasional

- Biaya Fabrikasi :(Sumber Offshore 1981)


- Untuk jacket platform 4500 ton memerlukan biaya : US$ 550/ton (1972)
US$ 1050/ton (1979)
US$ 1550/ton (1981)

- Biaya fabrikasi meliputi : Biaya material, biaya tenaga kerja, dan biaya peralatan lain
(Untuk jacket platform; 33% material, 27% tenaga kerja, dan sisanya peralatan)
(Untuk deck platform ; 23% material, 38% tenaga kerja, dan sisanya peralatan)

- Biaya Instalasi :
- Tergantung jumlah hari dan tarif pelaksanaan pekerjaan
- Untuk jacket platform 4500 ton di kedalaman 200 ft North Sea saat Summer, kira2:
17% (US$ 330.000) untuk biaya transportasi dan peluncuran
26% (US$ 525.000) untuk pengangkatan dan persiapan geladak (hook-up)
57% (US$ 1.155.000) untuk driving dan grouting tiang pancang

- Biaya Perancangan :
- Umumnya 2% dari total biaya konstruksi keseluruhan
- Untuk jenis jacket terbagi :
43% untuk perancangan geladak
54% untuk perancangan jacket
3% untuk perancangan tiang pancang
PERKEMBANGAN AKTIFITAS INDUSTRI OFFSHORE
- Mencari alternatif pasar-pasar baru :
- Pemanfaatan gelombang dan energy panas lautan (OTEC)
- Aquaculture
- Industri dengan pabrik lepas pantai
- Eksploitasi & eksplorasi mineral non-minyak
- Jembatan terapung
- Fasilitas rekreasi

- Kecelakaan katastropis maritime


- memberikan kontribusi dalam peningkatan keselamatan struktur,
lingkungan, dll
- hilangnya daya apung pada kapal terbuka
- kebakaran + ledakan pada kapal atau BLP

- Rules berkompeten :
- OPA’90
- MARPOL 73/78 add. ‘92
- ISM Codes
- ISO 14000, dll
PELAKU INDUSTRI BANGUNAN LEPAS PANTAI
1. OWNER (Pemilik)
- Perorangan (Bimantara, Adnan Kasogi, dll.)
- Organisasi atau Konsorsium
2. OPERATOR (Pemakai)
- Perusahaan minyak atau jasa perminyakan (Pertamina, Petronas, ESSO, BP, CALTEX,
TOTAL, CONNOCO, ARCO, SHELL, SANTA FE, MOBILE OIL, TEXACO, UNOCAL, dll)
3. CONTRACTOR (Galangan)
- Membangun dan menyiapkan keberadaan BLP
- Ex: Guna Nusa Fabricator, Bukaka, Tri Patra, PT.PAL, DKB, Sembawang Shipyard, IHI,
Marathon, Welton Feyenoord, Santa Fe, McDermott, dll)
4. BIRO KLASIFIKASI
- Memberikan penilaian teknis terhadap kondisi bangunan laut dan kelaikannya
- Berperan sebagai konsultan engineering dan badan riset
- BKI, LR, ABS, DnV, GL, NKK, dll
5. INSTITUSI INTERNASIONAL
- IMO, SOLAS, MARPOL, ISM CODES, ISO 9000 kendali mutu, ISO 14000 pollution
6. INSTITUSI NASIONAL
- Dept MIGAS, SNI dari Deperindag, ANSI, DIN, BSI
7. ORGANISASI PROFESI
- AWS, ASTM, ASME, API, JIS, IMAREST, SNAME
8. INSTITUSI AHLI (Warranty Surveyor)
- Ex: Noble Denton & Assiciates atas nama jasa asuransi mengawasi transportasi BLP
dan kesesuaian operasi bangunan laut di suatu lokasi.
- P&I Club merupakan organisasi jasa asuransi yang mengurusi klaim asuransi dan
kecelakaan bangunan maritime
TAHAPAN & PROSES MENDAPATKAN MINYAK/GAS

-Survey kepastian kapasitas ladang + komposisi kimia HIDROKARBON

- Survey awal batuan dengan sistem SONAR atau bantuan SATELIT


RESOURCES
ANALYSIS
UNDERWATER WORKS
Key DW Drilling Technologies

••Duall
Dual Gradient
GradientDrilling
Drilling

• Free
•Free--Standing
StandingRiser
Riser
••Pre-
Pre-set
setTaut
Taut--Leg
LegMooring
Mooring
• Utilization of 2nd/3rd Gen. Rigs
•Utilization of 2nd/3rd Gen. Rigs

Shallow Water
••Expandable
ExpandableCasings
Casings Flow Zone

• •Salt Drilling
Subsalt Optimization
Drilling Optimization +
+ + +
+ +
+ +
+ ++ +
++ + SALT+
+ + + +
+ + + + +
++
+
+

N
Key Technology: Subsalt Drilling

Well Depth vs. Cost


WD = -5,700'
-5000
-6000
-7000
-8000
-9000
-10000
6000ft -11000
-12000 Eliminate Intra-salt
-13000
Casing String
-14000
-15000

Depth
-16000
-17000
-18000 Eliminate Second
-19000 Casing String
-20000
-21000
-22000
-23000
-24000
-25000 Plan
-26000 Total Depth
-27000 Actual Cost Cost
-28000
0 5 10 15202530 35404550 556065
Cost $MM

•Eliminate Casing Strings


•Technical Limit Drilling
•Cost Savings of 30% over previous subsalt well
Western Geophysical

N
TAHAPAN & PROSES MENDAPATKAN MINYAK/GAS

- Jika diindikasikan terdapat potensi minyak/gas PENGEBORAN AWAL

- Pengeboran awal untuk melihat kondisi lingkungan, batuan/soil mekanik, dan


untuk memastikan ada tidaknya minyak/gas. Pada tahap pengeboran awal umumnya
digunakan RIG tipe Floating-vessels

- Jika hasil survey awal POSITIF serta komposisi kimia HC diketahui, lalu dilakukan
PENGEBORAN SUMUR untuk memperkirakan kapasitas produksi per tahun,
dan pola penyebarannya.
- Jika kapasitas produksi layak secara ekonomis, maka OWNER
akan mendesain RIG atau BLP yang sesuai dengan lokasi

- Dilakukan KAJIAN engineering secara TEKNIS & EKONOMIS yang meliputi :


- Untuk persiapan proses pengeboran sumur
- Untuk proses pengolahan
- Untuk pola transportasi produk
- Untuk penyimpanan awal
NEW PROJECT PRODUCTION
mboed reserves
1750
1500 18% 21%
1250
12%
1000
49%
750
500
250
0
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
producing under construction
02 sanctions pre-sanction engineering

source: BP data BP forecast 2002 - 06


LONG TERM GROWTH

Alaska
North
Sea Russia

Caspian
GoM
Trinidad Middle
East Indonesia

Angola
TECHNOLOGY always has RISK
Not only talk about MONEY

But seriously ………………


ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTER
Faces on NGO may degrade company’s credibility
.. Even huge of money still must spend it
DECOMMISSIONING
WASSALAM