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1.

Accident prevention is an essential part of good


management and of good workmanship.
2. Management and workers must cooperate wholeheartedly in
securing freedom from accidents.
3. Top management must take the lead in organising safety.
4. There must be a definite and known safety policy in each
workplace.
5. The organisation and resources necessary to carry out the
policy must exist.
6. The best available knowledge and methods must be applied.

The principles received legislative backing in the OSH Act 1994.


1. Design Cost (e.g. to install machine guards).
2. Operational Costs (e.g. training, PPE, RPE).
3. Safeguarding The Future Costs (Health Surveillance,
Audit).

1. Compare specific accident costs


with costs of specific improvement
being suggested.
2. Help management realise that
money spent on accident
prevention increases productivity.
Victim & COST TO THE Nation
Dependents

Firm
Supervisor
Section/Department
Suffering

Effect on Lost of
sport & hobbies earning

Continuing Extra
disability expences

Effect on family
Worry

Loss prestige Recrimination

Report, extra work, training new staff


Morale Capacity to
produce
Loss of earning
Loss in Compensation
paying in
legal action Penalty

Damage to Extra
the equipment Insurance
and materials premium
Lost of client
Loss of
income in Loss of
a form of morale
income tax
FOR SUCCESS, EVERYONE
MUST RECOGNISE THAT :

Line management is Safety is a team


responsible for safety. responsibility.

Safety is as
important as All accidents
production, are
quality or profit. Remote preventable.
control is
possible.
THE RESPONSIBILITY OF A
SUPERVISOR OR SAFETY
OFFICERS IS TO:

SAFEGUARD SAFEGUARD SAFEGUARD


THE WORK THE WORK THE
AREA METHOD WORKER
Inspect for unsafe T
condition. H
PREVENT E
- Eliminate - Warn
CONTROL - Guard - Report D
A
N
1. Passageways and exit. 6. Defective wiring and lighting. G
2. Moving objects. 7. Ventilation. E
3. Storage and stacking. 8. Floor, roof and walls. R
SPOT 4. Surfaces and edges. 9. Access to fire appliances.
5. Workarea cleanliness. 10. Flammable and hazardous I
substances. N
Make the method T
safe. H
PREVENT E
- Eliminate - Warn
CONTROL - Guard - Report D
A
1. Poor maintenance. N
2. Defective tools and materials. G
3. Poor or untidy layout. E
4. Handling materials. R
SPOT 5. Deficiencies in protective equipment.
6. Poor plan jobs. I
7. Fire and disaster routine. N
Train and T
follow-up. H
PREVENT E
- Eliminate - Warn
CONTROL - Guard - Report D
A
1. Knowledge of safety rules. N
6. Use of PPE.
G
2. Induction safety 7. Use of RPE.
E
programmes. 8. Personal hygiene. R
3. Personal attire. 9. Method of doing work.
SPOT 4. Discipline. I
5. Use of protective devices. N
To ensure that the hazards are eliminated or
the remaining risks are minimised.
Where ssow will be required?

•Cleaning and maintenance operations.


•Changes to normal procedures, including layout,
materials and methods.
•Working alone or away from the workplace and its
facilities.
•Breakdowns or emergencies.
•Control of the activities of contractors in the workplace.
•Vehicle loading, unloading and movements.
 safe behavior.
MAN  sound knowledge.
 skills
 both mental & physical.
 willingness to conform to
the system.
 motivation
 resistance to pressure to
behave unsafely.
 job experience
MACHINERY

 sound design & safety specification of


plant, machinery and equipment.
 consideration of ergonomic factor.
 efficient planned maintenance.
MATERIALS

 safe during processing and as finished


product.
 met quality assurance standards.
 be safe for disposal as waste product.
ENVIRONMENT
 control of temperature, lighting & ventilation,
dust, fumes, vapors, radiation, chemical an
biological hazards.
 provision of safe access and egress.
 sound level of welfare amenity provision.
 safe levels of noise and vibration.
PLACE OF WORK

 fire protection.
 escape in the event of fire and layout.
FIVE BASIC STEPS TO SSOW
Monitoring the system.
Implementing the system.
Identification of safe method.
Hazard identification ,risk assessment and
risk control.
Assessment of the task.
PERMIT TO WORK
Written authority to a Issued by a person who
tradesperson to carry out is very familiar with the
maintenance on an item of equipment, who knows
equipment, plant or building. the hazards that may
be involved in carrying
out the work, who has
been trained in the
permit to work system
and who is authorised
to issued the permit
PERMIT TO WORK
LEVEL OF AUTHORISATION
Standard Standard and hot work

All ordinary permits to An activity involving a


work. No authority for hot source of ignition. All
work. Usually people at ordinary permits to work,
first line supervisory level. hot work but not entry to
confined space. Usually at
very experienced first line
supervisory level or more
senior.
PERMIT TO WORK
LEVEL OF AUTHORISATION
Full authorisation Regular maintenance

All permits to work Need for a lot of regular


including entry to confined maintenance much of which
space. Usually at is recurrent. Leading hands
experienced or senior operators can be
superintendent level or trained in the procedures
higher. and authorised to issue
permit to work for those jobs
only.
TRAINING IS A KEY FACTORS IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION
AND EFFECTIVE WORKPLACE HEALTH AND SAFETY.
A good, effective health and safety training programme:
 Clearly states who will do the training.
 Clearly states who is responsible for overseeing
the identification of training needs and the
provision of that training.
 Provides for training of health and safety
representatives and all health and safety
committee members.
 Provides for generalised health and safety training,
including hazards management.
 Provides for specific training related to
particular hazards in the workplace.
 Covers everyone in the workplace from
senior management to new staff.
 Looks at the risk situations for training requirements.
 Provides for on-going refresher courses.
 Stimulates interest in health and safety on the job.
 Provides specialist training for specific tasks
e.g. first aid, emergency procedures, civil
defence, inspections and accident investigations
WHAT TO DO WHEN
UNSAFE ACTS OCCUR?

STOP the act immediately.

STUDY the job.

once you decide how a job operation can be


INSTRUCT done more safely, instruct the employee in the
correct method. Explain how the job should be
done; demonstrate; then let the employee try it.
WHAT TO DO WHEN
UNSAFE ACTS OCCUR?

an employee in the safe procedure. Check up on


the person from time-to-time, making certain that
TRAIN
he or she understands the safe procedure and
will not go back to unsafe methods.

an employee only as a last resort, after the


DISCIPLINE individual has repeatedly and willfully refused
to follow safety rules.